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BX  8080  .S3  A6  1896 
Anstadt,  Peter,  1819-1903. 
Life  and  times  of  Rev.  S.  S 
Schmucker  . . 


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OCT  -:  51926 

Rev.  S.  S.  Schmucker,  D.  D., 

First  Professor  of  Theology  in  the  Lutheran  Theological  Seminary, 
at  Gettysburg,  Pa, 

P.  ANSTADT,  D.  D., 

Editor  of  Teachers'  Journal,  author  of  Communion  Addresses,  Luth- 
er's  Smaller   Catechism,    Illustrated,    Luther's    Smaller 
Catechism,  Pictorial  Edition,  Helps  to  Family 
Worship,  Recognition  of  Friends 
in  Heaven,  Etc.,  Etc. 

"H  bave  ^ve^,  an5  am  O^lng,  in  tbe  faftb  of  Jesus." 


p.    ANSTADT    &   SONS, 

Entered  according   to  Act  of  Congress,  in  the  year  1896,  by 

In  the  office  of  the  Librarian  of  Congress,  at  Washington. 


to  the 

Surviving  Relatives,  Friends 




Rev.  S.  S.  Schmucker,  D.  D., 


The  Author. 


"  Who  will  be  his  biographer  ?  To  recount  his  life  will 
be  to  give  the  history  of  the  Lutheran  Church  in  America ! ' ' 

With  this  exclamation  Dr.  J.  G.  Morris  concluded  his 
address  at  the  funeral  of  Dr.  S.  S.  Schmucker.  Little  did 
the  speaker  think,  that  the  writer  of  these  lines  would  be 
that  biographer;  nor  had  the  writer  the  remotest  idea  at 
that  time  of  having  that  task  conferred  upon  himself. 

I  will  not  presume  to  say  that  I  have  given  a  complete 
history  of  the  General  Synod  in  my  book.  An  unbiased 
history  of  the  General  Synod  has  not  yet  been  written.  But 
a  brilliant  light  will  be  thrown  upon  the  subject  by  the  Life 
and  Times  of  Dr.  S.  S.  Schmucker. 

This  work  was  not  of  ray  own  seeking;  I  had  no 
thought  of  undertaking  it,  until  it  was  urged  upon  me  by 
some  of  the  prominent  friends  and  admirers  of  Dr. 

The  immediate  occasion  which  called  forth  the  desire 
for  the  publication  of  this  biography  was  an  address,  deliv- 
ered at  the  laying  of  the  corner  stone  of  the  new  building  for 
the  Theological  Seminary  at  Gettysburg,  in  which  some 
derogatory  remarks  were  uttered  on  the  doctrinal  teachings 
of  Dr.  Schmucker,  while  professor  iu  the  Seminary.  I  pub- 
lished an  article  in  the  L2ithcra7i  Observer  in  his  defense, 
and  subsequently  republished  a  highly  eulogistic  sketch  of 
Dr.  Schmucker,  written  by  Dr.  Morris  sixteen  years  ago. 
After  this  I  received  from  esteemed  friends  in  different  parts 
of  the  church,  urgent  requests  to  write  and  publish  the  Life 
and  Times  of  Dr.  Schmucker.  After  consulting  with  the 
surviving  relatives  and  members  of  the  family,  I  resolved, 
by  the  help  of  God,  to  begin  the  work.  The  following  are 
some  of  the  encouraging  words  I  received  through  the 

Dr.  Samuel  Sprecher,  a  brother-in-law  and  intimate 
personal  friend  of  Dr.  Schmucker,  writes  as  follows: 

"San  Diego,  California,  Dec.  6,  i8g^. 

' '  I  am  very  glad  that  3'ou  have  undertaken  to  publish 
a  biography  of  Dr.  Schmucker.  If  I  could  help  you  to  any 
facts  in  his  life,  not  publicly  known,  I  would  gladly  comply 
with  your  request. 


"  He  was  one  of  the  best  and  most  earnest  men  I  ever 
knew.  But  intimate  as  was  my  relation  to  him,  I  know  lit- 
tle that  was  not  known  in  his  public  life.  His  mind  was  so 
constantly  engaged  with  the  interests  of  religion  and  the 
church,  that  he  had  little  to  say  in  his  conversation  about 
himself.  I  never  knew  an}^  man,  who  was  so  constantly 
absorbed  by  his  work,  or  one  who  seemed  so  perfectly  to 
understand  what  he  was  called  to  do,  and  who  so  constantly 
had  it  in  view,  and  so  perseveringly  labored  to  accomplish 
it.  This  was  the  only  thing  that  impressed  me  in  my  most 
confidential  conversations  with  him. 

' '  Only  once  or  twice  did  he  speak  to  me  of  his  personal 
experience  in  the  difficult  work  of  establishing  the  Theolog- 
ical vSeminary ;  how  he  was  strengthened,  when  greatly 
cast  down  by  the  discouragement  and  opposition,  by  the 
simple  words  of  faith  of  an  old  Moravian  minister,  with 
whom  he  happened  to  spend  a  night ;  and  how  he  was 
amused  by  the  report,  that  a  man  in  Pennsylvania,  who 
mistook  the  word  '  text '  for  the  word  '  tax, '  in  the  arti- 
cles of  the  Constitution  of  the  Seminary,  requiring  '  text- 
books '  to  be  provided.  The  man  accordingly  called  a 
public  meeting  in  his  neighborhood  to  show  that  these  sem- 
inary people  were  going  to  bring  in  a  king  to  rule  over 
them;  for  here  they  could  see,  that  they  were  already  pro- 
viding the  '  tax-books  !  '  " 

Mr.  John  G.  Schmucker  writes  from  Eldorado, Kans., un- 
der date  of  Dec.  12,  1894:  "lam  truly  glad  that  there  are  some 
persons  who  hold  him  in  kind  remembrance,  and  that  you 
appreciate  the  work  he  did,  and  do  him  the  tardy  justice  of 
making  known  his  works  and  worth  to  our  church  in  her 
early  struggles.  I  am  sure  Dr.  Schmucker  and  Dr.  Kurtz 
did  more  than  any  other  two  ministers  to  build  up  the 
Lutheran  Church  in  America,  and  to  establish  its  institu- 
tions at  Gettysburg.  '  I  have  lived  and  I  die  in  the  faith  of 
Jesus  Christ.'  That  faith  was  the  source  of  his  strength, 
and  gave  tone  to  his  beautiful  life." 

Rev.  J.  A.  Brown,  of  Wytheville,  Va.,  writes:  "  I  am 
very  glad  to  learn  that  we  have  the  prospect  of  a  biography 
of  Dr.  Schmucker,  which  should  have  been  published  long 
ago;  and  here  we  are  allowing  years  to  pass  without  any 
special  efforts  to  give. to  posterity  the  life  and  labors  of 
the  greatest  man  of  our  church  in  his  day. 


"  Dr.  Schmucker  has  been  the  acknowledged  leader  in 
the  Lutheran  Church  for  many  years,  and  I  am  one  of  those 
who  believe  that  his  intentions  were  always  right,  and  that 
he  did  more  to  promote  personal  piety  in  the  Lutheran 
Church  than  any  man  of  his  day,  and  the  history  of  his 
labors  should  be  given  to  posperity." 

Dr.  B.  Sadtler:  "  I  think  it  due,  that  the  work  should 
be  undertaken,  and  will  give  it  my  cordial  assistance." 

Dr.  M.  Valentine:  "  I  am  sure  the  Church  ought  to 
have  a  biography  of  Dr.  S.  S.  Schmucker,  and  a  judiciously 
written  one  would  do  good." 

Rev.  D.  Summers:  "  I  have  long  felt  like  writing  to 
you  for  vindicating  Dr.  Schmucker  against  the  attacks  of 
men  not  worthy  to  unloose  his  shoe  latchet. 

"Taken  all  in  all,  Dr.  Schmucker  had  few,  if  any 
equals  in  the  Lutheran  or  any  other  church.  I  am  glad  that 
you  propose  to  write  and  publish  his  biography.  I  want  a 
copy  for  myself  and  will  sell  as  many  as  I  can.  Every 
Lutheran  family  in  the  General  Synod  ought  to  have  a  copy 
of  it." 

Rev.  M.  Sheeleigh,  D.  D.:  "As  indicating  the  Chris- 
tian temper  of  Dr.  Schmucker,  it  will  not  be  out  of  place  to 
observe,  that  probably  no  man  remembers  ever  having 
heard  him  utter  hasty  or  ill-tempered  words  in  ecclesiastical 
debate.  He  has  ever  been  regarded  as  a  model  of  Christian 
gentleness  and  self-possession." 

A  young  Lutheran  minister  in  Pennsylvania  writes: 
"  The  '  Outline  of  Dr.  Schmucker' s  Life  and  Times '  meets 
my  best  anticipations,  and  I  wish  every  minister  in  the 
church  could  see  it.  The  book  must  prove  interesting,  and 
will  present  the  history  of  General  Synod  Lutheranism  in  a 
very  attractive  form.  It  is  just  what  is  needed  by  the 
young  preachers,  especially,  to  furnish  them  with  a  knowl- 
edge of  which  many  are  lacking.  This  book  will  do  good 
service  for  the  General  Synod.  It  ought  to  take  with  the 
laity,  too." 

Testimonials  of  this  kind  could  be  multiplied  indefi- 
nitely; but  this  will  suffice  to  show  the  deep  interest  felt  in 
many  parts  of  the  church,  in  the  Life  and  Times  of  Dr. 

I  had  the  privilege  of  being  one  of  his  pupils  in  the 
Theological  Seminary,   and  for  about  eleven  years  of  my 

Vlll.  PREFACE. 

subsequent  residence  in  Gettysburg,  and  while  I  was  pastor 
of  St.  James  Church,  I  enjoyed  the  pleasure  of  almost  daily 
intercourse  with  him.  I  learned  to  love  him  as  a  friend,  to 
admire  his  Christian  character,  his  ardent  love  for  the 
church,  in  whose  service  he  had  labored  so  long,  endured  so 
many  hardships,  and  encountered  so  much  opposition. 

His  youngest  son,  Samuel  D.  Schmucker,  Esq.,  of  Bal- 
timore, rendered  valuable  assistance  by  affording  me  the  use 
of  his  father's  diary  during  the  early  period  of  his  ministry, 
and  also  the  names  of  his  father's  ancestors  and  the  family 
record,  which  he  had  copied  from  the  church  book  at  Michael- 
stadt  during  a  visit  to  Germany. 

Rev.  Benjamin  Sadtler,  D.  D.,  of  Baltimore,  Dr. 
Schmucker' s  son-in-law,  also  gave  me  his  cordial  assistance, 
in  the  form  of  important  documents,  and  valuable  sugges- 
tions. He  had  in  his  possession  most  of  the  private  papers 
and  correspondence  of  his  revered  father-in  law,  from  which 
I  have  derived  many  very  important  facts  and  incidents, 
especially  of  the  early  life  of  Dr.  Schmucker. 

I  am  also  under  obligations  to  Dr.  J.  D.  Hauer,  for  the 
use  of  a  file  of  the  early  minutes  of  the  Synod  of  North  Car- 
olina; to  Mr.  Arthur  King  for  a  printed  copy  of  George 
Fry's  will,  in  which  he  bequeathed  his  estate  to  Emmaus 
Orphan  House;  and  finally  to  Professor  J.  W.  Richard,  for 
the  free  use  of  the  Historical  Library  of  the  Seminary,  from 
which  I  was  enabled  to  gather  valuable  information  in  con- 
nection with  this  work. 

And  now,  thanking  the  many  friends  of  Dr.  Schmucker 
for  their  encouraging  words,  and  liberal  advance  subscrip- 
tions for  the  book,  I  send  it  forth  with  the  hope  and  prayer, 
that  it  may  aid  the  cause  of  truth,  be  a  blessing  to  the 
Church,  and  promote  the  glory  of  God. 

P.  Anstadt. 
York,  Pa.,  July,  1896. 


OF — 



1746— 1854. 





Pascal,  who  took  a  profound  view  of  human  nature, 
has  well  said,  "  There  are  three  very  different  orbits,  in 
which  great  men  move  and  shine  ;  and  each  sphere  of 
greatness  has  its  respective  admirers  : 

1.  There  are  those  who,  as  military  heroes,  fill  the 
world  with  their  exploits  ;  they  are  greeted  by  the  acclama- 
tions of  the  multitudes  ;  they  are  ennobled  while  living,  and 
their  names  descend  with  lustre  to  posterity. 

2.  Others  there  are,  who,  by  the  brilliancy  of  their 
imagination,  or  the  vigor  of  their  intellect,  attain  to  honor 
of  a  purer  and  a  higher  kind  ;  the  fame  of  these  is  confined 
to  a  more  select  number  of  admirers  ;  for  all  have  not  a 
discriminating  sense  of  their  merit. 

3.  A  third  description  remains,  distinct  from  both  of 
the  former,  and  far  more  exalted  than  either ;  whose  excel- 



lence  consists  in  a  renunciation  of  themselves,  and  a  com- 
passionate love  for  mankind. 

In  this  order  the  Savior  of  the  world  was  pleased  to 
appear ;  and  those  persons  attain  the  highest  rank  in  it, 
who,  by  his  grace,  are  enabled  most  closely  to  imitate  his 

To  this  third  description  the  subject  of  this  memoir 
belongs.  He  did  not  live  for  worldly  fame,  or  literary 
honors,  though  richly  entitled  to  these ;  but  he  early  dedi- 
cated himself  to  the  service  of  God,  and  spent  his  life  for 
the  good  of  souls,  and  the  building  up  of  the  Church  of 

Samuel  Simon  Schmucker  was  born  February  28th, 
1799,  at  Hagerstown,  Md.,  where  his  father  was  pastor  of 
the  Lutheran  Church  during  fifteen  years.  He  was  the  son 
of  Rev.  Dr.  John  George  Schmucker,  and  Catharine  his 
wile,  daughter  of  Samuel  and  Elizabeth  Gross. 

His  grandfather,  Nicolas  Schmujokfr,  emigrated  in  178 1, 
from  Michaelstadt,  in  the  county  of  Erbach,  Grand  Dutchy 
of  Hessen  Darmstadt.  This  town  lies  in  the  Muemling 
Thai,  and  is  the  capital  of  the  Odenwald,  which  was  once 
a  famous  forest,  but  is  now  a  beautiful  and  well  kept  farm- 
ing region.  The  parish  church  in  Michaelstadt  is  a  very 
ancient  one,  having,  it  is  said,  been  founded  by  Euckhard, 
in  827.  It  has,  of  course,  at  different  times  been  repaired, 
and  has  practically  been  rebuilt,  but  is  now  in  good  condi- 
tion, and  is  currently  used  for  public  worship.  After  tar- 
rying a  year  at  Balliet's  Furnace,  now  in  Lehigh  County, 
and  a  year  in  Manheim,  Lancaster  County,  Pa.,  he  settled 
on  a  farm  near  Woodstock,  in  Shenandoah  County,  Va. 

Samuel  D.  Schmucker,  Esq.,  youngest  son  of  the  sub- 
ject of  this  biography,  has  kindly  furnished  the  following 
family  record : 

"  On  my  visit  to  Germany,  I  found  in  the  records  of  the 


Michaelstadt  Church,  the  record  of  the  Schmucker  family, 
from  the  beginning  of  the  last  century,  prior  to  which  time, 
I  have  been  informed  from  different  sources,  the  family 
emigrated  from  Switzerland  to  Germany." 

"  My  ancester,  who  emigrated  to  America,  was  John 
Christoph  Schmucker,  and  was  born  in  Michaelstadt,  May 
17,  1740.  The  church  records  contain  entries  of  the  birth 
of  two  children  to  him,  before  he  came  to  America.  These 
children  were  Ferdinand  Frederick,  born  December  19, 
1769,  and  John  George,  my  grandfather,  born  August  18, 
1 77 1.  He,  my  great  grandfather,  John  Christoph 
Schmucker,  had  in  all  six  children ;  namely,  Ferdinand 
Frederick,  John  George,  John  Jacob,  John  Nicholas, 
Peter  and  a  daughter  Mary."  * 

"  Three  of  his  sons ;  namely,  George,  Nicholas  and 
Peter,  became  Lutheran  ministers." 

John  Christoph  Schmucker,  when  he  first  came  to 
America,  located  for  a  'short  time  in  Lehigh  County,  Pa., 
near  Saegersville,  at  Balliet's  Furnace,  tarrying  there  only 
one  year.  He  then  moved  to  Manheim,  in  Lancaster 
County,  Pa.,  and  one  year  later,  moved  to  the  Valley  of 
Virginia,  where  he  settled  on  a  farm  near  Woodstock,  in 
Shenandoah  County,  Va. 

Rev.  John  George  Schmucker,  D.  D.,  the  father  of 
Prof.  S.  S.  Schmucker,  was  born  in  Michaelstadt,  Germany, 
on  the  1 8th  of  August  1771,  he  emigrated  with  his  father's 
family  to  this  country  in  1785,  and  remained  in  the  pater- 
nal home,  near  Woodstock,  Va.,till  he  was  19  years  of  age. 
He  evinced  an  earnest  regard  for  religion  from  his  early 
childhood  up,  but  it  was  not  till  he  had  reached  his  eight- 
eenth year,  that  he  believed  he  had  experienced  a  radical 
change  of  heart  and  life.  About  this  time  there  were  a 
number  of  Baptist  ministers  in  that  region,  who  exhibited 
great   zeal    in   their   labors,  and    whose   preaching  young 


Schmucker  attended  with  much  interest  and  profit.  But  it 
was  to  the  influence  of  a  lay  member  of  the  Baptist  Church, 
that  he  considered  himself  chiefly, indebted,  under  God,  for 
the  great  change  which  he  had  now  experienced.  This 
person  frequently  conversed  with  him,  explaining  the  plan 
of  salvation,  and  urging  him  to  an  unreserved  consecration 
of  himself  to  God  ;  and  the  result  was  that  he  obtained  the 
peace  that  passeth  understanding.  Immediately  after  this 
he  formed  a  purpose  to  devote  himself  to  the  ministry  of 
the  gospel. 

About  a  year  afterwards  he  entered  on  a  course  of  study 
under  the  direction  of  Rev.  Paul  Henkel,  who  was  at  that 
time  pastor  of  the  Lutheran  Church  at  Woodstock,  and 
whom  he  frequently  accompanied  on  his  tours  of  mission- 
ary labor.  These  excursions  through  the  destitute  por- 
tions of  the  country  were  of  great  use  to  Mr.  Schmucker, 
as  they  served  to  awaken  his  sympathies,  to  quicken  his 
zeal,  and  to  prepare  him  for  the  sacred  office. 

In  1790,  he  went  to  Philadelphia  to  avail  himself  of 
the  instructions  of  the  Rev.  Dr.  Helmuth,  and  the  Rev.  Dr. 
Schmidt,  who  were  at  that  time  instructing  young  men  for 
the  ministry.  Here  he  remained  two  years,  vigorously 
pursuing  his  classical  studies  in  the  University  of  Pennsyl- 
vania, and  his  theological  studies  under  the  instructions  of 
Drs.  Helmuth  and  Schmidt.  Among  his  fellow  students 
were  Revs.  George  Lochman,  Sr.,  and  Christian  Enders, 
who  afterwards  became  eminent  ministers  in  the  Lutheran 
Church,  and  with  whom  he  lived  many  years  on  terms  of 
great  intimacy.  In  1792,  having  finished  his  course  of 
study  in  Philadelphia,  he  was  admitted  as  a  member  of  the 
Synod  of  Pennsylvania,  then  in  session  at  Reading, 

Rev.  John  G.  Schmucker's  first  charge  consisted  of 
several  congregations  in  York  County,  Pa.,  the  call  to 
which  he  accepted   on  the  recommendations  of  his  particu- 


lar  friends,  Dr.  Helmuth  and  Rev.  J.  Goering.  Here  he 
exerted  a  highly  important  influence  ;  the  churches  under 
his  care  were  revived,  and  large  numbers  were  added  to 
their  membership.  During  his  residence  here  he  continued 
the  study  of  the  Hebrew  language  and  of  theology  under 
the  guidance  of  Rev.  Goering,  who  was  then  settled  as  the 
pastor  of  Christ  Lutheran  Church  in  the  Borough  of  York, 
and  was  regarded  as  one  of  the  most  learned  ministers  of 
his  time.  Rev.  Schmucker  served  this  charge  only  about 
two  years. 

In  1794,  he  accepted  a  unanimous  call  from  the 
Lutheran  Church  in  Hagerstown,  Md.,  a  charge  which  had 
been  for  some  time  vacant,  and  embraced  no  less  than 
eight  congregations.  He  was  now  only  twenty  two  years 
old;  in  his  person  he  was  small,  pale,  and  emaciated,  and 
in  his  manners  extremely  diffident  and  youthful.  Many 
doubted  his  competence  to  occupy  so  important  a  field  ; 
and  he  was  even  sportively  designated  as  the  boy  preacher; 
but  he  quickly  acquired  an  influence,  both  in  and  out  of 
the  pulpit,  which  falls  to  the  lot  of  comparatively  few  minis- 
ters. An  extensive  revival  of  religion  soon  took  place 
under  his  ministry,  which  he  conducted  with  great  zeal, 
discretion  and  success. 

After  the  death  of  Dr.  Kunze  in  1807,  he  received  an 
invitation  to  succeed  him  in  the  city  of  New  York,  but  he 
thought  it  his  duty  to  decline  the  call.  In  1809  he  was 
invited  to  become  the  successor  of  Rev.  J.  Goering  in 
York  ;  and  though  reluctant  to  leave  the  people  who  then 
constituted  his  pastoral  charge,  he  felt  constrained,  in  view 
of  all  the  circumstances  of  the  case,  to  accept  the  call.  He 
accordingly  commenced  his  labors  in  this  new  field,  and 
prosecuted  them  with  unremitting  assiduity  and  great  suc- 
cess, during  a  period  of  twenty-six  years,  and  when  in 
consequence  of  declining  health  he  was  obliged  to  resign 


his  charge,  he  still  continued  to  serve  one  of  the  congrega- 
tions in  the  country,  to  which  he  had  ministered  on  his 
first  introduction  to  the  sacred  office. 

At  length  he  found  it  necessary,  on  account  of  his 
increasing  infirmities,  to  withdraw  from  the  active  duties  of 
the  ministry  altogether;  and  accordingly,  in  1852  he 
removed  to  Williamsburg,  Pa.,  where  several  of  his  chil- 
dren resided.  Here  he  continued  during  the  remainder  of 
his  life,  tranquil  and  happy. 

He  died  October  7,  1854,  in  the  eighty-fourth  year  of 
his  life.  A  funeral  discourse  was  delivered  by  Rev.  Dr.  B. 
Kurtz,  of  Baltimore,  from  the  words,  "  Them  that  honor  me 
I  will  honor."  His  remains  were  taken  to  York,  the  scene 
of  his  former  labors,  and  buried  in  front  of  Christ  Church, 
with  every  expression  of  deep  regard  and  reverencial  sor- 
row. A  marble  monument,  erected  to  his  memory,  stands 
yet  over  his  grave,  bearing  the  following  inscription  : 

■J    G.  SCHMUCKER,  D.  D., 

BORN    IN    GERMANY,  AUGUST   i8tH,   1 77 1, 

DIED    OCTOBER    7TH,    1 854, 

AGED    83    YEARS,    I    MONTH    AND    20    DAYS. 

Exemplary  in  all  his  social  relations,  he  laboured  in  the 
vineyard    of  the   Lord    more  than    half    a    cen- 
tury, universally  esteemed  as  an  humble 
Christian,  a  faithful  pastor  and 
an  erriinent  preacher  of 
the  cross. 

Dan.  xii.  5.     The}^  that  win  many  to  righteousness  shall  shine  as 
the  stars  for  ever  and  ever. 

Dr.  J.  G.  Schmucker  occupied  many  important  places, 
and  rendered  much  valuable  service  in  connection  with  the 
public  interests  of  the  church.  He  was  one  of  the  founders 
and   most   zealous  advocates  of  the  General  Synod.     He 


was  president  of  the  Foreign  Mission  Society,  from  its  for- 
mation to  a  short  time  before  his  death,  when  he  declined 
a  re-election.  He  was  also  the  early  and  active  supporter 
of  the  Theological  Seminary  at  Gettysburg,  and  for  many 
years  served  as  President  of  the  Board  of  Directors.  He 
had  an  important  agency  in  the  establishment  of  Pennsyl- 
vania College,  and  for  more  than  twenty  years,  acted  as  a 
trustee  of  that  institution.  At  the  time  of  his  death  he  was 
the  senior  vice-president  of  the  American  Tract  Society, 
having  been  appointed  to  that  office  in  1826.  Various  other 
benevolent  institutions  also  found  in  him  an  efficient 

In  1825,  he  received  the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Divinity 
from  his  Alma  Mater,  the  University  of  Pennsylvavia. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  Rev.  Dr.  J.  G.  Schmucker's 
publications:  Vornehmste  Weissagungen  der  Heiligen 
Schrift ;  Reformations  Geschichte  zur  Jubelfeier  der 
Reformation ;  Prophetic  History  of  the  Christian  Religion, 
or  Explanation  of  the  Revelation  of  St.  John  ;  Schwarm- 
geist  unserer  Tage,  entlarft  zur  Warnung  erweckter  Seelen  ; 
Lieder-Anhang  zum  Evang.  Gesangbuch  der  General 
Synode ;  Waechterstimme  an  Zion's  Kinder ;  and  Er- 
klaerung  der  Offenbarung  Johannes. 

I  have  also  in  my  possession  an  unpublished  Com- 
mentary on  the  Epistle  to  the  Hebrews,  written  by  Dr.  J.  G. 
Schmucker.  It  is  a  bound  book,  of  iioi  closely  written 
pages  in  his  remarkably  beautiful  hand  writing ;  but  unfor- 
tunately, the  title  and  a  few  of  the  introductory  pages  are 
wanting.  The  character  of  the  work  is  both  critical  and 
practical,  containing  many  quotations  from  Hebrew,  Greek 
and  Latin  writers. 

Dr.  J.  G.  Schmucker  was  married  twice.  In  the  early 
part  of  his  ministry  he  was  married  to  Miss  Eh'zabeth, 
daughter  of  Samuel  and  Elizabeth  Gross,  of  York  County, 

1 6  LETTER. 

Pa.  In  this  marriage  there  were  born  to  them  twelve 
children,  five  sons  and  seven  daughters.  His  first  wife 
died  in  1819. 

In  July  1 82 1,  he  was  married  to  Ann  Maria  Hoffman, 
by  whom  he  had  seven  children.  Four  of  his  daughters 
were  married  to  Lutheran  clergymen.  One  of  his  sons  by 
the  first  wife  was  the  Rev.  S.  S.  Schmucker,  Professor  in 
the  Theological  Seminary  at  Gettysburg. 


I  have  in  my  possession  an  original  letter  from  Rev, 
J.  G.  Schmucker,  written  in  his  beautiful  German  chirog- 
raphy,  in  regard  to  his  removal  from  Hagerstown  to  York, 
which  I  will  give  the  reader  in  an  English  translation.  It 
will  give  us  a  graphic  idea  of  the  manner  in  which  our 
forefathers  moved  before  railroads  were  built. 

Hagerstown,  tlie  jth  0/ July,  i8og. 
Beloved  and  Dear  Brother  ! 

Since  I  came  home,  I  have  written  two  letters  to  the 
Church  Council,  and  have  received  no  reply  yet.  I  fear, 
therefore,  that  you  have  not  received,  especially  the  last 

I  wrote  therein,  that  I  would  preach  my  farewell  ser- 
mon on  the  last  Sunday  in  July,  here  in  Hagerstown — that 
in  July  I  would  need  three  wagons  and  one  stage  for  the 
family — that  I  expect  the  wagons  on  the  31st  of  July,  to 
load  the  furniture,  and  that  Mrs.  Lichtenstein  would  show 
us  the  greatest  love,  if  she  would  come  in  the  stage  to  help 
my  wife — and  that  I  would  preach  my  introductory  sermon 
at  York  on  the  first  Sunday  in  August,  and  in  the  afternoon 
at  Ouickels — and  on  the  second  Sunday  in  August  at 
Jochele  and  at  Kreutzkrick. 

Write  to  me  therefore  a  reply  in  all  haste,  and  make  all 
the  appointments  correctly.  I  would  be  pleased  if  one  or 
more  men  would  come  with  the  wagons,  upon  whose  care- 
fulness we  could  depend,  because  I  myself  cannot  remain 
with  them.  I  remain  your  humble  servant, 

J.  George  Schmucker. 


The  letter  was  not  enclosed  in  an  envelope,  as  is  cus- 
tomary now,  but  the  sheet  was  simply  folded,  closed  with 
sealing  wax,  and  addressed  to  Mr.  Adam  Graber ;  postage 
ten  cents. 


An  anonymous  writer  in  Dr.  Morris'  "  Fifty  Years  in 
the  Lutheran  Ministry  "  relates  the  following  incident :  "  I 
used  to  like  to  listen  to  old  Dr.  Schmucker,  as  he  told  of 
his  early  experience  in  the  West,  when  he  was  traveling  in 
Ohio  and  Kentucky  as  a  candidate.  You  know  the  Synod 
used  to  send  the  licentiates  as  a  sort  of  circuit  riders,  or 
rather  as  exploring  missionaries,  to  hunt  up  the  scattered 
settlers,  baptize  their  children,  hold  communion  services 
with  them,  and,  when  possible,  organize  them  into  congre- 
gations. Once  Rev.  J.  G.  Schmucker  came  suddenly  upon 
a  smouldering  camp-fire,  that  had  just  been  deserted  by  a 
bivouacking  party  of  hostile  Indians,  He  was  discovered 
by  them  just  as  he  turned  to  flee  in  the  direction  from  which 
he  had  come,  and  they  gave  chase.  I  do  not  remember 
how  many  miles  he  led  them,  but  it  was  a  long  and  break- 
neck race,  his  faithful  steed  bringing  him  back  into  the  set- 
tlement just  as  his  pursuers  were  about  closing  upon  him." 

Dr.  J.  A.  Brown,  late  Professor  of  Theology  at  Gettys- 
burg, was  pastor  of  Zion  English  Lutheran  Church  in 
York  for  about  two  years,  while  Dr.  J.  G.  Schmucker  was 
Pastor  Emeritus  of  Christ  Lutheran  Church.  He  writes  of 
him  as  follows  : 

"  No  one  who  ever  saw  him  could  forget  his  personal 
appearance.  Of  about  medium  stature  and  singularly 
erect  in  old  age,  with  a  fine  countenance,  and  full  supply  of 
hair,  in  perfect  order,  he  presented  an  appearance  of  dignity 
that  was  truly  commanding;  while  his   manner,  combining 


gravity  and  softness,  was  attractive  and  pleasing.  In  his 
intercourse  he  exemplified  the  precept — "  Be  'courteous," 
and  was  a  model  of  Christian  politeness.  Nature  and  grace 
had  both  contributed  to  the  formation  of  his  character,  and 
the  result  was  one  of  much  beauty  and  excellence." 

"  His  manner  towards  young  preachers  was  very  kind 
and  encouraging.  Usually  at  the  close  of  the  service  he 
had  some  kind  word  to  cheer.  After  my  first  sermon  in 
his  presence  he  said,  as  I  came  from  the  pulpit,  '  I  think 
the  Lord  was  with  you  to-day.'  There  were  no  flippant 
criticisms,  no  eulogies  to  gender  or  nourish  pride,  but 
judicious  words  of  counsel  and  encouragement.  On  another 
occasion,  after  I  had  preached  on  Matt,  xxviii.  19,  20,  he 
expressed  gratification,  but  said,  '  There  was  too  much  in 
the  text  for  a  single  discourse.'  It  was  very  evident  that 
he  had  made  preaching  a  study,  and  knew  how  to  divide 
the  Word  of  truth.  His  criticisms  of  some  men,  though 
never  harsh,  were  discerning,  and  showed  that  he  had 
detected  the  weak  points.  He  loved  to  speak  of  the  great 
preachers  in  our  own  and  other  churches,  and  especially  to 
tell  of  their  spiritual  power." 

I  will  conclude  this  sketch  of  the  elder  Schmucker  by 

the  following  very  interesting  communication  from  his  son. 

Dr.  S.  S.  Schmucker,  written  from   Gettysburg,  December, 


Theological  Seminary,  Gettysburg,  December  2/1.,  iS^y. 

In  person,  my  father  was  of  about  the  medium  stature, 
rather  thick  set,  though  not  corpulent ;  his  eyes  were  deep 
seated,  and,  like  his  hair,  jet  black.  His  complexion  was 
dark  ;  his  constitution  vigorous ;  and,  even  in  old  age,  his 
person  was  very  erect,  and  his  bodily  movements,  whilst 
they  were  deliberate  and  dignified,  were  also  prompt  and 
firm.  His  countenance  was  expressive  of  great  amiability, 
benevolence  and  dignity,  whilst  his  keen  black  eye  and 
well  developed  head  indicated  the  excellence  of  his  intellec- 

son's  TKSTlMONIAt,.  19 

tual  powers.  His  character  was  unusually  symmetrical  and 
well  balanced,  and  his  temper  so  uniformly  placid  that  I 
have  scarcely  ever  seen  it  ruffled  by  the  most  trying  annoy- 
ances of  life.  He  had  a  quick  sensibility  for  the  sufferings 
of  humanity.  Nor  did  his  sympathy  evaporate  in  mere 
mental  emotion — he  was  also  a  generous  and  active  friend 
of  the  poor,  the  afflicted  and  the  oppressed,  in  our  own  and 
foreign  lands.  Of  the  expansiveness  of  his  benevolence  I 
will  state  a  single  example.  When  the  Orphan  House  at 
Halle,  in  Germany,  was  almost  destroyed  during  the  Bona- 
partean  Wars,  so  strong  was  his  sympathy  for  that  suffering 
institution,  whose  alumni  were  the  chief  founders  of  our 
Church  in  this  country,  that  his  response  to  the  appeal  of 
its  Directors  to  our  churches  in  this  Western  world  for 
pecuniary  aid  was  the  most  liberal  of  all  our  ministers.  He 
was  possessed  of  strong  common  sense,  great  discernment 
of  character  and  singular  soundness  of  judgment.  Though 
modest  and  unassuming,  he  was  distinguished  for  conscien- 
tiousness and  moral  courage,  was  unwavering  in  his  defence 
of  truth  and  righteousness,  and  an  unfaltering  friend  of  the 
great  moral  reforms  of  the  day.  Of  this  his  noble  defence 
of  the  Temperance  cause  in  its  infancy,  when  not  only  the 
populace  generally,  but  the  majority  of  professing  Christians, 
and  even  some  of  the  neighboring  ministers  of  the  Gospel, 
were  ytt  opposed  to  it,  affords  a  striking  example.  So  vio- 
lent was  this  opposition  amongst  the  German  community  at 
large  (they  regarding  it  as  an  attempt' to  infringe  upon  their 
civil  rights),  that  some  even  menaced  personal  violence  ; 
and  so  extensive  was  the  opposition  amongst  his  own 
church  members  that  their  contributions  to  his  salary  fell 
off  one-half  during  that  year.  He,  however,  faltered  not; 
gradually  the  truth  gained  the  victory,  and,  in  a  few  years, 
he,  who  had  previously  enjoyed  the  public  confidence  in  an 
unusual  degree,  found  it  again  reposed  in  himself  in  a 
higher  measure  than  before. 

He  was  warmly  attached  to  the  great  National  Socie- 
ties of  our  land,  in  which  different  Christian  denominations 
co-operate,  such  as  the  American  Bible  and  Tract  Societies. 
He  was  especially  interested  in  the  operations  of  the  Amer- 
ican Tract  Society,  and  regarded  that  mass  of  truth  taught 

50  son's   TKSTIMONIAI,. 

in  its  publications,  and  held  by  the  Evangelical  denomina- 
tions in  common,  as  the  grand  instrumentality  for  the  con- 
version of  the  world.  Yet,  he  was  warmly  attached  to  the 
Evangelical  Lutheran  Church,  as  organized  under  the  Bib- 
lical constitution  of  our  General  Syaod.  He  was  an  atten- 
tive student  of  the  Prophetic  Scriptures,  as  well  as  a  careful 
observer  of  the  signs  of  the  times,  and  wrote  with  acknowl- 
edged ability  on  both  topics. 

As  a  preacher  he  was  eloquent,  instructive  and  impres- 
sive, generally  fixing  the  attention  of  the  audience  to  his 
subject  and  holding  it  there  to  the  close  of  his  discourse. 
He  was  especially  a  good  textuary.  He  enriched  his  dis- 
courses with  copious  citations  of  Scripture  proof  and  illus- 
tration, not  unfrequently  naming  the  chapter  and  verse. 
Few  men  employed  the  power  of  the  pulpit  more  faithfully 
in  reproving  current  vices.  Soon  after  his  removal  to  York, 
he  learned  that  some  ten  or  more  of  the  most  respectable 
and  influential  citizens  of  the  town,  who  were  also  pro- 
fessedly members  of  his  church,  were  in  the  habit  of  meet- 
ing frequently  for  the  purpose  of  playing  cards  as  an 
innocent  diversion.  This  he  deemed  highly  criminal,  not 
only  as  a  waste  of  time,  which  Christians  should  apply  to 
better  use,  but  as  an  example  calculated  to  sanction  and 
encourage  the  gambling  habits  of  the  young  and  profligate. 
After  repeated  but  fruitless  private  admonitions,  he  deter- 
mined on  another  and  more  hazardous  measure  to  break  up 
the  practice,  which  was  generally  known  to  the  community. 
On  the  ensuing  Sabbath  he  introduced  the  subject  into  the 
pulpit,  and  exposed  the  evils  of  the  practice  in  so  fearless  a 
manner,  and  with  such  distinct  allusion  to  the  parties  con- 
cerned, that  I  well  remember  seeing  members  turning 
round  in  the  church  and  looking  at  the  offenders,  whilst  a 
sensation  of  surprise  and  concern  filled  many  minds,  all 
expecting  disturbance  in  the  church,  and  offence  to  the  fam- 
ilies concerned,  as  the  result  of  the  discourse.  The  effect, 
however,  was  favorable.  The  practice  was  abandoned;  and, 
although  the  parties  felt  individually  aggrieved  at  the 
exposure,  they  made  no  public  demonstration  against  the 
preacher,  and  eventually  admitted  the  justice  and  propriety 
of  his  course. 


Sacred  music  and  poetry  found  a  deep  response  in  his 
heart.  He  also  occasionally  committed  some  hymns  and 
other  poetical  effusions  to  the  press,  which,  if  they  do  not 
prove  him  a  special  favorite  of  the  Muses,  are  distinguished 
for  ease  and  smoothness  of  versification,  as  well  as  the  deep- 
toned  piety  v/hich  they  breathe. 

As  a  Pastor,  he  was  most  laborious  and  faithful.  Such 
was  his  punctuality  in  attending  the  Judicatories  of  the 
Church  that  his  presence  was  calculated  on  by  all  as  a  mat- 
ter of  course ;  and  such  were  his  administrative  talents  that 
he  was  repeatedly  elected  to  the  highest  offices  of  the 
Church.  He  was  an  ardent  friend  of  the  General  Synod, 
was  one  of  its  original  founders,  and  ever  after  among  its 
ablest  defenders.  For  about  thirty  years  he  was  one  of  the 
leading  minds  in  our  American  Lutheran  Church,  was 
actively  engaged  in  all  her  important  measures,  and  was 
ever  known  as  the  firm  champion  of  piety  and  revivals  of 
religion,  as  well  as  of  all  such  enterprises  as  tend  to  advance 
the  spiritual  triumphs  of  the  Redeemer's  church  universal. 
His  own  ministry  was  blessed  not  only  by  numerous  con- 
versions occurring  every  year,  but  by  five  or  six  special  out- 
pourings of  the  Holy  Spirit,  each  resulting  in  the  conversion 
ol  multitudes  of  souls.  In  one  of  these  revivals  the  number 
of  converts  was  so  large  that  they  divided  themselves  into 
three  classes,  and  each  conducted  a  separate  weekly  prayer- 
meeting  in  a  different  part  of  the  congregation. 

A  striking  trait  of  my  father's  character  was  the  depth 
of  his  religious  experience,  and  his  unusually  advanced 
progress  in  the  divine  life.  The  following  remarks,  which 
I  find  written  by  his  own  hand  in  his  pocket  Greek  Testa- 
ment, will  throw  some  light  on  his  internal  religious  his- 
tory : 

"  I.  From  the  time  of  my  conversion,  in  my  eighteenth 
year,  my  life  was,  though  in  different  degrees,  a  continued 
prayer,  a  longing  and  sighing  after  God. 

2.  It  was  a  continual  repentance,  on  account  of  my 
sins  and  the  depravity  of  my  heart. 

3.  It  was  a  continual  longing  after  the  holiness  and 
grace  to  live  according  to  the  will  of  God. 


4.  A  continual  longing  for  union  and  communion 
with  God. 

5.  Through  life  I  had  a  continual  desire  for  the  con- 
version of  souls,  which  influenced  every  sermon  I  preached, 
though  it  was  often  defiled  by  the  intermixture  of  selfish 

6.  I  had  a  constant  desire  for  the  society  of  the  pious. 

7.  At  the  same  time  I  had  many  infirmities  and  sins, 
and  all  m.y  virtues  were  defective. 

In  1840,  I  enjoyed  a  special  manifestation  of  the  divine 
love  shed  abroad  in  my  heart,  which  was  exceedingly 
refreshing  to  me.  And  soon  after  I  had  also  a  special  view 
of  the  divine  majesty  and  goodness.  In  1841  I  had  an 
extraordinary  view  of  Christ,  and  beheld  his  image,  as  it 
were,  in  the  chamber  of  my  soul." 

For  several  months  before  his  death  he  was  much 
abstracted  from  the  world,  and  engaged  in  almost  constant 
communion  with  God.  During  this  time  he,  on  one  occa- 
sion, was  lying  in  his  bed  in  the  night  watches,  and  called 
to  my  mother,  who  was  at  his  side :  "  Oh,  if  you  could  see 
what  I  have  seen  beyond  the  Jordan  of  death,  how  happy 
you  would  be !  "  Such  was  the  holy  frame  of  mind  in 
which  he  awaited  the  call  of  the  Redeemer,  and  such  the 
fortaste  vouchsafed  to  hini  of  his  future  inheritance,  until 
he  calmly  yielded  his  life  into  the  Redeemer's  hands. 


The  following  letter  addressed  to  him  a  short  time 
before  his  death,  will  be  edifying  and  consoling  to  many  of 
our  readers: 

Gettysburg,  June  2gth,  18^^. 
Dear  Father: 

Although  your  sight  may  not  enable  you  to. read,  I 
feel  inclined  to  write  to  you,  and  no  doubt  you  will  be 
pleased  to  hear  mother  read  my  letter.  Although  I  am  far 
removed  from  you,  you  are  daily  the  subject  of  my  thought 
and  often  of  conversation  in  my  family.  The  Lord  has 
given  you  a  long  time  to  rest  from  the  duties  of  your  pro- 
fession and  spend  your  days  in  religious  reading  and  medi- 
tation.    Now  he  calls  you  away  to  himself  in  a  very  gradual 

i,e;tter  from  his  son.  23 

manner,  giving  you  ample  time  to  make  all  necessary- 
arrangements.  This  ought  to  be  a  subject  of  gratitude  to 
you,  and  should  comfort  you,  if  you  sometimes  feel  weary 
amid  your  long  infirmities.  Now  the  prayer  of  the  Psalmist 
has  double  force  to  you  :  "  Now  also,  when  I  am  old  and 
grayheaded,  O  God,  forsake  me  not !  "  You  will  also  find 
great  consolcition  in  the  declaration  of  the  same  Psalmist : 
"  The  Lord  is  my  Shepherd,  etc.  Yea,  though  I  walk 
through  the  valley  of  the  shadow  of  death,  I  will  fear  no 
evil.  Thy  rod  and  thy  staff,  they  comfort  me."  With  the 
Apostle  Paul,  also,  I  trust  you  can  say,  "  I  know  in  whom 
I  have  believed,  and  am  persuaded,  that  He  is  able  to  keep 
that  which  I  have  entrusted  to  Him,  until  that  day." 

The  Lord  does,  indeed,  try  your  faith  and  patience  by 
suffering  you  to  linger  long  upon  a  bed  of  sickness.  Yet 
"  He  doeth  all  things  well,"  As  you  do  not  suffer  any 
sharp  pain,  you  have  great  cause  for  gratitude. 

That  the  Lord  may  sustain  and  comfort  you,  and  put 
His  everlasting  arms  around  you,  is  the  daily  prayer  of 
Your  affectionate  son, 

Samuel  Schmucker. 



1799 — 1818. 






BY     DR.       MORRIS VINDICATED       BY        DR.      DIEHL — DR. 


Samuel  D.  Schmucker,  Esq.,  writes  as  follows  in 
regard  to  his  father's  family  record  : 

My  father,  Samuel  S.  Schmucker,  was  the  son  of  the 
above  named,  John  George  Schmucker,  and  was  born  at 
Hagerstown,  Pa.,  February  28,  1799. 

My  father  had  nine  children,  who  grew  up  to  age  ; 
namely  Rev.  Mosheim  G.  Schmucker,  dead  ;  Caroline  E., 
wife  of  Dr.  P.  B.  Sadtler  ;  Rev.  Dr.  Beale  M.  Schmucker, 
dead;  EUenora  G.,  wife  ot  Rev.  A.  T.  Geisenhainer  ;  M. 
Josephine,  widow  of  Rev.  B.  C.  Sueserott ;  Rev.  George 
M.  Schmucker;  Catherine  M.,  widow  of  Wm.  A.  Duncan, 
Esq.,  Alice,  widow  of  J.  Cassatt  Nealy,  Esq.;  Samuel  D. 
Schmucker,  Esq. 

It  is  somewhat  singular  that  every  one  of  my  father's 
children,  who  grew  to  manhood,  or  womanhood,  became  a 
clergyman,  or  a  lawyer,  or  the  wife  of  a  clergyman  or 
lawyer.  Three  or  four  of  my  father's  sisters  married 
clergymen  and  one  married  a  lawyer. 

He  was  married  three  times.  His  first  wife  was  Miss 
Elenora  Geiger,  of  Hagerstown,  Md.     The   marriage  took. 


place  February  28,  1821.  She  was  the  mother  of  his  eld- 
est son  Mosheim  G.,  but  died  soon  after  her  child  was 
born;  namely,  July  3,  1823,  after  an  illness  of  6  months. 
An  extract  of  the  touching  and  tender  account  of  her  sick- 
ness and  death,  by  the  bereaved  young  widower,  will 
appear  on  a  subsequent  page  of  this  volume. 

His  second  wife  was  Miss  Mary  Catharine  Steenbergen 
of  Virginia.  She  was  the  mother  of  the  other  children 
whose  names  are  given  above. 

The  Steenbergens  and  the  Beales  were  prominent  fam- 
ilies in  the  Shenandoah  Valley,  and  owned  large  tracts  of 
beautiful  lands,  lying  contiguous  to  each  other. 

His  third  wife  was  Miss  Esther  M.Wagner,  of  German- 
town,  Pa. 

DR.    S.    S.    SCHMUCKEr's    FAMILY    RECORD. 

The  following  Record  was  written  by  the  Doctor's 
own  hand,  and  copied  by  the  writer  from  his  Family  Bible. 

Rev.  J.  G.  Schmucker,  D.  D.,  was  born  August  18,  1771, 
in  Michaelstadt  in  Grafschaft  Erbach  in  Oberdeutsch- 
land.  He  ascended  to  a  better  world  on  October  7, 
1854,  at  Williamsburg,  Blair  County,  Pa.,  and  was  bur- 
ied at  York,  Pa.,  on  the  12th.,  aged  83  years,  i  month 
and  20  days. 

S.  S.  Schmucker,  son  of  John  George  Schmucker,  was 
born  at  Hagerstown,  Md.,  on  the  28th  of  February  in 
the  year  of  our  Lord  1799. 

S.  S.  Schmucker  and  Elenora  Geiger,  daughter  of  John 
Geiger  of  Hagerstown,  Md.,  entered  into  the  holy 
state  of  matrimony,  February  28th,  1821.  The  cere- 
mony was  performed  by  Rev.  Benjamin  Kurtz. 

Samuel  Mosheim  Schmucker  was  born  at  New  Market, 
Shenandoah    County,   Va.,   January    12th,    1823,  was 

26  IfAMIl,Y  RECORD. 

baptized  by  Rev,  Mr.  Foote,  Mrs.  Mary  Williams  act- 
ing as  sponsor.     Died  in  Philadelphia,  and  was  buried 
•  at  Laurel  Hill  Cemetery  in  1863. 

His  mother,  Mrs.  E.  Schmucker,  died  July  3rd,  1823,  after 
an  illness  of  6  months,  which  was  specially  blessed  to 
her  own  sanctification. 

S.  S.  Schmucker  and  Mary  Catherine  Steenbergen,  of 
Shenandoah  County,  Va.,  daughter  of  Wm.  Steen- 
bergen, of  Shenandoah  County,  Va.,  were  married 
October  12th,  1825. 

Their  daughter,  Caroline  Elizabeth,  was  born  August  20th, 

1826,  at  10  o'clock,  p,  M.,  at  Mt.  Airy,  Shenandoah 
County,  Va.,  and  was  baptized  by  Rev.  J.  G. 
Schmucker,  on  the  6th  day  of  December,  1826,  at 
Gettysburg,  Pa, 

Their   son,  Beale  M.  Schmucker,    was  born   August  26th, 

1827,  at  5  o'clock,  p.  M.,  in  Gettysburg,  Adams  County, 
Pa.,  and  was  baptized  by  Rev.  J.  G.  Schmucker,  Sep- 
tember 26th,  at  the  same  place, 

Mary  Catherine  was  born  July  4th,  1829,  at  2  o'clock,  a. 
M.,  baptized  by  Rev.  J.  G.  Schmucker,  August  14th, 
1830,  aged  13  months  and  10  days.  Both  her  birth 
and  death  occurred  in  Gettysburg,  Pa. 

Elenora  Susan,  was  born  February  loth,  1831,  at  9  o'clock, 
A.  M.,  at  Gettysburg,  and  baptized  by  Rev.  J.  G. 

Virginia  King,  was  born  on  the  5  th  of  December,  in  the 
year  1832,  and  baptized  by  Rev,  J.  G.  Schmucker, 

Mariah  Josephine,  was   born  on  the  22d  of  October,  in  the 

year  1833,  baptized  by  Rev,  F.  Ruthrauff. 
George  William  Spener,  was  born  Ju'y  i6th,  1836  at  Get- 


tysburg,  and  was  dedicated  to  God  by  baptism  on  the 
24th  of  August  of  the  same  year  by  Rev.  J,  G. 

Mary  Steenbergen,  was  born  November  14th,  1838,  at  Get- 
tysburg, was  baptized  by  Rev.  Benjamin  Keller,  and 
departed  this  life  March  13th,  1839  at  11  o'clock,  p.  m. 

Catherine  Williamson,  was  born  December  26,  1839  at 
Gettysburg,  and  was  baptized  by  Rev.  H.  I.  Smith, 
(Professor  of  Seminary.) 

Alice,  was  born  March  3r(I,  1842,  at  Gettysburg,  and  was 
baptized  by  Rev.  Professor  Baugher. 

Samuel  Davis,  was  born  February  26th,  1844,  and  was 
baptized  by  Rev.  Samuel  Sprecher,  April  19th. 

Charles  Gustavus  Adolphus,  was  born  February  9th,  1846, 
at  Gettysburg,  and  was  baptized  by  Rev.  Prof 
Baugher.     Died  of  Pneumonia,  March  28th,  1862. 

February  nth,  1848,  departed  this  life,  in  the  full  triumph 
of  Christian  hope,  Mrs.  Mary  Catherine  Schmucker,  the 
mother  of  the  above  twelve  children.  During  her 
brief  illness  of  two  weeks,  she  was  specially  favored 
with  manifestations  of  the  divine  presence,  and  as 
death  approached,  appeared  to  be  wrapped  up  in 
bright  anticipations  of  heaven. 

S.  S.  Schmucker  and  Esther  M.  Wagner,  of  Germantown, 
Pa.,  were  married,  April  28th,  1849,  by  Rev.  Wm. 


Dr.  Schmucker  believed  in  Baptismal  Grace,  but  never 
believed  in  what  is  commonly  called  Baptismal  Regenera- 
tion.    But  if  any  one  ever  could  lay  claim  to  such  an  effect 


of  this  Sacrament  in  his  own  person,  Dr.  Schmucker 
might  justly  have  done  so.  From  his  very  childhood  he 
manifested  an  extraordinary  degree  of  piety  and  faith  in 
God,  as  is  evident  from  his  daily  habit  of  secret  prayer.  A 
very  remarkable  instance  of  this  early  devotional  frame  of 
mind  is  given  by  himself  in  his  diary  as  follows  : 

"  I  recollect  that  while  I  yet  lived  in  Hagerstown, 
and  when  I  could  not  have  been  more  than  nine  years  of 
age,  that  the  Lord  had  his  work  progressing  in  my  heart. 
I  was  with  some  of  my  companions,  playing  in  a  hay 
stable.  In  the  course  of  our  play  I  took  out  my  pocket 
knife  and  comb,  and  fearing  that  I  might  lose  them,  laid 
them  on  the  joist.  When  we  left  the  hay  loft  I  put  the 
knife  and  comb  into  my  pocket,  and  we  transferred  the 
scene  of  our  youthful  gambols  to  a  neighboring  field.  After 
spending  some  time  at  this  place,  we  prepared  to  return  to 
our  homes.  I  was  extremely  distressed,  when  I  discovered 
that  I  had  lost  my  knife,  and  all  my  companions  having 
gone  home,  I  remained  on  the  spot,  seeking  for  what  I 
had  lost.  At  length,  finding  all  search  in  vain,  I  recurred 
to  my  usual  expedient,  prayer,  and  had  not  prayed  long 
before  it  came  into  my  mind,  that  I  could  find  it  on  the 
joist  of  the  stable,  where  we  had  firstplayed.  Notwithstand- 
ing I  was  confident  of  having  taken  it  from  that  place,  I 
returned  and  to  my  astonishment  and  surprise,  found  them 
in  precisely  the  same  place,  where  I  had  first  laid  them. 
This  phenomenon,  as  I  then  believed  it  to  be,  can  be 
easily  accounted  for  by  the  laws  of  Mental  Philosophy,  but 
is  still  a  pleasing  evidence  of  the  intimacy  then  existing 
between  me  and  my  God." 

A  similar  characteristic  is  also  related  of  his  father, 
told  me  by  one  of  the  daughters,  as  follows  : 

"  Dr.  Schmucker  when  a  young  man  traveled  on  foot 
from  his  home  in  Virginia  to   Philadelphia,  to  pursue  his 


studies  with  Dr.  Helmuth.  He  stopped  at  a  tavern  to  get 
a  drink  of  water,  and  left  his  vaHse  (which  contained  his 
all)  outside  on  a  bench.  Coming  out  he  found  it  was  gone  ; 
after  looking  around,  not  knowing  what  to  do,  in  his  dis- 
tress he  thought  he  would  have  to  go  back  to  his  home  in 
Virginia  ao-ain.  But  before  he  commenced  his  return 
journey,  he  retired  into  a  grove  near  by  and  prayed  to  God 
for  guidance,  and  while  he  was  on  his  knees  praying,  it 
appeared  to  him  that  he  saw  the  very  spot  where  his  valise 
had  been  hidden.  Immediately  he  returned  to  the  tavern, 
asked  the  landlord  to  go  with  him,  saying  he  knew  where 
his  valise  was,  the  landlord  accompanied  him  to  the  barn, 
raised  a  board  in  the  fl^or,  and  there  was  the  valise  just  as 
he  had  seen  it  during  his  prayer." 

A  similar  anecdote  is  related  by  Dr.  A.  H.  Lochman, 
about  his  father.  Dr.  George  Lochman,  which  we  will  also 
copy  : 

"  When  George  was  a  boy  his  father  determined  that 
he  should  learn  his  business  and  thus  help  to  support  the 
family.  By  the  depreciation  of  the  continental  currency  he 
had  lost  the  little  means  he  had  possessed.  The  importun- 
ities of  the  son,  however,  made  an  impression  upon  him, 
and  he  consented  to  allow  him  to  acquire  a  knowledge  of 
the  languages.  On  a  certain  occasion  a  new  book  was  to 
be  purchased.  The  previous  week  he  had  bought  a  dic- 
tionary and  other  books  which  he  required.  He  was  afraid 
to  mention  it  to  his  father,  lest  he  might  refuse  to  furnish 
him  with  the  money.  In  this  difficulty  he  resorted  to 
prayer.  As  he  was  returning  from  school  he  simply  stated 
his  case  to  his  Heavenly  Father,  and  asked  his  assistance. 
*  After  I  had  prayed,'  he  said,  '  my  mind  became  easy,  and 
taking  a  feather  which  was  lying  in  my  path,  I  blew  it  in 
the  air  and  ran  after  it.  As  it  was  descending  I  blew  it  up 
again,  when  a  slight  breeze  caught  it   and  bore   it  away 


before  me.  I  followed  it.  It  fell  down  into  the  street  and 
lighted  upon  a  silver  dollar,  the  price  of  the  book  I  wanted 
to  buy.  I  took  it  up,  praising  God,  brought  it  home,  told 
my  father  all  the  circumstances.'  The  old  man  was  much 
affected,  and  as  he  brushed  away  the  tears  from  his  eyes 
he  said,  '  George,  this  dollar  may  not  be  ours,  but  take  it. 
God  has  sent  it.  We  will  make  inquiry,  and  if  the  owner 
is  found  I  will  give  him  another.'" 

Dr.  Schmucker  was  in  his  eleventh  year  when  he  came 
to  York,  and  no  doubt  received  his  early  elementary  train- 
ing in  the  common  schools  then  existing  in  Hagerstown 
and  in  York.  But  his  principal  training  was  in  the  York 
Academy,  then  under  the  management  of  Mr.  Beatie,  and 
which  is  still  existing  in  a  very  flourishing  condition. 

His  desire  to  study  for  the  ministry  was  awakened  at  a 
very  early  age,  and  amid  conflicting  impulses  and  doubts, 
grew  constantly  stronger.  In  a  most  kindly  letter  written 
in  Latin  to  him,  when  but  thirteen  years  old,  Dr.  Helmuth 
urged  him  to  come  to  the  University  of  Pennsylvania.  In 
1 8 14  he  entered  the  Freshman  class  at  the  University  and 
remained  there  to  the  close  of  the  Sophomore  year. 

"  It  was  not  an  unusual  thing  in  those  days  at  some  of 
the  leading  institutions  of  the  country  for  college  students  to 
take  some  theological  studies  along  with  the  regular  college 
curriculum.  So  young  Samuel  Schmucker  spent  some  of 
his  time,  while  at  the  University,  in  the  study  of  theology, 
under  the  tuition  of  Dr.  Helmuth,  at  that  time  the  most 
prominent  theological  instructor  of  our  church  in  this 
country.  He  then  spent  one  year,  under  the  direction  of 
his  father  in  theological  study,  before  entering  the  Semi- 
nary at  Princeton.  He  had  also  employed  much  of  his 
time  during  the  vacations,  while  a  student  at  the  University, 
in  theological  reading." — D. 

After  he  had  returned  to  York,  July  16,  18 16,  he  took 


charge,  August  5,  of  the  Classical  Department  of  the  York 
Academy.  He  had  in  the  first  session  seventeen  boys,  and 
afterwards  twenty-eight  under  his  care.  The  school  had 
very  much  deteriorated,  in  so  much  that  there  were  only 
four  students  left 'in  the  Classical  Department. 

York  County  Academy  has  been  in  existence  over  a 
hundred  years.  In  1787  the  building  was  erected,  and  with 
few  slight  changes,  is  still  standing  and  in  use.  The  state 
appropriated  ^2,000.00.  The  Lutherans  of  York  have  been 
its  patrons  from  the  beginning,  and  most  of  the  young  men, 
who  entered  the  ministry  out  of  Lutheran  churches  in  York, 
received  their  preparation  for  college  in  this  institution. 
In  consequence  it  has  been  a  great  feeder  for  the  college  at 

We  notice  the  following  names  of  Lutherans  in  its 
Board  of  Trustees  :  Rev.  George  Schmucker,  D.  D.,  Chas. 
Barnitz,  C.  A.  Morris,  Dr.  John  Morris,  George  S.  Morris* 
Philip  Smyser,  Jacob  Emmet,  Charles  Weiser,  Rev.  Solo- 
mon Oswald,  Jacob  Hay,  Rev.  A.  H.  Lochman,  D.  D., 
Edward  G.  Smyser,  Rev.  Jonathan  Oswald,  D.  D.,  M.  B. 
Spahr,  Lewis  Carl,  Rev.  W.  Baum,  D.  D.,  Rev.  A.  W. 
Lilly,  D.  D.,  Jerre  Carl,  Rev.  A.  H.  Fastnacht. 

Prof  Geo.  W.  Gross,  Ph.  D.,  a  member  of  the  Lutheran 
Church,  and  a  graduate  of  Pennsylvania  College,  is  the 
Principal  of  the  York  County  Academy  at  this  time,  with 
an  enrollment  of  sixty  male  students. 

Dr.  Schmucker's  diary,  dated  August  5,  18 16,  has 
this  entry  in  Latin  : 

"  The  following  youths  were  received  into  the  York 
Academy  to  be  taught  Latin  and  Greek  : 

1.  Geo.  August  Barnitz, 

2.  Samuel  Spangler, 

3.  John  G.  Moritz, 

4.  William  Kurtz, 











Henry  Ness, 

James  Kelly, 

Ferdinand  Spangler, 

William  Roberts, 

Alexander  Boner  {Transfuga), 

Alexander  Small, 

Alexander  Barnitz, 

Geo.  Spangler, 

Thomas  Cathcart, 

William  Wilson, 

Jacob  Florence, 

William  Florence, 

Geo.  Pentz." 

November  6  he  writes  in  his  diary : 

"  On  the  26th  ult.  an  examination  of  the  York  Acad- 
emy was  held.  I  had  exerted  myself  considerably  during 
the  whole  of  the  quarter,  to  bring  this  disorganized  school 
into  proper  order,  and  am  convinced,  that  in  this  institution 
no  set  of  boys  have  ever  made  greater  progress  in  the  short 
space  of  three  months.  After  the  examination  had  been 
conducted  in  the  most  pleasing  arrangement,  regularity  and 
decorum,  and  the  scholars  had  acquitted  themselves  with 
honor,  the  President,  after  a  consultation  with  the  other 
trustees,  arose  and  expressed  their  unbounded  pleasure  at 
the  manner  in  which  the  exercises  had  been  performed. 
After  enlarging  a  little  on  the  importance  of  some  of  the 
individual  studies,  he  said  that  he  had  never  seen  a  more 
excellent  examination  in  this  Academy,  and  hoped,  that 
the  Tutor,  as  well  as  the  scholars,  might  continue  in  this 
present  truly  laudable  state  of  industry. 

The  premiums  were  awarded  as  follows  :  To  Geo.  A. 
Barnitz  a  Tacitus,  and  to  William  Wilson  a  book  of  Bible 
Stories,  the  former  costing  $i.i2}4  and  the  latter  50  cents. 


A  holiday  was  given  until  Monday  following,  and  the 
school  was  dismissed.     Laus  Deo. 

Last  night  I  slept  with  Mr.  David  Geiger,  my  former 
fellow  student  at  the  University. 

Mr.  Geiger  intends  to  return  to  Hagerstown,  and  as 
soon  as  he  can  sell  his  inheritance,  left  him  by  his  father, 
intends  to  go  to  the  state  of  Kentucky,  to  settle  in  Louis- 
ville, where,  if  the  Lord  spare  my  life  and -health,  I  hope  to 
see  him  before  two  years,  in  the  capacity  of  a  Missionary 

Mr.  Schuh  has  left  Philadelphia  in  perfect  harmony 
with  every  body,  except  the  silly  M.  He  intends  to  go 
to  the  western  parts  of  Ohio,  and  is  furnished  with  recom- 
mendations from  Dr.  Helmuth  and  Dr.  Schaeffer.  By  my 
interposition  father  likewise  gave  him  a  recommendation  to 
all  the  clergy  in  the  state  of  Ohio.  Mr.  Schuh  is  an  indus- 
trious, honest,  moral  and  well  informed  young  man,  about 
twenty-two  years  of  age,  though  only  4  ft.  6  in.  high.  May 
the  blessing  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ  rest  upon  him." 

At  this  point  he  has  inserted  a  number  of  prayers  in 
his  diary,  which  we  will  copy,  as  showing  the  state  of  his 
spiritual  condition  at  this  time: 

Nov.  6.  O  Lord  God,  I  am  a  sinner,  and  the  iniquity  of 
my  ways  will  bring  me  to  eternal  ruin,  if  thy  saving  hand  be 
not  exerted  in  my  favor.  Though  I  am  guilty  of  no  crime 
against  the  world,  or  to  my  knowledge  any  individual,  my 
heart  is  yet  prone  to  evil  and  my  ways  are  far  from  God. 
There  was  a  time,  O  Lord,  when  I  was  much  nearer  to 
thee,  than  at  present  I  am.  Thou  hast  promised  that 
"  Whatsoever  we  ask  of  thee  in  the  name  of  thy  Son  Jesus 
Christ  shall  be  granted,  that  the  Father  may  be  glorified." 
Now  Lord,  I  beseech  thee  to  change  my  heart,  and  give 
me  a  new  and  purified  spirit !  O  Lord,  numbers  are  rush- 
ing  with  me  the    road  to  perdition.     Stretch    forth  thine 

34  praye;rs. 

all  powerful  hand,  and  arrest  us  in  our  mad  carreer.  We 
are  seated  in  the  chariot  of  iniquity,  and  are  driving  head- 
long to  the  gulf  of  destruction.  Many  times  hast  thou 
called  us,  but  we  heeded  not  thine  admonitions  ;  nothing 
but  thy  divine  interposition,  O  Lord,  will  save  us  ! 

Nov.  ig.  O  Lord,  blessed  be  thy  holy  name,  that  thou 
hast  preserved  us  to  this  day;  that  thou  has  prolonged  the 
duration  of  our  existence  until  the  present  moment.  How 
many  have  during  the  last  night  been  transposed  from  time 
to  eternity  !  For  how  many  was  the  race  run  and  the  thread 
of  life  cut  off!  We,  Lord,  are  yet  spared;  and  to  thine 
unmerited  kindness  and  forbearance  are  we  indebted  for  it ! 
We  have  erred  and  gone  astray ;  we  have  sinned  against 
thee;  ".there  is  not  one  that  doeth  good, no  not  one." 
We  are  going  the  way  of  the  iniquitous,  and  the  path  of  the 
Lord  we  know  not.  Soon  will  the  earthly  race  be  run,  and 
we  go  to  another  world,  to  receive  the  reward  of  our  labor. 
O  God,  our  works  have  been  of  the  flesh,  and  from  the 
flesh  we  would  inherit  eternal  damnation.  But  thou  hast 
promised,  that  thou  wilt  hear  the  penitent,  and  the  death  of 
the  sinner  thou  wilt  not.  In  thy  promise  alone  do  we  re- 
pose the  hope  of  our  salvation, — in  the  promise  of  HIM, 
who  died  for  man,  that  he  might  never  die !  O  that  we 
might  see  the  folly  of  our  ways  and  fly  to  thee  for  assistance  ! 
But  our  nature  is  corrupted  and  we  are  prone  to  sin.  But 
do  thou.  Lord,  pardon  our  manifold  transgressions ;  and  as 
men  will  not  obey  thy  commands,  but  are  full  of  sin,  do 
thou  rule  us  with  a  rod  of  iron,  and  put  a  bit  into  our 
mouths,  which  will  certainly  bring  us  to  reason.  Yet,  O 
Lord,  thy  punishments  are  severe,  I  feel  the  hand  of  the 
.Lord  upon  me  ;  I  am  sorely  afflicted  and  ready  to  bend 
down  under  the  load  of  affliction.  "  My  soul  is  exceedingly 
sorrowful,  even  unto  death."  "  O  Lord,  wilt  thou  not 
deliver  me  ?  " 


Nov.  20.    On  the  morning  of  this  day,  O  merciful  Crea- 
tor, how  should  I  glorify  thy  name,  that  thou  hast  spared  me 
until  this  day.     My  life  has  been  an  uninterrupted  scene  of 
ungodliness,  and  my  heart  knows  not  God.    With  guilt  upon 
my  head,  contrition  in  my  heart,  Oh  how  could  I  have  met 
and  stood  before    my  judge,  had  I    died    during   the   last 
night.     Thou,  O    Lord,  hast   spared  my  life,  and  on   the 
morning  of  this  day  hast  condescended  to  assuage  in  some 
degree,  the  misery  of  my  condition,  and  given  another  day 
for  the  salvation  of  my  soul.     O  Lord,  blessed  be  thy  name, 
for  the  unmerited  blessings  which  thou  hast  been  pleased 
to  bestow  upon  me.     Grant  that  it  may  not  arise  in  evi- 
dence against  me  on  the  great  and  awful  day  of  Judgment, 
That  I  may  apply  it  to  the  working  out  of  the  salvation  of 
my  soul,  and  the  abstraction  of  my  mind  from  the  idleness 
of  this  world.     Lord,  I  desire  to  be  saved  ;  my  soul  longs 
to  be  wrested  from  the  flames  in  which  it  is  now  consuming. 
But  I  am  weak  and  miserable,  for  the  grace  of  God  is  not 
upon  me.     Within  these  five  years,  to  the  best  of  my  recol- 
lection, thou  Lord  knowest,  I  have  made  about  lOO  attempts 
and   commencements   at   conversion,   but   the    work    was 
always  prevented  by  my  own  evil  doings.     I  did  not  permit 
God  to  direct  me,  but  was  always  determined  to  go  accord- 
ing to  my  own  head.     Lord,  now  I  am   convinced  of  my 
own  inability,  and  come  entirely  to  thee.     Do  thou  direct 
me ;  be  thou  my  leader,  and  form  my  heart,  such  as  thou 
wilt  have  it  should  be.     Thy  blessed  word  teaches  us,  that 
salvation  of  souls  is  not  the  work  of  man ;  nay,  if  all  the 
angels    in    heaven  united  their  strength,  it  would  not   be 
sufficient  for  the  salvation  of  one  soul !     Man  is  mortal  ; 
angels  approach  the  divine  nature  to  an  amazing  degree, 
and   are   therefore  far  greater  than   man ;   but  angels  are 
incompetent  to  the  salvation  of  a  soul ;  how  can  man,  who 
is  so  far  inferior  to  angels,  do  anything  towards  the  accom- 

36  DIARY. 

plishment  of  this  divine  purpose!  O  Lord,  therefore  I  will 
submit  solely  to  thy  direction,  and  trust  in  thy  promise, 
that  thou  wilt  convert  me,  and  conduct  all  things  in  such  a 
manner,  as  finally  to  end  in  my  salvation.    Amen. 

These  prayers  were  not  intended  by  the  author  for 
publication.  They  were,  no  doubt,  portions  of  his  daily 
private  devotions  during  a  considerable  period  of  time,  and 
were  written  by  his  own  hand  in  his  diary  to  fix  their  im- 
pression on  his  heart  and  mind.  They  not  only  show  his 
spiritual  condition  while  under  conviction  of  sin,  but  they 
give  us  the  key-note  to  hisvvhole  subsequent  spiritual  life 
and  conduct. 

Nov.  i6.  When  I  undertook  the  care  of  the  Classical 
Department  of  York  Academy,  I  determined  to  conduct 
everything  on  that  principle  of  independence,  which  I  have 
ever  endeavored  to  maintain.  Accordingly,  instead  of 
inserting  into  the  public  prints  a  long  and  circumstantial 
advertisement,  as  many  of  my  friends  advised  me  to  do,  I 
sent  but  these  few  lines  for  publication  : 

"  The  public  are  respectfully  informed,  that  the  Classi- 
cal Department  of  the  York  Academy  is  again  opened, 
where  scholars  may  apply  for  admission." 

I  might,  perhaps,  have  received  a  few  more  scholars  by 
a  pompous  advertisement;  but  this  I  deemed  too  much  like 
begging  parents  to  send  their  children.  In  this  manner  I 
have  continued  to  conduct  the  school,  and  though  there 
were  but  four  Latin  and  Greek  scholars  when  Mr.  Beatie 
left  the  Academy,  there  are  now  seventeen  pupils. 

Dec.  g.  Miss  Betsey  arrived  at  York  about  the  6th 
ult.  She  has  remained  at  our  house  and  at  Mr.  Barnitz's 
ever  since.  In  all  my  intercouse  with  her,  which  has  neces- 
sarily been  considerable,  I  have  found  her  to  be  of  an  amia- 
ble disposition.  In  her  first  acquaintance  she  is  very 
prudently  reserved,  but  with  her  friends  and  acquaintances 

DIARY.  37 

she  is  communicative,  though  by  no  means  disagreeably 
loquacious.  There  was  a  day  when  she  was  charmingly 
beautiful.  But  alas,  time  and  disease  have  been  making 
very  visible  ravages  on  her  frame.  She  is  no  longer  that 
charming,  beautiful  female,  which  she  formerly  was;  like  a 
poppy,  whose  top  has  been  overcharged  with  rain,  she 
bends  under  the  weight  of  her  afflictions.  As  when  a 
flower  in  the  valley  has  been  rooted  up  by  the  share  of  the 
unconscious  rustic,  falls  on  the  plain  and  there  withers  and 
dies,  thus  Miss  H.  affords  another  striking,  and  at  the  same 
time  afflicting  evidence  of  the  frailty  and  weakness  of  our 
frame,  and  of  the  transitory  nature  of  this  life.  By  these 
reflections  we  are  forcibly  reminded  of  a  beautiful  and 
appropriate  verse  in  that  admired  production  of  Gray, 
"  Elegy  written  in  a  country  church  yard." 

"  Full  many  a  gem  of  purest  ray  serene, 

The  dark,  unfathomed  depths  of  ocean  bear, 
Full  many  a  flower  is  born  to  bloom  unseen, 
And  waste  its  fragrance  on  the  desert  air." 

Dec.  12.  On  the  day,  which  my  own  books  will  show, 
and  which  is  about  six  weeks  since,  I  happened  to  have  a 
conversation  with  Mr.  Seibert  about  the  education  of  his  son. 
He  told  me  that  the  cause  of  his  having  discontinued  the 
study  of  Latin,  was  his  pecuniary  embarrassment,  mention- 
ing at  the  same  time,  that  he  was  sincerely  sorry  for  not 
having  been  able  to  pay  Mr.  Saml.  Murill  an  amount  which 
was  due  to  him  for  some  time.  As  "  to  do  good  "  is  an 
object  which  I  always  had  in  view,  it  grieved  me  to  see  his 
boy  lose  a  good  education  on  account  of  the  indigence  of 
his  father,  and  I  immediately  offered  to  teach  him  gratis. 
His  father  sent  him  the  next  day.  At  first  I  was  really 
astonished  to  hear  that  he  had  been  in  Virgil ;  for  far  from 
being  able  to  give  any  of  the  necessary  rules  for  the  gen- 
der, declension  and  conjugation,  etc.,  of  Latin  words,  he 

38  DIARY. 

could  not  decline  stella !  Yet  this  boy  had  been  at 
Latin  half  a  year,  and  quit  only  a  few  weeks !  He  now 
recites  tolerably  well.  I  have  no  doubt  of  his  being  a 
smart  boy. 

Dec.  i6.  To-day  I  paid  Mrs.  Davidson  a  visit,  and 
had  a  conference  with  her  relative  to  the  admission  of  her 
son  into  the  first  division.  She  seems  to  be  a  woman  of 
extensive  information,  and  likewise  of  very  affable  disposi- 
tion. She  said  that  she  had  intended  to  send  him  after  the 
last  examination,  but  had  been  prevented  by  an  intended 
journey  to  Baltimore  ;  that  she  had  no  objection,  but  on  the 
contrary,  felt  an  anxiety  to  have  him  under  my  care  ;  that 
Rev.  Cathcart  had  expressed  a  very  favorable  opinion  of 
my  administration,  etc.  At  my  departure  she  thanked  me 
for  the  trouble  of  calling,  and  said,  she  would  be  very 
happy  to  see  me  at  any  time  at  her  house.  I  thanked  her 
and  departed. 

Dec.  I  J.  The  gentlemen  formerly  constituting  the 
musical  club  existing  in  this  place  were,  Dec,  Anno  Domini 
1800,  John  Barnitz,  Geo.  Barnitz,  Jacob  Doll,  Jacob  Cremer, 
David  Doll,  John  Moritz,  Sr.,  John  Stroman,  John  Hay^ 
Henry  Mundorff,  John  Herr,  Gep.  Mundorff,  Henry  Pickil, 
Chas.  A.  Barnitz,  Harry  Hay,  Wm.  Lenhart. 

A  book  of  music  belonging  to  them  is  now  in  my  pos- 

Dec.  ig.  This  day  I  bought  a  second-hand  flute  from 
Mr.  White  for  ^2.00.  I  shall  probably  commence  the  study 
of  music,  though  not  with  any  intention  of  spending  much 
time  at  it. 

Yesterday  Mr.  White  left  York  for  Columbia,  with  an 
intention  of  commencing  the  practice  of  the  law  in  that 
place.  He  is  a  man  whose  actions  flow  from  the  purest 
principles,  although  unacquainted  with  the  world.  May 
he  continue  to  walk  in  the  path  of  virtue,  and  may  success 

certificate;.  39 

attend  his  endeavors.     May  the  blessing  of  the   Lord  God 
be  and  rest  upon  him. 

The  following  certificate  was  given  Mr.  Schmucker  on 
his  resignation  of  the  York  Academy  : 

York,  12th  Aug.,  1818. 
It  is  hereby  certified,  that  Mr.  Samuel  S.  Schmucker 
has  taught  in  the  York  Academy  for  some  time  past,  with 
great  acceptance.  He  has  conducted  himself  not  only 
with  propriety  and  decorum,  but  in  an  highly  exemplary 
manner,  and  being  now  about  to  leave  this  place,  he  is 
recommended  to  the  friendship  and  attention  of  the  inhab- 
itants in  whatever  place  he  may  reside. 

By  order  of  the  Board  of  Trustees. 
,  W.  Barber,  Sec.  Robert  Cathcart,  Pres.  • 




1818— 1820. 


CHARGES     OF      PIETISM      AND    PURITANISM     BY      R.    W., 


BY     THE     PIETISTS — THE      EARLY      MINISTERS      OF      OUR 



AT    THAT    TIME. 

We  have  copied  somewhat  extended  extracts  from  his 
diary,  while  he  was  a  teacher  in  York  Academy,  in  the 
first  place  to  give  the  readers  an  insight  into  his  state  of 
mind  during  his  early  youth,  and  secondly  to  disprove  the 
assertions  of  Dr.  Morris,  in  his  book  "  Fifty  years  in  the 
Ministry,"  that  he  was  "  unsocial  and  ascetic  "  in  his  man- 
ners, that  he  was  "  unpopular,"  and  that  "  nobody  was  inti- 
mate enough  with  him  to  regard  him  as  a  friend."  It  will 
be  observed,  that  during  a  part  of  this  time  he  seemed  to 
have  been  under  deep  conviction  of  sin.  He  appears  to  have 
been  tossed  with  doubts  and  fears,  hopes  and  despondency, 
trying  to  convert  himself  by  his  own  strength,  until  at  last 
he  gave  himself  entirely  into  the  hands  of  God,  who  by  his 
Holy  Spirit  wrought  the  gracious  change,  and  gave  him 
peace.  The  charge  that  he  was  unsociable  and  a  recluse  is 
sufficiently  contradicted  by  his  own  account  of  conversa- 


tions  he  had  with  different  persons,  whose  society  he 

Dr.  Diehl's  article  in  the  Quarterly  Review  of  January, 
1874,  contains  a  quotation  from  Dr.  Morris'  book,  "Fifty 
Years  in  the  Ministry,"  in  which  Dr.  Schmucker's  character 
is  somewhat  misrepresented,  and  to  which  Dr.  Diehl 
appends  some  very  appropriate  criticisms  : 

"  Dr.  J.  G.  Morris,  in  reminiscences  of  Dr.  Schmucker, 
pubhshed  in  the  LiitJieran  Observer,  gives  a  graphic  account 
of  him  at  the  time  of  his  teaching  at  York,  the  writer  of 
the  reminiscences  being  himself  a  pupil  in  the  Academy  at 
the  time:  '  He  took  temporary  charge  of  the  York  Acad- 
emy, and  there  it  was  that  I  received  from  him  my  final 
preparation  for  the  Sophomore  class  at  Princeton  College. 
He  was  at  that  time  a  young  man  of  twenty-one,  of  fair 
complexion,  meagre  visage,  of  vigorous  health  and  of 
exceedingly  staid  deportment.  Some  people  would  have 
called  his  bearing  dignified  ;  but  young  as  I  was,  I  set  it 
down  as  ascetic,  unsocial  and  recluse.  He  was  a  laborious 
student,  and  had  no  intimate  companions.  He  did  not 
frequent  the  society  of  young  ladies,  nor  indeed  of  any 
other  class  of  people  ;  and  hence  was  not  a  popular  young 
man.  Everybody  regarded  him  as  a  model  of  perfection, 
so  far  as  purity  of  morals  was  concerned.  But  nobody  was 
intimate  enough  with  him  to  regard  him  as  a  friend.  He 
was  considerably  ahead  of  most,  if  not  all  the  young  candi- 
dates for  our  ministry  in  theological  and  classical  training.' 

The  qualification  in  the  last  remark  was  needless. 
Who  of  all  the  young  candidates  for  the  Lutheran  ministry, 
in  1 818 — 1820,  was  at  all  comparable  in  classic  and  theo- 
logic  training  to  Samuel  S.  Schmucker  ?  He  was  im- 
mensely ahead  of  those  who  were  licensed  cotempora- 
neously  with  him. 

The  extract  from  the  reminiscences   gives  a  mistaken 


estimate  of  Mr.  Schmucker's  social  disposition.  He  was 
not  constitutionally  unsocial  or  ascetic.  He  could  not  have 
been  unpopular.  Absenting  himself  from  social  enjoy- 
ments for  the  purpose  of  deep  devotion  to  study  and  religi- 
ous meditation  would  elevate  him  in  the  esti- 
mation of  all  right-thinking  people.  The  young  man 
who  in  the  opinion  of  everybody  was  a  model  of  per- 
fection in  moral  purity ;  the  young  candidate  for  holy 
orders,  who  was  conscientiously  devoting  every  hour  of  his 
precious  time  to  a  preparation  for  his  great  lifework,  hav- 
ing no  leisure  for  ladies'  society  or  social  pleasures,  would 
be  considered  a  most  exemplary  candidate  for  the  ministry. 
This  very  tribute  of  Dr.  Morris  implies  a  popularity  far 
more  desirable  for  a  theological  student,  or  a  young  licen- 
tiate, than  any  friendship  he  might  have  won  by  spending 
his  evenings  in  society,  or  employing  his  rich  intellectual 
stores  in  entertaining,  hour  by  hour,  half  a  dozen  boon 
companions.  The  genial  disposition  of  Dr.  Schmucker  in 
his  later  years,  is  sufficient  evidence  that  constitutionally 
he  was  fitted,  when  all  the  glow  of  youth  was  upon  him,  for 
refined  social  enjoyments,  had  not  a  noble  and  all  absorb- 
ing work  demanded  his  undivided  time." 

Let  us  look  into  this  delineation  of  Schmucker's  char- 
acter a  little  closer.    Morris  says  : 

"  Dr.  Schmucker  was  the  severest  moralist  I  ever 
knew,  and  carried  his  principles,  I  think,  to  an  extreme 
length.  (?)  He  objected  to  some  amusements  which  a  wiser 
age  now  sanctions,  and  opposed  some  recreations  which  the 
church  now  approves.  He  did  not  know  one  card  from 
another.  I  do  not  suppose  he  ever  had  a  dice-box  in  his 
hand,  even  for  amusement.  He  knew  nothing  of  checkers, 
or  back-gammon  or  chess.  He  never  was  in  a  theatre  or 
circus,  never  heard  an  opera.  He  even  doubted  the  pro- 
priety of  Christians    going  to  hear  famous  vocalists  in  a 

^lORAIy     CHARACTER.  43 

concert  hall,  especially  if  they  had  appeared  on  the  oper- 
atic stage.  He  never  used  tobacco  in  any  form.  He  never 
drank  a  drop  of  strong  liquor  as  a  beverage.  He  never 
conformed  to  any  modern  fashion  in  dress  for  fashion's 
sake,  however  neat  and  appropriate  it  might  be." 

This  is  certainly  very  high  praise  and  the  highest 
compliment  that  could  have  been  paid  to  a  Christian  gentle- 
man and  Theological  Professor.  Dr.  Morris  may  not  have 
so  intended  it,  but  rather  as  a  reflection  on  his  sound  judg- 
ment in  objecting  to  some  amusements  which  a  "  wiser  age 
now  sanctions  and  the  church  now  approves."  Pray  what 
are  those  amusements,  which  this  "wiser  age"  sanctions  and 
the  church  approves  ? 

Is  it  dancing  ?  I  have  heard  of  some  church  mem- 
bers in  this  wiser  (?)  age  who  go  to  balls  and  send  their 
children  to  dancing  schools,  perhaps  at  the  same  time  that 
they  attend  the  catechetical  instruction  of  their  pastor.  Dr, 
Schmucker  certainly  and  wisely  did  not  approve  of  this 
kind  of  amusement. 

Is  it  card  playing  ?  I  have  heard  it  said  that  there  are 
some  fashionable  church  members,  who  indulge  in  card 
playing  in  their  parlors,  and  perhaps  also  in  their  club- 
rooms.  But  Dr.  Schmucker,  to  his  praise  be  it  said,  was 
opposed  to  all  sorts  of  gambling.  "  He  did  not  know  one 
card  from  another."  We  confess  ourselves  equally  igno- 
rant of  the  gambler's  art,  and  we  hope  most,  if  not  all,  of 
our  ministerial  brethren  can  also  say  this  of  themselves. 

"  He  never  was  in  a  theatre  or  circus."  This  is  cer- 
tainly to  his  credit.  A  Christian,  who  has  consecrated  his 
life  to  the  service  and  glory  of  God,  should  be  ashamed  to 
be  seen  in  such  places. 

"  He  never  used  tobacco  in  any  form."  Would  that 
all  of  his  students  had  followed  his  example  in  this  respect ! 
Perhaps  a   future,  even  "  wiser  "  age  than  this,  will  see  the 


evils  of  the  use  of  tobacco  and  all  narcotics  in  every  form. 

"  He  never  drank  a  drop  of  strong  liquor  as  a  bever- 
age." On  the  temperance  question  Dr.  Schmucker  was 
far  in  advance  of  the  time  in  which  he  lived.  He  had  seen 
the  sad  effects  of  intoxicants  in  some  of  his  ministerial 
brethren  of  that  day,  and  we  commend  his  example  to  all 
Christian  people  in  this  "  wiser  age," 

"  He  never  conformed  to  any  modern  fashion  in  dress 
for  fashion's  sake."  No,  he  never  indulged  in  or  approved 
of  some  of  the  follies  of  modern  fashions  in  dress.  But  in 
his  unaffected  piety,  in  the  genuine  politeness  of  his  deport- 
ment, and  in  the  neatness  and  propriety  of  his  dress,  he 
may  be  designated  as,  in  the  highest  sense  of  the  term,  a 
Christian  gentleman. 

We  do  not  think  Dr.  Schmucker  "  carried  his  prin- 
ciples of  morality  to  an  extreme  length,"  especially  for  a 
man  occupying  his  position.  What  would  probably  have 
been  the  character  of  the  five  hundred  men  whom  he 
trained  for  the  ministry,  if  he  had  encouraged  them  in  card- 
playing  and  theatre-going,  and  if  he  had  not  warned  them 
by  his  example  and  precept  against  the  use  of  tobacco  and 
strong  drink  ? 

We  thank  God  that  he  called  into  his  service  a  man  of 
such  exemplary  piety  and  unimpeachable  moral  character 
to  be  the  instructor  and  guide  of  the  rising  ministry  in  our 
General  Synod  ;  to  write  the  constitutions  of  our  general 
and  district  synods ;  to  prepare  the  text-books  for  our 
early  theological  students  ;  to  compile  the  hymn  book  for 
our  churches,  and  translate  Luther's  Catechism  into  Eng- 
lish for  our  people. 

Dr.  Schmucker  was  not  a  recluse,  averse  to  all  sdcial 
enjoyment  and  friendly  intercourse  ;  nor  did  he  regard  all 
games  and  plays  as  sinful,  especially  when  they  afforded 
needed    exercise   and    were    conducive  to  health.     But  he 


maintained  that,  as  Ciiristian  ministers,  we  should  deny 
ourselves  even  of  sorne  innocent  recreations,  if  there  was 
danger  of  giving  offense  to  weaker  brethren,  just  as  Paul 
declared  that  he  would  eat  no  meat,  if  it  would  cause  his 
weak  brother  to  stumble.  We  remember  how  on  one 
occasion  the  theological  students  were  playing  a  game  of 
ball  in  the  rear  of  the  Seminary  building,  and  became  very 
noisy.  The  Doctor  admonished  them,  either  to  give  up 
ball  playing  near  the  Seminary,  or  be  less  boisterous ;  for 
people  going  along  the  road  and  hearing  the  noise  might 
think  the  theological  students  were  indulging  in  an  unbe- 
coming carousal. 

So  also  in  regard  to  dress.  He  did  not  teach  us  to 
dress  in  a  manner  that  might  be  called  unfashionable,  or 
unbecoming  to  a  Christian  gentleman  ;  but  he  advised  us 
never  to  attract  attention  by  any  singularity  in  our  apparel, 
but  rather  to  dress  very  much  like  the  people  among  whom 
we  lived,  as  Christ  and  his  apostles  doubtless  also  dressed 
like  the  people  of  their  time  and  country. 

Dr.  Morris  gives  a  similar  characteristic  of  the  elder 
Dr.  Baugher,  father  of  the  present  H.  L.  Baugher,  D.  D. 
He  writes : 

"  Dr.  Baugher  was  a  severe  and  exemplary  moralist. 
He  never  sanctioned  among  clergymen  and  Christian  peo- 
ple, what  many  regard  as  innocent  amusements,  such  as  chess 
or  checkers,  and  I  doubt  whether  he  would  now  sanction 
Croquet,  which  has  since  become  a  popular  clerical  amuse- 

"  He  was  a  puritanic  observer  of  what  he  called  the 
Sabbath,  and  severely  temperate  in  all  things." 

"  His  Presbyterian  training  influenced  the  character  of 
his  theology,  although  he  was  in  no  proper  sense  a  Cal- 
vinist." — Fifty  years  in  the  Ministry,  pages  ig2,  igj. 

On  August  5th,  Mr.  Schmucker  took  charge  of  the  Clas- 


sical  department  of  the  York  Academy.  He  had  during  the 
first  session  seventeen  boys  under  his  instruction,  but  in  the 
following  sessions  the  number  increased  to  twenty-eight. 

He  remained  in  charge  of  the  Academy  until  Novem- 
ber, 1817,  when  he  resigned  his  position  and  accompanied 
his  brother  George  on  a  tour  westward  along  the  Juniata 
River,  over  the  Allegheny  Mountains  to  Pittsburg,  and 
down  the  Ohio  River  as  far  as  Louisville,  Ky.  His  diary 
at  this  time  shows  much  mental  conflict  about  his  plans  for 
the  future,  but  the  result  was,  that  he  finally  decided  to 
devote  himself  to  the  work  of  the  gospel  ministry.  He 
began  his  direct  preparation  under  the  supervision  of  his 
father,  with  such  diligence,  that  when  he  decided  to  go  to 
Princeton,  and  enter  the  Theological  Seminary,  he  was  able 
to  stand  a  very  satisfactory  examination  in  all  the  studies 
of  the  first  year,  and  to  enter  the  class  at  the  opening  of  the 
second  year  of  their  course  of  study.  He  arrived  at  Prince- 
ton, August  17,  18 18,  was  matriculated  August  22,  and 
remained  there  until  March  30,  1820.  Among  his  fellow 
students  were  Bishops  Mclllvain  and  Johns,  and  Dr.  Robert 
Baird  was  his  room  mate.  The  great  lights  of  Princeton 
Seminary  and  of  the  Presbyterian  Church  at  that  time  were 
Drs.  Alexander  and  Miller.  Under  these  distinguished 
professors  he  received  as  finished  a  theological  education, 
as  could  be  gained  in  any  institution  then  existing  in  this 

The  fact  of  his  having  gone  to  Princeton  to  complete 
his  course  of  theological  studies  has  been  much  deplored 
by  some  writers  in  the  Lutheran  Church.  Dr.  J.  G.  Morris 
publishes  an  article  in  his  "  Fifty  Years  in  the  Ministry," 
from  the  pen  of  R.  W.,  (Reuben  Weiser,)  one  paragraph  of 
which  we  will  transcribe  and  append  for  the  perusal  of  our 
readers : 

"  He  was  a  man  of  most  exemplary  piety  and  sincerity. 


His  views  on  theology  were  clear  and  scriptural,  and 
although  he  was  devotedly  attached  to  the  Lutheran 
Church,  it  was  doubted  by  many  of  his  warmest  friends, 
after  1845,  whether  he  was  true  to  the  confessional  stand- 
point of  historical  Lutheranism." 

"  His  father,  Dr.  J.  G.  Schmucker,  was  a  Pietistic  Luth- 
eran of  the  Spenerian  school,  and  hence  sent  him  to  study 
theology  at  a  Puritanical  Seminary ;  this  was,  perhaps,  a 
misfortune  for  one  who  was  to  have  the  training  of  not  less 
than  five  hundred  ministers  in  his  hands." 

"  He  had  his  enemies  in  the  Lutheran  Church  all  along, 
and  leading  men  in  the  Pennsylvania  Synod,  and  in  the  New 
York  Ministerium,  and  in  Ohio,  and  North  Carolina 
opposed  his  Puritanism,  but  he  bravely  maintained  his  posi- 
tion till  about  1846.  About  that  time  his  Lutheran  ortho- 
doxy began  to  be  suspected  by  some  of  his  own  students, 
and  especially  those  who  had  charge  of  Pennsylvania  Col- 

In  reply  to  these  utterances  we  remark  : 

I.  Dr.  Schmucker  never  concealed  his  theological 
views.  He  declared  them  openly  in  his  oral  teachings,  and 
in  his  writings.  And  further,  there  was  no  material  change 
in  his  theological  views,  from  the  time  he  subscribed  his 
inaugural  oath,  until  his  resignation,  a  period  of  about  forty 
years,  as  he  himself  declares  in  his  letter  of  resignation  to  the 
Board.  The  following  declaration  was  written  by  his  own 
hand  at  the  time  of  his  resignation,  and  read  before  the 
Board  of  Directors  : 

"  I  record  the  declaration,  that  I  this  day  cordially 
believe  every  doctrine  taught  in  the  entire  volume  (Popular 
Theology).  These  facts  I  state  in  justice  to  the  institution 
and  myself,  and  in  view  of  the  future  history  of  the  institu- 
tion and  the  church." 

Hence  there  could  be  no  doubt  or  suspicion,  after  the 


year  1845,  by  "  his  warmest  friends,"  of  his  confessional 
standpoint ;  both  his  friends  and  enemies  knew  his  stand- 
point very  well.  Some  leading  men  in  the  Tennessee 
Synod,  and  in  the  Pennsylvania  Synod,  and  in  the  Ohio 
Synod,  and  in  the  Missouri  Synod  knew  the  doctrinal 
standpoint  of  Dr.  Schmucker  and  the  General  Synod,  long 
before  the  year  1846.  The  German  Professor,  Dr.  Schaeffer, 
and  some  of  the  German  students  under  his  training, 
opposed  (not  suspected)  his  confessional  standpoint ;  but 
some  of  the  professors  in  Pennsylvania  College  opposed 
him  on  other  grounds.  Their  confessional  standpoint  did 
not  differ  very  much  from  his  at  that  time,  as  will  be  shown 
in  a  subsequent  part  of  this  Biography. 

2.  The  sneer  at  Pietism  comes  with  a  bad  grace  from 
an  American  Lutheran  minister,  especially  one  belonging 
to  the  General  Synod.  Who  were  the  Pietists  ?  and  what 
were  the  teachings  and  practices  on  which  their  Pietism  was 
based?  They  were  such  men  as  Spener,  Francke,  Arndt» 
Knapp,  Storr,  Flatt,  Freylinghausen,  holy,  active,  pious 
Lutheran  Christians,  who  showed  their  faith  by  their  works. 
As  to  their  teachings  and  practices  we  will  let  the  Lutheran 
historian,  Dr.  Mosheim,  whose  authority  and  orthodoxy 
none  will  dispute,  give  the  reply.  He  says,  "  Pietism  owed 
its  origin  to  the  pious  and  learned  Spener,  who  formed  pri- 
vate devotional  societies  at  Frankfort,  in  order  to  cultivate 
vital  and  practical  religion  ;  and  published  a  book,  entitled, 
*  Pious  Desires,'  which  greatly  promoted  this  object.  His 
followers  laid  it  down  as  an  essential  maxim,  that  none 
should  be  admitted  into  the  ministry,  but  those,  who  not 
only  had  received  a  proper  education,  but  were  also  distin- 
guished by  their  wisdom  and  sanctity  of  manners,  and  had 
hearts  filled  with  divine  love.  Hence,  they  proposed  an 
alteration  in  the  schools  of  divinity,  in  Germany,  which 
embraced  the  following  points  : 

The  pietists — THEIR  49 

a.  "  That  the  scholastic  theology,  which  reigned  in  the 
academies,  and  was  composed  of  intricate  and  disputable 
doctrines,  and  obscure  and  unusual  forms  of  expression, 
should  be  totally  abolished." 

d.  "  That  polemical  divinity,  which  comprehended  the 
controversies  subsisting  between  Christians  of  different  com- 
munions, should  be  less  eagerly  studied,  and  less  frequently 
treated,  though  not  entirely  neglected." 

c.  "  That  all  mixture  of  philosophy  and  human  science 
with  divine  wisdom,  was  to  be  most  carefully  avoided,  i.  e., 
that  pagan  philosophy  and  classical  learning  should  be  kept 
distinct  from,  and  by  no  means  supercede  Biblical  Theol- 
ogy."    But 

d.  "  That,  on  the  contrary,  all  those  students  who  were 
designed  for  the  ministry,  should  be  accustomed  from  their 
early  youth  to  the  perusal  and  study  of  the  Holy  Scriptures, 
and  be  taught  a  plain  system  of  theology,  drawn  from  these 
unerring  sources  of  truth." 

e.  "  That  the  whole  course  of  their  education  was  to  be 
so  directed  as  to  render  them  useful  in  life,  by  the  practical 
power  of  their  doctrine,  and  tlie  commanding  influence  of 
their  example." 

"This  work  began  about  1670.  In  1691  Spener  removed 
from  Dresden  to  Berlin,  where  he  propagated  the  same 
principles,  which  widely  spread,  and  were  well  supported  in 
many  parts  of  Germany  by  the  excellent  professors,  Francke 
and  others.  This  raised  much  controversy,  in  which  the 
Pietists  were  charged  with  many  errors.  Of  these  the  chief 
was,  that  "  divine  influence  is  necessary  to  the  right  under- 
standing of  the  Scriptures."  They  taught,  that  without 
such  help,  no  man  can  enter  into  the  spirit  of  them  ;  no 
man  can  relish  or  enjoy  those  parts  which  relate  to  the 
divine  life,  and  the  experience  of  the  Christian  ;  for  so  saith 
St.  Paul :  "  The  natural  man  receiveth  not  the  things  of  the 

50  Their  principi,es. 

Spirit  of  God,  for  they  are  foolishness  unto  him,  neither  can 
he  know  them,  because  they  are  spiritually  discerned." 

"Another  thing  which  gave  great  offence  was,  that  they 
renounced  the  vain  amusements  of  the  world.  Thus,  danc- 
ing, pantomimes,  public  sports,  theatrical  diversions,  the 
reading  of  humorous  and  comical  books,  with  several  other 
kinds  of  pleasure  and  entertainments,  were  prohibited  by 
the  Pietists  as  unlawful  and  unseemly ;  and  therefore,  by 
no  means  of  an  indifferent  nature." 

"  But  the  most  offensive  of  all  their  errors,  real  or  sup- 
posed, was,  that  '  No  persoj^  who  was  not  himself  a  model 
of  piety,  and  divine  love,  was  qualified  to  be  a  public  teacher 
of  piety,  or  a  guide  to  others  in  the  way  of  salvation.'  This 
was  so  offensive  to  the  carnal  clergy  of  Germany,  who,  it 
seems,  at  that  time  were  not  a  few,  that  they  raised  the  cry 
of  heresy,  and  charged  them  (strange  as  it  may  seem)  with 
making  void  the  efficacy  of  the  divine  word  ! "  * 

This  is  exactly  the  position  and  practice  of  our  General 
Synod  to-day;  we  foster  prayermeetings  among  our  people, 
and  we  make  it  a  rule  that  our  ministers  shall  not  only  be 
educated  men,  but  they  shall  also  lead  consistent  Christian 
lives,  and  have  their  hearts  filled  with  divine  love. 

It  will  be  seen  by  every  one  who  studied  theology 
under  Dr.  S.  S.  Schmucker,  that  those  are  substantially  the 
same  principles  and  practices  which  were  inculcated  and 
insisted  on  by  him  in  the  Seminary  at  Gettysburg ;  and 
these  are  the  doctrines  and  practices  that  prevail  in  our 
General  Synod  to-day,  and  were  held  and  practiced  by  the 
fathers  of  our  American  Lutheran  Church.  Yes,  Prof 
Schmucker  was  a  Pietist,  and  his  father  was  a  Pietist,  and 
the  founders  of  our  General  Synod,  yea,  the  fathers  of  our 
American  Lutheran  Church,  who  came  from  Pietistic  Halle, 

*  Mosheiin's  History,  Vol.  V.,  312-324. 


the  Muhlenbergs,  Kunzes,  Helmuths,  Schmidts,  Schaeffers, 
and  the  ministers  trained  by  them,  Schmucker  Senior,  the 
Lochmans,  Kurtzes,  Schaeffers,  were  all  Pietists  of  the 
Spenerian  school.  They  are  our  spiritual  fathers.  Would 
to  God,  that  all  their  sons  had  inherited  more  of  their  Piet- 
ism !  Was  it  really  "  a  misfortune,"  that  the  man  who 
under  God  had  the  training  of  the  first  five  hundred  men  in 
our  General  Synod,  was  "  a  Pietist  of  the  Spenerian  school  ?  " 
Would  it  have  been  less  a  misfortune  if  he  had  been  trained 
in  the  dead  scholastic  orthodoxy  and  the  formalism  which 
prevailed  in  the  sixteenth  and  seventeenth  century,  the 
champions  of  which  persecuted  the  Pietists  ?  Or  would  it 
have  been  less  a  misfortune,  if  he  had  been  trained  in  the 
rationalistic  schools  that  predominated  at  the  close  of  the 
eighteenth  and  the  beginning  of  the  nineteenth  centuries  ? 
No,  we  thank  God,  that  he  was  a  Pietist  of  the  Spenerian 

We  are  the  children  of  the  Pietists  ;  they  are  our  spirit- 
ual fathers.  Most  of  those  in  the  General  Synod  who  now 
sneer  at  Pietism,  are  themselves  Pietists.  They  know  not 
what  they  do.     Father,  forgive  them  ! 

Rev.  W.  H.  Dunbar,  D.  D.,  gave  expression  to  the 
truth  here  presented,  in  an  article  in  the  Lutheran  Observer, 
and  copied  with  approval  in  other  church  papers,  in  the 
following  extract  : 

"  And  this  is  and  has  been  from  the  first  the  historic 
position  of  the  General  Synod.  It  was  the  Lutheranism,  res- 
cued from  the  dead  confessionalism,  restored  in  the  original 
spirit  of  its  founder  through  the  influences  of  Arndt,  Spener, 
Francke  and  others,  that  was  transplanted  to  this  country. 
Thus  restored,  a  reaction  took  place,  and  in  the  early  part  of 
this  century  in  this  country  it  seemed  almost  to  lose  its  dis- 
tinctive identity  as  a  Lutheran  Church.  Even  the  great 
confession  was  ignored  in  its  church  life.     It  remained  for 


the  General  Synod  to  restore  the  Confession  to  its  proper 
place.*  Nobly  did  her  founders  and  their  successors 
accomplish  this  work.  Loyal  to  the  Confession,  insisting 
on  sound  doctrine,  her  genuine  Lutheranism  could  not  be 
questioned.  The  matter  of  externals,  liturgies,  etc.,  has  not 
been  ignored." 

3.  "  His  father  sent  him  to  a  Puritanical  Seminary," 
says  the  writer  in  the  "  Fifty  Years  in  the  Ministry."  To 
what  other  seminary  could  he  have  sent  him,  but  the  Pres- 
byterian Seminary  at  Princeton,  if  he  was  to  have  a  thor- 
ough theological  training  ?  There  was,  indeed,  no  Lutheran 
Theological  Seminary  in  this  country,  until  Dr.  Schmucker 
himself  founded  the  one  at  Gettysburg.f  There  were  other 
Lutheran  ministers  who  also  studied  theology  at  Princeton ; 
for  example,  Drs.  J.  G.  Morris,  and  Henry  L.  Baugher,  Sr., 
and  we  never  heard  that  they  suffered  any  misfortune  from 
studying  in  that  "  Puritanical  Seminary." 

4.  And  who  were  the  Puritans  of  America  ?  Let 
Mosheim,  the  great  Lutheran  historian,  furnish  the  reply. 
It  is  given  in  Herzog's  Encyclopedia,  a  German  work  of 
high  standing :  "  A  part  of  the  congregation  of  John  Rob- 
inson led  the  way  of  the  Pilgrim  Fathers.  With  fasting 
and  prayer  they  prepared  themselves  for  the  journey  to  the 
distant  land.  After  a  heart-affecting  farewell  and  Psalm 
singing,  they  boarded  the  two  small  ships,  that  were  to 
bring  them  to  New  England.  In  September,  1620,  they 
departed  from  England  forever,  and  became  the  pioneers 
for  their  persecuted  Puritan  brethren,  20,000  of  whom  fol- 
lowed them  in  the  next  fifteen  years,  regardless  of  the  dan- 


*  It  was  mainly  through  Dr.  Schmucker 's  instriimentality  that  the 
Augsburg  Confession  was  "restored  to  its  proper  place"  after  the 
organization  of  the  General  Syno'^.     Ed. 

t  Hartwick  St  minary  was  chartered  in  1816,  but  had  not,  I  think, 
risen  to  the  dignity  of  a  Theological  Seminary  until  a  number  of 
years  later. 

the;  puritans.  53 

gets  and  privations,  which  befell  the  first  colony  of  New 
England ;  as  there  alone  it  was  possible  for  them  to  escape 
the  oppression  of  the  Hierarchy,  and  to  found  a  church 
according  to  the  principles  of  the  ApostoHc  Church  ...  To 
the  earnest  determination,  the  invincible  courage,  and  the 
unalterable  will  of  these  Pilgrim  Fathers,  the  New  England 
Colony  is  indebted  for  its  prosperity,  and  the  present  North 
American  states  for  their  greatness." 

Milton,  the  renowned  author  of  "  Paradise  Lost,'' 
speaks  of  them  as  "  Faithful  and  freeborn  Englishmen,  and 
good  Christians,  constrained  to  forsake  their  dearest  home, 
their  friends  and  kindred,  whom  nothing  but  the  wide 
ocean  and  the  savage  deserts  could  hide  and  shelter  from 
the  fury  of  the  bishops."  Among  them  was  "John  Elliott, 
famous  as  the  apostle  to  the  Indians,  and  the  first  Protestant 
missionary  to  the  heathen." 

Puritanism  : — "It  has  been  a  common  term  of  reproach, 
applied  to  the  friends  of  pure  religion  and  undefiled." 

"  The  persecutions  carried  on  against  the  Puritans  dur- 
ing the  reign  of  Elizabeth  and  the  Stuarts,  served  to  lay  the 
foundation  of  a  new  empire,  and  eventually  a  vast  republic 
in  the  western  world.  Hither,  as  into  a  wilderness,  they 
fled  from  the  face  of  their  persecutors ;  and  being  protected 
in  the  free  exercise  of  their  religion,  continued  to  increase, 
until  at  length  they  became  an  independent  nation."  * 

Now,  if  the  above  eulogies  are  deserved,  and  who 
doubts  it  ?  then  the  Puritans,  who  landed  on  Plymouth 
Rock,  merit  the  respect  and  admiration  of  the  whole  Chris- 
tian world. 

At  the  same  time  it  affords  us  great  satisfaction  to  re- 
cord, that  the  German  immigrants  who  came  from  the  Fath- 
erland for  conscience  sake  and  founded  the  Lutheran  church 

*  Encyclopedia  of  Religious  Kno-w  ledge. 


in  Pennsylvania  and  in  Georgia,  will  not  suffer  in  comparison 
with  the  Puritans.  Their  history  presents  a  most  beautiful 
example  of  patient  endurance  and  untiring  zeal  in  the  ser- 
vice of  God.  Their  indefatigable  self  denial,  industry, 
their  earnest  and  faithful  life,  illustrating  the  doctrines  of 
the  church  which  they  loved  and  for  whose  advancement 
they  were  toiling,  made  a  deep  impression  on  their  contem- 
poraries, and  secured  the  confidence  and  sympathy  of  all 
with  whom  they  were  brought  in  contact. 

Let  us  inquire,  in  how  far  the  life  and  character  of  Dr. 
Schmucker  was  influenced  by  the  Puritanism  in  the  Prince- 
ton Seminary,  and  in  how  far  this  was  "a  misfortune  to  the 
General  Synod  "? 

1.  The  Puritans  were  a  devotedly  pious  and  intensely 
conscientious  people.  The  same  may  be  said  of  Dr. 
Schmucker.  But  he  did  not  imbibe  his  piety  from  the  Pur- 
itans, he  imbibed  it  in  the  Lutheran  Church  and  in  the 
"  Spenerian  school,"  under  the  guidance  of  his  "  Pietistic 
father,"  and  his  Pietistic  teachers,  Helmuth  and  Schmidt. 
The  Holy  Ghost  had  wrought  that  great  work  of  grace  in 
his  heart  long  before  he  studied  Theology  at  Princeton. 

2.  The  Puritans  were  Calvinists  in  doctrine.  But  Dr. 
Schmucker  never  endorsed  their  Calvinism.  Every  one  of 
his  students  must  know  that  he  opposed  the  Calvinistic 
doctrines  of  unconditional  Predestination  and  Reprobation  ; 
he  did  this  frequently  in  his  lectures  to  the  students,  as  well 
as  in  his  writings.  Hence,  the  General  Synod  suffered  no 
"  misfortune  "  as  regards  the  Calvinism  of  the  Puritans. 

3.  The  Puritans  were  intensely  opposed  to  the  Epis- 
copal hierarchy  of  the  church  of  England,  with  its  pre- 
tension to  Apostolical  Succession,  and  its  imposing  liturgical 
service.  Dr.  Schmucker  did  not  share  their  intense  aver- 
sion to  the  English  hierarchy,  but  he  also  denied  their  claim 
to  Apostolical  Succession,  their  denial  of  our  ministerial  ordi- 


nation,  and  their  assumption  of  being  the  only  true  church 
on  earth.  Most  of  his  students  must  remember  something 
of  his  lectures  on  this  subject.  Among  the  books  he 
recommended  was  Mason  on  Episcopacy,  which  exposes 
the  absurdity  of  the  Apostolical  Succession.  About  the 
time  the  writer  studied  in  the  seminary,  there  was  a  heated 
controversy  carried  on  between  the  Episcopalians  and  the 
Presbyterians,  One  of  the  phrases,  on  which  the  changes 
were  rung  at  that  time,  ran  in  this  way :  "  A  country 
without  a  king,  and  a  church  without  a  bishop."  It  must 
be  confessed  that  Dr.  Schmucker  sided  with  the  Puritans  on 
this  question.  But  this  did  the  General  Synod  no  injury.  We 
Lutherans  don't  differ  much  from  the  Puritans  in  our  views 
on  the  church  of  England's  claim  to  Apostolical  Succession. 

4.  The  Puritans  were  very  rigorous  in  the  observance 
of  the  Sabbath.  Indeed,  most  people  now  think  they  car- 
ried their  views  and  practices  to  an  unwarranted  extreme. 
They  seemed  to  regard  it  as  obligatory  on  Christians  to 
observe  the  ceremonial  regulations  of  the  Mosaic  law, 
almost  with  the  same  minuteness  as  the  Pharisees  did  in 
the  time  of  the  Savior.  But  Dr.  Schmucker  never  enter- 
tained or  taught  such  extreme  views  as  are  attributed  to  the 
Puritans  on  the  observance  of  the  Sabbath.  Yet  he  did 
believe  and  teach  the  divine  obligation  of  the  observation 
of  the  Christian  Sabbath,  as  can  be  seen  in  his  "  Appeal  on 
behalf  of  the  Christian  Sabbath,"  published  by  the  Ameri- 
can Tract  Society. 

It  is  true,  that  the  ultra  confessional  Lutherans,  such 
as  the  Missourians'  deny  the  divine  obligation  to  observe 
the  Christian  Sabbath,  but  we  of  the  General  Synod  do 
maintain  this  divine  obligation,  and  thus  endorse  his  views 
on  this  pomt.  Verily,  we  have  suffered  no  "  misfortune  " 
from  Puritanism  on  the  Sabbath  question.  Would  to  God, 
there  were  more  Puritanism  infused  into  the  minds  of  our 


church  members  in  these  times  of  Sabbath  desecration,  and 
the  efforts  of  the  enemies  of  the  Church  to  introduce  the 
continental  Sunday  into  this  country,  and  indeed,  to  abro- 
gate all  Sunday  laws  from  our  statute  books. 

5.  The  Puritans  are  frequently  held  up  to  scorn  and  ridi- 
cule by  certain  writers,  as  believing  in  witchcraft  and  the 
burning  of  witches.  Notably  has  this  been  done  in  a  lecture 
delivered  in  different  places  by  a  Lutheran  minister  on 
"  Plymouth  Rock  and  other  Rocks."  I  do  not  think  these 
views  of  the  early  Puritans  on  witchcraft  were  taught  in  the 
Princeton  Seminary ;  certainly  not  carried  into  practice, 
and  it  is  still  more  certain  that  Dr.  Schmucker  did  not 
teach  or  approve  them  ;  and  hence  the  church  suffered  no 
"  misfortune  "  on  this  subject  from  his  studying  theology 
in  a  Puritan  Seminary.  But  it  should  also  be  remembered, 
that  at  the  time  the  Puritans  landed  on  Plymouth  Rock  the 
belief  in  witchcraft  and  the  burning  of  suspected  witches 
was  general  in  the  whole  Christian  Church  on  earth. 
While  the  Puritans  were  burning  witches  in  New  England, 
the  Englishmen  in  Great  Britain  and  the  Germans  in  Ger- 
many were  doing  the  same  thing.  Even  our  own  great 
Luther  had  not  outgrown  this  absurd  superstition. 
Listen  to  the  following  from  Luther's  Table  Talk :  August 
25,  1538,  the  conversation  fell  upon  witches,  who  spoil 
milk,  eggs,  and  butter  in  farm  yards.  Dr.  Luther  said  :  "  I 
should  have  no  compassion  on  these  witches ;  I  would 
burn  all  of  them  ....  Does  not  witchcraft  merit  death, 
which  is  a  revolt  of  the  creature  against  the  Creator,  a 
denial  to  God  of  the  authority  it  accords  to  the  demon." 

"  Luther  discoursed  at  length  concerning  witchcraft. 
He  said,  that  his  mother  had  had  to  undergo  infinite  annoy- 
ance from  one  of  her  neighbors,  who  was  a  witch  .... 
This  witch  could  throw  a  charm  upon  children,  which 
made   them    cry   themselves   to    death.     A  pastor  having 


punished  her  for  some  knavery,  she  cast  a  spell  upon  him, 
by  means  of  some  earth  upon  which  he  had  walked,  and 
which  she  bewitched.  The  poor  man  hereupon  fell  sick 
of  a  malady,  which  no  remedy  could  remove,  and  shortly 
after  died."  *  More  of  the  same  sort  might  be  quoted,  but 
this  we  have  transcribed,  to  show  the  absurdity  of  charging 
the  Puritans  alone  with  the  horrible  superstitions  and  prac- 
tices of  which  our  own  forefathers  were  equally  guilty. 

6.  Finally  the  Puritans  are  frequently  charged  with 
intolerance,  notably  because  Roger  Williams  was  driven 
out  from  the  Colony,  on  account  of  his  religious  principles.t 
We  certainly  can  not  commend  them  for  their  religious 
intolerance,  and  least  of  all  can  Dr.  Schmucker  be  charged 
with  Puritanism  as  one  who  favored  religious  intolerance. 
On  the  contrary  he  has  been  frequently  charged  with  being 
too  liberal  towards  Christians  of  other  denominations.  His 
views  are  best  learned  from  his  writings  on  the  subject  of 
Christian  Union  and  the  part  he  took  in  the  formation  of 
the  Evangelical  Alliance. 

Surely  our  General  Synod  has  suffered  nothing  in  this 
respect  from  his  studying  theology  at  a  Puritanical  Semi- 

The  fact,  however,  should  not  be  forgotten,  or  over 
looked,  by  those  who   so  frequently  denounce  the  Puritans 

*  See  Luther's  Table  Talk,  published  by  the  Lutheran  Board  of 
Publication.     Philadelphia,  1868,  pages  312,  313. 

t  Roger  Williams  was  a  Puritan,  and  a  fugitive  from  English 
persecution;  but  his  wrongs  had  not  clouded  his  accurate  understand- 
ing. He  had  revolved  the  nature  of  intolerance,  and  arrived  at  the 
great  principle  which  is  its  sole  effectual  remedy;  namely  "  The  civil 
magistrate  should  restrain  crime,  but  never  control  opinion; 
should  punish  guilt,  but  never  violate  the  freedom  of  the 
somV— Encyclopedia  of  Religious  Knowledge, 


on  account  of  their  intolerance,  that  in  those  times  persecu- 
tion for  conscience  sake  was  not  confined  to  the  New  Eng- 
land Puritans,  the  Church  of  England,  or  the  Roman 
Catholic  Church.  It  is  a  singular,  yea,  a  sad  fact,  that 
those  who  had  themselves  been  persecuted  and  driven  from 
their  homes,  in  turn  also  persecuted  those  who  did  not 
coincide  with  them  in  their  doctrinal  views,  or  mode  of 
worship.  The  truth  is.  Christians  of  all  denominations  in 
those  times  had  not  yet  learned  to  see  the  necessity  of  the 
separation  of  church  and  state,  and  therefore  they  regarded 
dissent  from  the  doctrines  and  usages  of  the  church,  as  a 
crime  against  the  government,  and  the  persecution  was 
exercised  by  the  civil  power,  against  non-conformists. 
Even  so  wise  and  good  a  man  as  our  own  great  Luther 
had  not  yet  grasped  the  precious  Protestant  principle  of 
religious  toleration  or  freedom  of  conscience,  at  the  time  he 
composed  his  Small  Catechism.  In  the  Preface  of  that 
admirable  little  book  he  writes,  after  giving  directions  how 
to  teach  the  Catechism  : 

"  But  if  any  refuse  to  receive  your  instructions,  tell 
them  plainly  that  they  deny  Christ  and  are  not  Christians ; 
such  persons  shall  not  be  admitted  to  the  Lord's  Table,  nor 
present  a  child  for  Baptism,  nor  enjoy  any  of  our  Christian 
privileges,  but  are  to  be  sent  back  to  the  pope  and  his 
agents,  and,  indeed,  to  Satan  himself  Their  parents  and 
employers  should,  besides,  refuse  to  furnish  them  with  food 
and  drink,  and  notify  them  that  the  government  was  dis- 
posed to  banish  from  the  country  all  persons  of  such  a  rude 
and  intractable  character." 

We  copy  this  from  the  General  Council's  edition  of 
Luther's  Small  Catechism,  Published  by  the  Lutheran 
Bookstore,  Philadelphia,  in  the  year  1874. 

The  same  paragraph  is  also  published  in  Loehe's  edi- 
tion of  Luther's  Catechism,  translated  by  Rev.  Edward  T. 


Horn,  D.  D.,  for  the  use  of  the  General  Synod  South.  It 
must  be  a  matter  of  surprise  that  such  teachings  should  be 
put  into  the  hands  of  our  children  and  youth  at  the  close 
of  the  nineteenth  century,  and  in  this  land  of  civil  and 
religious  liberty. 

If  any  one  of  our  readers  wishes  to  inform  himself  in 
regard  to  persecutions  in  Germany  for  conscience  sake,  he 
will  find  abundant  information  in  Hagenbach's  History  of 
Protestantism  during  the  sixteenth  century ;  for  instance,  in 
the  martyrdom  of  Chancellor  Crell. 

6o  KNTRANCE    into    PRINCETON. 


1818— 1820. 





He  arrived  at  Princeton,  August  17,  18 18,  was 
matriculated  August  22,  and  remained  there  until  March, 

The  professors,  under  whom  he  studied,  were  the  very 
learned  and  eminently  pious  Archibald  Alexander,  D.  D., 
and  Saml.  Miller,  D.  D.  He  enjoyed  in  a  high  degree  the 
confidence  and  respect  of  these  eminent  professors,  whose 
advice  he  also  sought  and  obtained  in  regard  to  the  pur- 
suit of  his  studies. 

During  his  last  session  at  Princeton  he  took  advan- 
tage of  a  two  weeks'  vacation,  to  make  a  visit  to  New 
York  City,  or  town,  as  it  was  then  called. 

The  following  letter,  written  from  Princeton  to  his 
father,  we  regard  as  of  great  historical  value.  It  shows  the 
deplorable  state  of  the  church  at  that  time.  The  great  need 
of  ministers  of  the  gospel  to  supply  the  scattered  members 
of  the  church  with  the  means  of  grace;  the  lack  of  disci- 
phne  among  ministers  and  people;  the  confessionless  state 
of  the  church  ;  the  Rationalism  of  many  of  the  leading 
ministers,  and  want  of  co-operation   between   the  synods 


then  existing  are  clearly  portrayed.  Also  his  ardent  love 
for  the  Lutheran  Church,  and  the  remedies  he  proposed  to 
restore  pure  and  undefiled  religion  challenge  our  admira- 
tion. The  letter  was  written  in  the  German  language,  and 
we  give  it  here  in  a  free  translation  : 

A    LETTER    TO    HIS    FATHER. 

Princeton,  February  77,  1820. 
Dear  Father: 

After  a  silence  of  many  days,  God  permits  me  again  to 
write  to  you.  Since  the  receipt  of  your  dear  letter  of  the 
17th  of  January,  I  have  continued  to  devote  my  time  to 
study,  up  to  the  time  of  our  vacation.  The  God  of  my 
fathers,  to  whose  service  I  have  dedicated  myself,  draws  me 
constantly  nearer  to  himself  Often  he  refreshes  my  soul 
by  visions  of  his  glory  and  paternal  goodness ;  daily  he 
gives  me  the  evidence,  that,  although  he  dwells  on  high, 
and  in  the  Holy  of  Holies,  yet  he  condescends  graciously 
to  be  my  God.  Truly  his  condition  is  the  most  happy,  and 
desirable,  who  consecrates  himself  entirely  to  the  service  of 
his  Heavenly  Father,  and  who  (Joes  not  regard  the  praise 
of  men,  but  of  Christ,  as  his  chief  good. 

"  Ja,  seine  Liebe  zu  ermessen, 

Sei  ewig  meine  hoechste  Pflicht, 
Der  Herr  hat  meiner  me  vergessen, 
Vergiss,  mein  Herz,  auch  seiner  nicht!  " 

In  accordance  with  your  repeated  advice  in  your  let- 
ters, not  to  extend  my  continuance  in  this  institution  longer 
than  spring,  I  have  carefully  considered  the  subject,  and 
also  called  on  Dr.  Alexander,  and  had  a  conversation  with 
him  on  the  subject.  After  I  had  informed  him  of  my 
desire  to  continue  my  theological  studies  in  the  German 
language,  he  entered  into  a  paternal  conversation  with  me, 
and  said,  as  I  intended  to  continue  my  studies  here  only 
till  spring,  and  would  often  have  to  preach  in  the  German 
language,  it  would  perhaps,  be  better,  that  I  should  not 
stay  longer  than  spring,  yet  he  would  not  give  any  posi- 
tive advice.  When  I  told  him,  that  my  regret  to  lose  his 
lectures    on  Pastoral  Theology  was   the  only  reason  that 


could  induce  me  to  remain  longer,  he  told  me  in  confidence 
that  he  would  very  likely  go  to  the  Virginia  Springs  dur- 
ing the  course  of  next  Summer,  on  account  of  hie  health, 
and  consequently  there  would  be  no  lectures  on  Pastoral 
Theology.  This  removed  all  doubt  from  my  mind,  and 
since  then  I  have  been  fully  determined  not  to  return  to 

After  having  formed  this  resolution,  I  also  determined 
to  visit  New  York  during  our  vacation  of  two  weeks  ;  for 
by  this  means  I  could  gain  much  information  in  regard  to 
the  condition  of  our  Lutheran  Zion  in  the  New  York 
Synod ;  and  because  this  would  be  my  last  opportunity, 
I  accordingly  went  to  New  York.  I  spent  twelve  days 
there  and  lodged  with  one  of  my  good  friends.  I  took  let- 
ters of  recommendation  to  distinguished  and  learned  men 
there,  and  became  acquainted  with  Dr.  Hosack  ;  and  Dr. 
Mitchell,  Dr.  Van  Arsdale,  etc.,  and  among  the  theologians 
with  Drs.  Mason,  Romyn,  and  Rev.  Knox,  etc.  I  heard 
Drs.  Herron,  Mason,  Romyn,  Bishop  Hobart,  Revs.  Knox, 
Burke,  Beatie,  and  our  Lutheran  Pastor,  Rev.  Schaeffer. 
I  purchased  a  number  of  books  while  in  New  York ; 
namely,  nineteen  octavo  and  fourteen  quarto  volumes  ot  the 
best  works,  have  learned  much  of  ihe  world,  and  not  a  lit- 
tle of  that  which  will  help  me  to  be  useful  in  the  Kingdom 
of  Jesus. 

As  I  have  narrated  my  visit  here  in  a  general  way,  I 
have  yet  to  relate  that  which  to  me  is  the  most  interesting 
and  by  far  the  most  important.  My  principal  object  in  un- 
dertaking this  journey  was,  to  ascertain  the  true  condition 
of  our  church  in  the  state  of  New  York.  I  began  my 
journey  with  prayer,  and  God  manifested  himself  graciously 
to  me.  Our  good  brother,  Schaeffer,  received  me  with  the 
warmest  friendship.  I  spent  a  great  part  of  my  time  in  his 
house.  He  is  a  pious,  faithful  shepherd  of  his  congrega- 
tion, a  well-informed  man,  a  man  of  good  taste,  and  a  dis- 
tinguished and  unswerving  Lutheran,  an  orthodox  theolo- 
gian, and  a  man,  who  does  much,  and  is  willing  ta  do  still 
more  for  the  true  interest  of  Christ's  kingdom  and  the 
Lutheran  Church.  Daily  I  entered  into  lengthy  conversa- 
tions with  him  in   regard  to  the  condition  of  our  church. 


The  deplorable  state  of  our  church  causes  him  heartfelt 
pain,  and  he  is  willing  to  adopt  any  kind  of  measures  which 
can  promote  her  upbuilding.  With  the  New  York  Synod 
it  has  already  gone  too  far.  The  daily  approaching  crisis 
in  our  (Pennsylvania)  Synod  is  here  (in  New  York)  already 
past,  and  the  only  hope  for  the  congregations  of  the  New 
York  Synod  depends  upon  the  synods  of  other  states.  The 
majority  of  the  preachers  are  rank  Socinians  (Rationalists). 
He  (Schaeffer)  has  very  little  intercourse  with  them,  and 
wishes  to  continue  in  connection  with  our  (Pennsylvania) 
Synod.  He  believes  with  me,  that  it  is  absolutely  necessary 
to  enact  a  rule  in  the  Synod,  that  every  applicant  must  be 
examined  in  the  presence  of  the  whole  Synod  in  regard  to  his 
personal  Christianity.  We  deplored  the  ignorance  of  many 
of  our  brethren  in  the  ministry,  as  also  of  ourselves.  He 
said,  he  was  ready  to  send  to  Germany  for  books,  and 
would  ask  nothing  for  his  trouble.  But  I  can  not  write  the 
hundredth  part.  I  will  only  say,  that  we  promised  each 
other,  that  in  reliance  on  God,  we  would  do  everything 
possible  to  promote  the  following  objects  :  In  general  to 
labor  for  the  welfare  of  our  church,  that  a  rule  may  be 
established,  according  to  which  every  applicant  must  be 
examined  in  regard  to  his  personal  Christianity,  that  the 
Augsburg  Confession  should  again  be  brought  up  out  of 
the  dust,  and  every  one  must  subscribe  to  the  twenty-one 
articles,  and  declare  before  God,  by  his  subscription,  that  it 
corresponds  with  the  Bible,  not  quantum,  but  quia ;  and  we 
promised  to  do  everything  possible  to  promote  learning 
among  us. 

We  believed  further,  that  by  the  blessing  of  God,  much 
good  would  result,  if  at  our  Synod  this  year,  at  Lancaster, 
a  committee  would  be  appointed,  consisting  of  seven  mem- 
bers, including  the  President,  to  write  a  Pastoral  Letter. 
In  this  letter  the  lifeless  condition  and  conduct  of  the  many 
church  members  should  be  deplored,  the  worthy  members 
of  our  Lutheran  church  most  earnestly  instructed,  that  it  is 
the  sacred  duty  of  all  communicants  to  hold  morning  and 
evening  family  worship,  to  encourage  them  in  the  support 
of  Sunday-schools,  and  urge  upon  them  the  frequent  read- 
ing of  the  Holy  Scriptures,  etc.     The  committee  could  be 

64  PIvANS   OF   REFORM. 

appointed  on  the  first  day,  and  should  be  composed  of  the 
seven  oldest  ministers ;  each  one  of  these  could  write  some- 
thing at  his  lodging,  so  that  the  letter  could  be  finished  in 
one  day,  read  before  the  Synod,  printed  immediately  after- 
wards, given  to  each  one  of  the  ministers,  who  could  read 
it  afterwards  in  their  congregations.  Such  a  proposition 
will  be  made.  As  the  committee  is  to  consist  of  the  seven 
oldest  members,  it  will  be  known  who  the  members  of  the 
committee  shall  be,  and  they  will  have  an  opportunity  to 
prepare  themselves.  I  cannot  doubt,  that  this  will  meet 
your  approbation,  and  the  approval  of  all  the  friends  of  Jesus. 
I  promised  to  write  to  you,  and  Bro.  Schaeffer  will  write  to 
his  father  and  brothers.  The  Pastoral  Letter  should  not  be 
overlooked.  As  the  committee,  according  to  the  proposi- 
tion, shall  consist  of  the  seven  oldest  members  of  the  Synod, 
I  do  not  see  any  reason  why  the  resolution  should  not  pass 
unanimously.  You,  dear  father,  will  kindly  prepare  some- 
thing of  this  kind,  and  Bro.  Schaeffer  promised  to  ask  his 
father,  that  he  should  also  write  somethmg.  And  may  God, 
our  God,  bless  your  efforts,  and  build  up  his  church. 
Could  you  not  compose  your  synodical  sermon  in  such  a 
way,  that  nearly  the  whole  sermon  would  appear  like  a 
charge  to  ministers,  and  treat  of  their  great  responsibility  ? 
What  a  blessed  influence  this  might  produce  upon  thous- 
ands of  souls  !  For  all  this  you  will  surely  provide.  May 
the  Lord  bless  all  your  transactions. 

Bro.  Schaeffer  was  very  much  pleased  with  my  "  Jour- 
ney through  American  Lutheranism."  Please  write  me  your 
opinion  of  it.  Next  Sunday  Bro.  Schaeffer  will  preach 
tjventy-three  miles  from  New  York,  at  the  request  of  the 
inhabitants  in  the  upper  part  of  New  Jersey,  where  he  will 
organize  a  congregation,  and  will  preach  occasionally  dur- 
ing the  week.  He  advised  them  to  meet  on  Sundays  and 
have  a  sermon  read  by  one  of  the  elders,  out  of  the  sainted 
Rambach's  "  Meditations  on  the  Sufferings  of  Christ." 
Thirty  years  ago  they  had  Lutheran  services  here  ;  they 
have  now  become  English,  and  desire  to  have  a  pious  min- 
ister of  our  Lutheran  Church.  Mr.  Schaeffer  thinks  they 
will  soon  receive  a  minister,  and  could  also  give  him  an 
adequate  support.     He  wishes  a  pious  young  minister   of 

DIARY.  67 

our  Synod  would  visit  them.     Would  that  we  had  maii 

Your  affectionate  son, 


The  following  extract  from  his  diary  during  his  visit 
in  New  York  will  be  interesting  reading,  as  it  shows  the 
state  of  the  Lutheran  Church  and  of  the  "  Town"  of  New 
York  seventy-five  years  ago  : 

JOURNAL,  1820. 

Feb.  ph,  1820.  Arrived  at  New  York  4  o'clock,  p.  m.,  in 
six  and  one-half  hours  from  Princeton.  The  road  from  Prince- 
ton to  Elizabethtown  is  very  bad.  Elizabeth  is  a  handsome 
town,  containing  many  houses  built  in  a  very  neat  style, 
mostly  of  frame  work.  Newark  also,  is  a  handsome  town* 
more  splendid  than  Elizabeth,  and  has  many  houses  of 
really  splendid  structure.  From  here  to  New  York,  the 
road  lies  principally  through  meadows  and  swamps,  which 
together  are  known  by  the  name  of  Newark  Meadows. 
These  had  lately  been  inundated  by  a  thaw  of  the  snow 
and  consequent  rise  of  the  neighboring  streams,  and  the 
water  had  risen  to  such  a  height,  that  the  stage  was  almost 
prevented  from  passing  that  route.  At  some  places  the 
road  for  miles  was  covered  by  water,  to  the  depth  of  two 
feet.  Similar  inundations  occasionally  occur,  and  the  con- 
sequence is,  that  throughout  miles  of  the  most  level  and  fer- 
tile country  no  one  will  venture  to  erect  a  dwelling  house 
and  it  is  only  here  and  there,  where  the  land  has  risen  into 
little  hills,  that  dwellings  are  seen. 

Crossed  at  Powel  Hook,  was  kindly  received  by  my 
friend,  Dr.  Van  Arsdale,  No.  51  Bowery,  and  urged  to 
make  his  house  my  home.  Next  day,  Sunday.  In  the 
morning  went  to  hear  Mr.  Schaeffer  preach.  His  church 
stands  on  Williams  Street,  built  of  stone,  of  solid  structure. 



nt  has  a  gallery  and  organ  of  about  twelve  stops,  which  is 
played  tolerably  well.  Mr.  Schaeffer  preached  in  the  German 
language  from  Psalm  xxxviii.  Theme  :  "  When  thou  hum- 
blest me  thou  makest  me  great."  Sermon,  orthodox — the 
Savior's  divinity  most  unequivocally  reiterated  and  implied. 
The  morality  and  instruction  excellent,  his  enunciation  dis- 
tinguished for  distinctness,  deliberation  and  force.  His 
pronunciation  of  the  German  is  very  correct ;  his  voice  is 
rather  too  loud  and  possessed  of  considerable  harshness. 
His  whole  manner  tolerably  interesting,  somewhat  severe, 
but  much  defective  in  solemnity,  and  his  audience,  as  might 
be  expected,  seemed  also  but  little  affected,  though  in  gen- 
eral they  were  attentive.  There  seems  to  be  less  piety 
among  them,  than  among  the  Lutherans  at  York,  Pa. 

Afternoon,  j  o'clock,  heard  Mr.  Schaeffer  again,  in  Eng- 
lish— Gal.  ii.  20 :  "  Christ  liveth  in  me,  and  the  life  which  I 
live,"  etc,  the  sermon,  orthodox,  able,  well  written,  but  much 
defective  in  the  warmth  of  true  piety.  His  pronunciation 
very  correct ;  his  delivery  like  in  the  German,  only  a  little 
less  severe,  less  loud  and  moie  rapid.  Read  the  sermon 
both  in  the  morning  and  afternoon,  but  read  with  great 
ease  and  liberty,  and  in  general,  nearly  as  well  as  if  he  had 
no  paper  before  him.  Prayed  very  lightly  for  the  heathen 
in  the  afternoon,  not  at  all  in  the  morning.  The  church 
was  not  more  than  one-third  filled,  either  fore  or  afternoon ; 
the  members  seem  to  be  of  the  middle  and  lower  class  of 
society.  On  the  whole,  Mr.  Schaeffer  seems  to  be  an 
orthodox  man,  not  at  all  distinguished  for  the  ardor  or 
solemnity  of  his  preaching. 

In  the  evening  went  to  North  Church,  (Dr.  Milledol- 
er's)  situated  on  the  corner  of  Fulton  and  Ann  Streets. 
Dr.  Milledoler  had  preached  in  the  morning.  The  edifice 
is  very  large,  indeed,  probably  140  feet  long  and  propor- 
tionally broad,  the  ceiling  is  somewhat  circular,  there  is  a 


large  and  capacious  gallery  and  from  the  extremity  of  the 
gallery  to  the  ceiling  is  a  range  of  wooden  pillars,  of  light 
structure,  and  from  pillar  to  pillar  there  extends  a  semicir- 
cular partition,  in  the  form  of  curtains,  these  join  the  ceiling 
and  extend  downwards  about  a  foot  in  the  middle  and 
about  two  and  one-half  feet  at  the  pillars.  There  is  an 
organ  three  stories  high,  the  pipes  are  gilt,  the  lower 
range  contains  six  pipes  on  each  wing,  and  the  middle  has  a 
proportionate  number.  The  organ  was  played  with  simpli- 
city and  solemnity.  This  is  the  only  Dutch  Reformed 
Church  which  has  an  organ.  In  general  the  Christians  of 
that  persuasion  entertain  the  same  enmity  against  instru- 
mental music  for  which  the  Puritans  are  so  distinguished. 
I  could  learn  of  no  other  church  of  that  persuasion  in  the 
neighboring  country,  nor  indeed,  throughout  the  whole 
extent  of  their  churches,  which  admits  instrumental  music. 
There  is  displayed  in  this  edifice  considerable  deviation 
from  the  apostolical  simplicity,  and  in  general  the  Dutch 
Reformed  are  not  such  sticklers  for  the  absolute  exclusion 
of  everything  like  ornament  from  churches.  On  each  side 
of  the  pulpit  sat  the  Deacons.  Each  one  had  a  quarto 
Bible  before  him,  and  immediately  turned  to  the  text,  when 
it  was  announced.  This  practice,  I  am  told,  is  not  found  in 
any  other  Dutch  Reformed  Church, 

Between  services  I  went  into  a  Methodist  Sunday- 
school,  and  after  sitting  silently  about  half  an  hour,  some  of 
the  Methodist  brethren  came  to  me,  and  entered  into  con- 
versation. I  found  them  very  pious,  and  after  I  had  talked 
for  some  time  they  were  highly  pleased  with  me,  and  asked 
whether  I  was  not  a  Methodist.  And  having  been  answered 
in  the  negative,  "  Well  then,"  said  one  of  them,"  wererit you 
converted  by  Methodist  preaching?"  This  appeared  very 
singular  to  me,  and  I  took  the  liberty  to  tell  them,  that 
though   all  they  had  hitherto   said  seemed  to   flow  from 


hearts    filled    with   the    love  of  Jesus,  yet  I  regarded  it  my;| 
duty  to  say,  that  I   thought  the  last  question  arose  from  an 
unchristian    spirit,  and    was   prompted    by    spiritual  pride. 
They  then  explained,  or  rather  endeavored  to  explain  away' 
that  observation. 

Monday,  jth,  visited  Mr.  Schaeffer,  and  was  received^ 
with  unbounded  expressions  of  friendship.  He  spent  thej? 
greater  part  of  the  day  in  attending  to  me.  His  wife  is  anj ' 
intelligent,  amiable  woman.  I  found  Mr.  Schaeffer  to  be  a( 
young  man  of  fine  talents  and  acquirements.  He  is  all 
alive  to  the  extension  and  prosperity  of  the  Lutheran 
Church.  Mr.  Schaeffer  maintains  an  extensive  corres- 
pondence with  some  literary  and  scientific  men  in  our 
country  ;  but  more  particularly  with  some  of  the  literati  o 
Germany.  He  receives  a  periodical  work  from  Jena ; 
where  the  clergy  are  substantially  orthodox.  Among  his'] 
correspondents  are  some  of  the  most  celebrated  living 
authors,  Draeseke,  Ebsling,  (lately  dead),  Knapp,  etc.  His 
sermon  on  the  Jubilee,  a  copy  of  which  he  kindly  presented 
to  me,  has  been  reviewed  by  German  critics,  and  was  much 
applauded.  On  a  late  occasion,  when  a  Lutheran  clergy- 
man was  sent  by  the  Church  Missionary  Society  of  London, 
as  a  missionary  to  the  East  Indies,  the  Bishop  of  London 
called  him  Brother,  and  thereby  virtually  acknowledged  his 
ordination,  which  had  been  performed  at  Halle,  as  valid. 
Bishop  Hobart  of  this  city,  in  giving  an  account  of  it,  well 
knowing  that  the  acknowledgment  of  presbyterial  ordina- 
tion was  diametrically  in  the  face  of  his  practice  and  pro- 
fession, absolutely  gave  a  perverted  statement  and  perverted 
the  facts,  of  which  Mr.  Schaeffer  thought  the  Bishop  had  a 
correct  statement.  Mr.  Schaeffer  published  in  the  English 
language,  in  a  periodical  work  of  this  city,  a  refutation  of 
the  Bishop's  statement,  which  he  showed  me,  and  which  is 
written  in  a  very  spirited  style.     I  was  very  much  rejoiced 


o  learn,  that  our  Brother  Jaeger,  who  was  sent  as  a  deputy 
"rom  our  Synod,  had  preached  a  very  orthodox  sermon  on 
[  John  i.  7  of  which  Christ  was  the  theme.  Mr.  Schaeffer 
ilso  told  me, that  Quitman  had  the  night  before  at  his  house 
leclared,  that  no  one  that  entered  his  pulpit  should  preach 
ny  doctrine  in  it,  but  such  as  he  approved.  But  to  the 
3raise  of  Brother  Jaeger  be  it  said,  that  he  denied  not  his 
Lord.  Mr.  Schaeffer  believes,  that  Quitman  and  some 
t)thers  are  Socinians,  and  some  others  Arminians,  but  he  is 
n  hope,  that  the  evangelic  interest  is  increasing.  Mr. 
schaeffer  believed  that  Lintner  is  orthodox. 

I  am  informed  by  Mr.  Schaeffer  that  Molther,  who 
applied  for  admission  to  our  Synod,  was  not  a  pious  man, 
hat  he  had  been  employed  as  missionary  by  the  Synod  to 
he  western  parts  of  New  York,  and  that  he  disputed  on  his 
(Vay  with  other  Lutheran  clergymen,  and  on  the  whole  had 

,  liot  maintained  a  good  character  among  their  body ;  had 
quarrelled  with  his  congregation  about  his  salary,  etc.  Mr. 
Schaeffer  also  assured  me  that  previous  to  his  journey  to 
Renne,  he  had  applied  to  the  Bishop  of  his  town  for  admis- 
sion to  his  church,  but  not  being  cordially  received,  went 
o  our  (Pa.,)  Synod.  Hence  it  appears  that  the  conduct  of 
^ur  Synod  in  not  receiving  him,  without  satisfactory  evi- 
dence of  his  good  character,  was  very  judicious  ;  for  thus 
iy  the  blessing  of  God,  an  unconverted  man  is  kept  out  of 
jhe  ministry. 

Mr.  Schaeffer  complains  that  our  clergymen  corre- 
spond too  little,  and  do  not  act  more  in  unison  in  their  efforts 
,0  promote  the  Gospel.  Was  opposed  to  the  "  Plan  Ent- 
krurf,"  and  thinks  much  of  the  Lutheran  hymn  book  edited 

.J  \y  the  New  York  Synod. 

Tuesday  and  Wednesday,  8th  and  gth  of  Feb.,  1820. 
>pent  the  8th  in  the  forenoon  in  the  museum.  It  is  a  large, 
espectable,  well  arranged  collection.     But  inferior  to  the 

7o  MUSEUM — dr^seke;. 

Philadelphia  museum.  There  is  much  noise,  and  other 
immoral,  disorderly  conduct  in  the  edifice  in  daytime.  At 
night  it  is  the  fashionable  time  for  visitors,  who  desire 
to  spend  only  an  hour.  There  is  something  striking  about 
this  edifice,  which  professes  to  be  the  repository  of  the 
curiosities  of  nature.  On  entering  the  door,  you  will  look 
around  you  for  the  janitor,  who  is  to  receive  the  money, 
and  will  deem  it  strange  that  no  one  is  visible.  A  little 
boy,  only  of  three  and  one-half  feet  is  standing  near  the 
door;  but  on  advancing  into  the  room  this  pigmy  runs 
before  you  and  demands  the  money.  Surprised  that  the 
care  of  such  an  institution  should  be  confided  to  such  a 
child,  I  inquired  where  the  doorkeeper  was,  and  the  little 
pert,  in  a  very  dignified  manner  declared  that  to  be  the 
office  which  he  sustained.  On  examining  him,  I  found 
that  he  was  twenty-one  years  of  age,  of  sound  mind  and 
body,  and  a  native  of  the  State  of  New  Jersey,  and  the 
regular  janitor. 

On  the  9th,  I  spent  the  morning  with  Brother  Schaef- 
fer,  conversed  more  intimately  with  him  on  the  state  of 
vital  religion  in  our  Church,  both  in  Europe  and  particu- 
larly in  this  country.  He  informed  me  of  many  circum- 
stances which  rejoiced  my  heart,  and  afford  reason  for  us  to 
bless  the  God  of  Jacob.  At  Bremen,  in  "  Ober  Sachsen," 
is  stationed  the  most  excellent  and  pious  Draeseke,  whose 
second  volume  of  sermons  Brother  Schaeffer  has.  I  read  his 
Karfreitags-predigt,  (Good  Friday  Sermon,)  and  glanced 
over  several  others.  He  is  a  choice  spirit,  one  of  those 
who  never  did,  nor  never  will  bow  the  knee  to  Baal.  His 
sermons  evince  him  to  be  a  man  of  great  strength  of  mind, 
of  flowery,  beautiful  style,  of  great  solemnity  and  an  over- 
whelming sublimity.  They  are  characterised  by  a  some- 
thing peculiarly  fascinating ;  they  surpass  in  the  true  spirit 
of  the   Gospel,  the  far-famed  sermons  of  Chalmers.     This 


day  I  examined  two  periodical  works  published  at  Jena, 
which  are  the  only  periodical  productions  of  that  nature 
published  from  that  place,  and  was  rejoiced  to  find  them 
not  only  orthodox,  but  truly  pious. 

Through  this  morning  I  learned  that  Brother  Schaef- 
fer  is  most  sincerely  and  ardently  devoted  to  the  true 
interests  of  Lutheranism,  and  had  much  confidential  con- 
versation with  him  relative  to  the  interests  of  our  Church. 
He  was  delighted  with  the  plans  which  I  stated  to  him  as 
being  contemplated  by  me  for  the  cause  of  my  dear 
Redeemer,  Jesus  Christ ;  '  more  particularly,  with  my 
intended  translation  of  Dr.  Mosheim's  Dogmatic.  This 
he  thought  was  a  necessary  undertaking  ;  and  he  expressed 
his  confident  belief,  that  it  would  tend  to  promote  ortho- 
doxy and  piety  in  the  church,  and  would  meet  with  the 
encouragement  of  our  Lutheran  Brethren. 

Relative  to  the  propriety  of  our  Synod  adopting  a  con- 
fession of  faith,  we  also  had  some  interchange  of  sentiments. 
He  is  of  the  opinion  that  something  should  be  done,  and 
ought  to  have  been  done  many  years  ago.  He  agreed  to 
the  opinion  that  a  confession  should  be  adopted  which 
ought  to  hichide  only  fundamental  doctrines ;  and  that  would 
leave  sufficient  room  for  that  liberty  of  thought,  which  all 
Protestants  must  retain,  and  yet  would  be  sufficiently 
specific  to  exclude  heresy  from  our  body. 

This  ought  to  be  subscribed  by  our  clergy,  and  by 
this  we  might  try  those  who  are  suspected  of  heresy.  This 
would  enable  us  eff  .ctually  to  exclude  from  the  Church  of 
Christ  those  pests  of  society,  the  Socinians.  I  was  rejoiced 
to  learn  from  him  that  Rev.  Gdssenhainer,  Sr.,  had  within  a 
year  become  a  changed  man,  and  much  more  pious  and 
evangelical.     He  also   informed   me,  though  in  confidence, 

that  Mr.  B ,  of  I ,  was    at   one   time   Socinian,  but 

that  at  present  he  was  entirely  changed  and  truly  pious, 


and  that  he  had  much   reason  to  believe  that  H and 

M ,  were  also  either  totally  Socinian,  or  the  very  next 

thing  to  it.  Mr.  Meierheffer  he  believes  to  have  been  an 
orthodox,  but  unconverted  man.  He  spoke  very  ener- 
getically of  the  propriety  and  necessity  of  passing  a  resolu- 
tion in  our  Synod,  which  would  require  every  candidate 
for  the  Gospel  ministry  to  submit  to  an  examination  before 
the  Synod,  on  the  subject  of  his  personal  piety.  This  is 
a  regulation,  which  I  think  ought  not  to  be  neglected ;  may 
the  Lord  God  of  his  Church,  in  mercy  incline  the  hearts  of 
our  Brethren  to  adopt  all  such  measures  as  will  tend  to 
promote  the  interest  of  our  beloved  Lutheran  Zion. 

At  half  past  two  I  dined  by  invitation,  with  Rev.  Mr. 
Knox,  the  minister  of  one  of  the  Dutch  Reformed  Churches. 
I  spent  the  afternoon  till  4  o'clock  with  him,  and  found  him 
to  be  a  man  of  benevolence,  of  tolerably  agreeable  address, 
of  talents  not  much  above  mediocrity.  His  wife  is  the 
daughter  of  Dr.  Mason,  is  an  intelligent,  agreeable  and 
accomplished  woman.  He  lives  in  rather  more  style  than 
comports  with  the  humility  of  the  Gospel  of  Christ. 

On  my  inquiring  of  him  the  origin  of  the  peculiar  cus- 
tom of  sitting  during  prayer,  which  I  observed  in  the 
Dutch  Reformed  Church  he  told  me,  he  did  not  know  it. 

In  the  evening  I  took  tea  with  Mr.  Schaeffer,  who 
then  accompanied  me  to  Mr.  McClew's  church,  where  the 
annual  report  of  the  tract  society  was  to  be  read.  The  even- 
ing was  unpleasant,  and  the  assembly  very  small.  Mr. 
Knox  sat  on  the  middle  seat  of  the  pulpit ;  on  his  right  was 
the  Rev.  Dr.  Spring,  by  whose  appearance  I  was  very 
agreeably  disappointed.  He  has  a  dignified  appearance,  his 
forehead  indicates  strength  of  mind,  but  perhaps  also  want 
of  judgment.  He  looks  very  serious  and  yet  pleasant. 
But  pitiful  indeed  was  the  appearance  of  Rev.  M.,  who  sat 
on  the  other  side.     He  seems  to  be  a  light  headed,  inflated 


youth  of  about  twenty  years  of  age.  After  a  long  prayer 
by  Mr.  Knox,  the  choir  began  to  sing,  and  in  the  midst  of 
the  piece  a  cry  of  fire  and  the  alarm  bells  were  heard,  on 
which  half  of  the  httle  audience  ran  out ;  and  the  exercises 
of  the  evening  were  postponed  till  Thursday  evening  of  the 
subsequent  week. 

In  general  the  Presbyterians,  or  rather  Calvinists, 
of  this  city,  are,  though  pious,  a  high-minded, 
ambitious,  intolerant  set  of  men.  And  into  their  pompous 
plans  for  the  promulgation  of  the  gospel  enters  very  much 
of  a  self  interested  nature,  which  is  diametrically  opposed  to 
the  religion  of  Jesus. 

Thursday  the  loth,  morning  1 1  o'clock,  visited  Brother 
Schaeffer,  was  introduced  to  Dr.  Mitchell,  the  great 
naturalist.  He  is  a  man  of  rather  less  than  middle  size,  and 
very  corpulent.  His  manners  are  very  easy  and  graceful. 
He  is  very  communicative.  If  a  subject  be  started,  he  will 
go  on  to  discuss  it  with  the  greatest  scientific  precision,  and 
if  he  is  left  undisturbed,  he  will  pour  forth  from  the  vast 
resources  of  his  mind  a  complete  essay  on  that  subject.  He 
observed  in  the  course  of  conversation,  that  Geology  sup- 
ports the  Bible ;  though  the  Bible  was  not  intended  as  a 
system  of  physical  geography.  His  appearance  resembles 
somewhat,  that  of  Judge  Cooper.  He  manifested  consider- 
able vanity,  and  gave  us  a  polite  invitation  to  call  and 
hear  him  lecture. 

Brother  Schaeffer  informs  me,  that  the  German  Re- 
formed are  much  inclined  to  join  the  Lutheran  Church,  and 
have  had  some  talk  on  the  subject  with  him.  At  present 
their  pulpit  is  supplied  by  Mr.  Labach,  a  Dutch  Reformed 
minister,  and  they  are  dissatisfied  with  his  preaching  the 
peculiarities  and  errors  of  Calvinism. 

Mr.  Schaeffer  on  some  occasions,  when  he  has  been 
prevented  from  preaching,  got  some  of  his  vestry  to  read  a 


sermon  to  the  congregation.  To-day  a  gentleman  called  on 
Mr.  Schaeffer  while  I  was  there,  relative  to  his  coming  to 
preach  for  them.  This  man  is  a  resident  in  New  Jersey, 
about  twenty-three  miles  from  this  place,  on  Saddle  River, 
near  New  Prospect,  Franklin  Township,  Bergen  County, 
New  Jersey,  where  there  has  been  no  Lutheran  worship 
for  forty  years.  He  was  educated  in  the  Evangelical  faith, 
and  such  is  his  desire  to  obtain  a  minister,  and  to  have  a 
church  erected,  that  he  offers  to  give  the  land  to  build  on, 
together  with  ^loo,  and  devote  any  portion  of  his  time  to 
it.  Others,  he  says,  are  also  willing  to  do  much,  and  he 
came  twenty-three  miles  on  his  own  expense  to  endeavor  to 
persuade  Brother  Schaeffer  to  come  and  preach  for  them. 
He  intends  to  go  on  Sabbath  after  next,  to  preach  twice 
that  day,  and  also  on  Monday  evening,  to  encourage  them 
in  the  good  work,  to  organize  a  church,  to  baptize  their 
children,  etc.  He  informed  Mr.  Schaeffer  that  there  is  a 
Lutheran  Church  within  ten  miles  of  him,  which  has  long 
been  abandoned,  and  is  no\v  in  ruins.  To  this  belonged  a 
tract  of  land,  which  a  farmer  has  at  present  in  possession, 
and  which  they  intended  to  regain,  if  practicable.  In  this 
Mr.  Schaeffer  will  encourage  them. 

The  best  book  for  a  church  to  read  a  portion  from,  in 
the  absence  of  a  minister,  is  "  Rambach's  Meditations,"  that 
pious,  learned  and  orthodox  production.  Oh,  if  we  only 
had  a  pious,  zealous  young  preacher,  to  send  among  these 
people;  he  would,  by  God's  blessing,  establish  several 
churches,  and  save  the  souls  of  several  hundreds  of  people. 
Oh  !  thou  God  of  the  harvest !  we  pray  thee  to  send  forth 
laborers  into  thy  vineyard  !  I  encouraged  Mr.  Schaeffer  to 
seek  for  pious  young  men,  of  talent,  and  persuade  them  to 
become  preachers  of  the  Gospel.  And  I  was  happy  to 
learn,  that  he  had  his  eyes  upon  a  young  man  of  the  most 


promising  character,  a  Mr. ,  who  is  now  in  Columbia 


I  subscribed  for  that  most  excellent  work  of  the  pious 
Dr.  Koethe,  which  was  instituted  for  the  express  purpose  of 
counteracting  the  influence  of  the  flood  of  infidelity,  which 
has  deluged  Germany,  and  which  is  conducted  with 
singular  ability  and  success ;  Price  3  Rix  dollars^^2.50. 
This  evening  I  went  to  hear  Mr.  Burke  preach.  He  is  the 
most  zealous  Reformed  minister  I  ever  heard,  a  rfian  of  no 
classical  education,  and  pronounces  English  badly.  He  is 
a  Hessian  by  birth  and  came  to  America  during  the 
Revolutionary  War,  with  the  Hessian  Troops  ;  but  being 
very  pious,  he  studied  with  Dr.  Livingston,  has  acquired 
an  unusually  extensive  and  accurate  acquaintance  with  his 
English  Bible,  and  is  probably  by  far  the  most  useful 
minister  of  New  York.  One  of  his  peculiarities  is,  that  he 
states  the  chapter  and  verse  of  almost  every  text  he  quotes, 
perhaps  sixty  in  one  sermon  !  This  is  both  unnecessary  and 

This  day  I  also  rode  with  Dr.  V.  D  ,  in  his  sleigh  to 
Harlem,  six  miles  from  the  city.  There  I  saw  the  Harlem 
River,  which  cuts  off  this  island  from  the  continent,  and 
which  is  nothing  but  a -branch  of  tidewater  running  from 
the  East  to  the  North  River  and  forming  with  the  rivers  a 
triangle.  Saw  the  fort  at  Hellgate,  the  botanical  garden, 
Harlem  creek,  etc.  All  the  turnpikes  throughout  this 
island  have  been  made  by  the  prisoners  of  the  state-prison 
and  are  free  of  toll,  which  circumstance  and  the  consequent 
freedom  of  the  traveler  from  the  annoyance  of  the  toll-gates 
are  a  circumstance  that  arrests  the  attention  of  the  Phila- 

On  Sunday  the  i^th  of  February.  I  heard  Dr.  Mason 
preach  in  the  morning.  He  is  a  great  and  original  speaker. 
Has   some  peculiarities,  and    much  of  the  pompous  in  his 

76  DR.     MASON — CITY  HAI.I,. 

manner.  He  has  no  pulpit  in  his  church,  but  speaks  from 
a  stage,  which  projects  from  the  wall  about  fifteen  feet,  is 
about  three  and  one-half  feet  high,  and  has  mahogany 
railings  along  the  front  of  it.  At  the  middle,  in  the  space 
usually  occupied  by  the  pulpit,  there  is  something  similar 
to  a  small  desk ;  it  is  about  four  feet  long  and  from  one 
and  a  half  to  two  feet  broad.  All  this  is  covered  with  silk 
velvet,  as  is  part  of  the  railings  on  each  side  of  it.  He  has, 
of  course,  no  canopy.  His  church  is  large,  has  a  tall 
steeple,  and  is  decorated  in  a  style,  almost,  if  not  quite,  as 
splendid  as  the  Episcopal  churches  are,  and  to  say  the 
least,  altogether  incompatible  with  the  Puritanical  profes- 
sions of  apostolic  simplicity,  and  their  boisterous  clamours 
against  Episcopal  splendor.  Though  it  was  a  sacramental 
occasion,  yet  the  church  was  only  two-thirds  filled. 

In  the  afternoon  I  went  to  hear  Bishop  Hobart,  in  St. 
Paul's  Church.  He  is  a  little  man,  his  physiognomy  indi- 
cates considerable  talent,  particularly  great  perseverance 
and  inflexibility  of  character.  He  read  the  evening  service 
in  a  handsome  and  tolerably  interesting  manner,  and  then 
read  a  little  bit  of  a  sermon  of  about  twenty  minutes  length 
and  the  subject  was  "  The  importance  of  keeping  a  good  con- 
science." The  sermon  was  orthodox,  but  cold,  unedifying, 
and  contained  little  more  than  moral  reflections,  and  had 
very  little  of  a  kind,  such  as  to  build  Up  believers,  and 
almost  nothing  that  would  promise  to  awaken  the  sinner. 
In  the  evening  I  heard  a  Methodist  preacher,  a  Mr.  Beattie, 
a  pious,  illiterate  and  very  noisy  man. 

Monday,  iph.  Visited  the  City  Hall,  which  is  a  very 
splendid  edifice.  Indeed,  I  think  it  is  rather  more  expen- 
sive than  comports  with  the  spirit  of  true  Federal  Repub- 
licanism. The  principal  rooms  are  lined  with  portraits  of 
Washington,  Hamilton,  Franklin,  Dewitt  Clinton,  Colden, 
and  manv  other  worthies  of  this  State  and  of  the  United 

Ai,MSHOUsE — i,ord's  supper.  77 

States.  My  dear  Brother  Schaeffer  accompanied  me 
through  all  the  departments,  and  obtained  a  guide  to 
unlock  the  rooms,  etc.  In  the  hall  of  the  city  council,  is 
the  one  precious  relic  of  former  days.  The  frame  of  the 
chair  on  which  the  Mayor  sits,  is  the  identical  frame  of  Gen- 
eral Washington's  chair !  With  feelings  of  reverentia 
respect  for  that  truly  great  and  good  man,  I  did  myself  the 
honor  of  sitting  in  it. 

Brother  Schaeffer  also  hired  a  sleigh  and  took  me  with 
him  to  the  Alms  House  about  two  miles  from  the  city.  On 
the  road  we  had  much  interesting  conversation  on  the  state 
of  our  beloved  Lutheran  Zion.  We  went  all  through  the 
Alms  House,  conversed  on  religion  with  as  many  as  we 
could,  and  Brother  Schaeffer  distributed  money  to  the 
German  paupers,  which  money  was  taken  from  the  treasury 
of  the  Lutheran   Church   in  New  York  for  the  support  of 

its  poor. 

Dr.  Mason's  people  come  out  of  the  pews  to  receive  the 
Lord's  Supper  and  surround  a  table  which  is  placed  in  the 
aisles  of  the  church.  They  have  the  bread  in  large  slices, 
half  round  a  loaf  of  about  eight  inches  breadth.  These  I 
believe  (though  I  did  not  look  to  see),  are  broken  by  the 
communicants  and  each  takes  a  small  piece.  The  Dutch 
Reformed  have  theirs  cut  into  small  inch  cubes.  The 
Dutch  Reformed,  also,  all  (as  far  as  I  could  learn)  surround 
a  table  in  the  aisle  to  receive  it.  But  all  the  Presbyterians 
in  the  city  and  around  the  country,  receive  it  sitting  in  their 

Tuesday,  isth.  Dined  with  Dr.  Rogers,  No.  14  Court- 
land  street.  He  is  a  very  lively,  interesting  and  a  pious 
man.  He  informed  me  during  a  long  conversation  that 
Mr.  Whelfley  is  a  ''good  sort  of  a  man','  but  not  the  man  to 
build  up  the  church  of  which  he  is  pastor.  That  he  is  now 
almost  entirely  clear  of  Hopkinsonian  heresy,  and  is  becom- 


ing  more  pious.  I  enquired  the  character  of  Mr,  Albertus 
the  Presbyterian  Clergyman  of  this  city ;  he  answered,  "  Ah, 
Mr.  Schmucker,  he's  a  dandy,  he's  the  dandy  preacher,  a 
man  that  should  never  climb  the  pulpit !"  Dr.  Spring,  he 
said,  is  a  man  of  talents  and  possessed  of  a  good  deal  of 
cunning.  The  Hopkinsonian  controversy  has  subsided 
by  the  silence  of  both  parties. 

Brother  Schaeffer  bestowed  upon  me  a  number  of  valuable 
pamphlets,  and  said  he  would  endeavor  from  time  to  time 
to  send  me  everything  of  an  interesting  literary  character, 
and  particularly  anything  which  has  a  bearing  on  the  re- 
ligion of  our  common  Jesus. 

From  a  Mr.  Keyser,  who  was  an  officer  in  the  German 
army,  against  Bonaparte,  I  learn  that  all  the  students  of 
Theology  and  everything  else  together  with  their  profes- 
sors, also  entered  the  army  against  the  Tyrant  of  Europe. 
That  old  Eichhorn  himself  and  all  the  great  men  served 
in  the  army  two  years — that  the  students  were  so  enthu- 
siastic as  to  resemble  madmen,  that  they  dashed  forward 
into  the  flames  of  battle,  even  where  there  was  no  necessity 
for  it.  This  was  the  most  learned  army  that  ever  took  the 
field — and  this  it  was  which  destroyed  that  enemy  of  man. 

Brother  Schaeffer  and  I  agreed  also  to  promote  the 
good  of  our  Lutheran  Zion  by  our  literary  labors.  I 
informed  him  of  my  intention  to  translate  Mosheim's  Dog- 
matic, and  he  said  probably  he  would  compendize  and 
translate  the  Theol.  Mor.  of  the  same  author,  of  which  I 
expressed  high  pleasure.  May  the  God  of  mercy  bless  our 
interviews  to  the  good  of  his  church  and  use  us  as  humble 
instruments  to  promote  his  glory. 

After  Mr.  Schmucker's  return  from  New  York  he  re- 
mained in  Princeton  until  March  30,  1820.  "He  did  not  go 
back  to  the  University  in  Philadelphia  after  the  Sophomore 
year,  but  may  have  applied  to  be  graduated  with  his  class  in 



1818,  either  upon  examination  or  the  continuance  of  his 
studies,  as  the  records  of  the  University  show,  that  in  that 
year  it  was  proposed  to  confer  upon  him  the  degree  of 
A.  B.,  Honoris  Causa.  No  action  was  taken  then,  but  in 
18 19  this  degree  was  conferred  upon  him  at  the  Commence- 


8o  LICENSURE.  • 


1820 — 1823. 



"At  Lancaster,  Pa.,  on  the  second  day  of  June,  1820, 
Samuel  S.  Schmucker,  having  passed  a  most  satisfactory 
examination,  was  licensed  by  the  Synod  of  Pennsylvania  to 
preach  the  gospel.  The  authority  already  quoted,  says, 
the  York  pupil  was  not  immediately  called  to  pastoral 
work,  and  that  even  so  eminently  qualified  a  young  minis- 
ter had  to  abide  his  time.  There  were  few,  if  any,  vacant 
pulpits.  Pastors  were  usually  settled  for  life.  Pastoral 
districts  were  large  and  rarely  divided.  Mission  churches 
were  not  organized.  Few  changes  occurred.  It  was  only 
when  a  pastor  died  or  became  disabled  by  infirmities  or  old 
age,  that  a  vacancy  would  occur  in  the  Lutheran  pulpit. 
There  were  but  few  exceptions  to  this  general  state  of 
things.  '  Hence,'  says  Dr.  Morris,  '  when  young 
Schmucker  came  home,  well  furnished  and  ready  for  work, 
there  was  no  room  for  him.'  He  waited  till  Providence 
should  open  an  effectual  door.  How  unlike  our  time,  when 
the  Church  is  growing  and  our  pastoral  charges  are  multi- 
plying so  rapidly  that  all  our  schools  cannot  furnish,  in  suf- 
ficient numbers,  young  theologians  of  grave  deportment, 
exemplary  purity  of  life  and  pre-eminent  attainments,  to  fill 
the  vacancies  in  the  pulpit." — D. 



The  following  account  of  his  settlement  in  Virginia  is 
given  by  Dr.  Diehl  : 

In  the  latter  part  of  the  year  1820,  he  received  and 
accepted  a  call  from  New  Market.  According  to  the 
authority  already  quoted,  by  the  division  of  the  large  pas- 
toral charge  of  Rev.  Nicholas  Schmucker,  a  godly  minister 
in  Shenandoah  County,  Va.,  a  new  parish  was  formed  at 
New  Market,  and  Samuel  S.  Schmucker,  at  the  recommen- 
dation of  his  uncle  (Rev.  Nicholas  Schmucker),  was  chosen 
pastor.  "  And  so  we  see  this  highly  educated  Princetonian, 
the  class-mate  of  men,  who  afterward  became  bishops — Bis- 
hop Johns,  of  Virginia,  and  Bishop  M'llvaine,  of  Ohio — 
and  of  other  eminent  divines,  tracing  his  steps  to  an 
obscure  section  of  Virginia,  to  labor  among  a  people  not  far 
advanced  in  intellectual  refinement,  of  primitive  simplicity 
and  of  exceedingly  rural  culture.  A  man  of  his  mental 
endowments  had  never  before  ministered  in  that  particular 
region.  There  were  ministers,  and  good  men,  too,  after 
their  sort ;  but  here  was  a  young  man,  a  thoroughly  edu- 
cated young  man,  taking  pastoral  care  of  churches,  that  had  seen  the  like  before." 

But  in  every  portion  of  Virginia  there  were  families  of 
intelligence,  wealth,  and  refinement.  In  the  scope  of  coun- 
try some  eight  or  ten  miles  around  New  Market,  embracing 
a  part  of  Shenandoah  and  a  part  of  Rockingham  counties, 
this  class  of  society  was  not  without  a  fair  representation- 
Nor  was  it  long  before  our  accomplished  young  minister 
was  heard  of,  by  the  most  influential  people.  An  incident 
occasionally  related  by  Dr.  Schmucker  himself,  gave  him  a 
favorable  introduction  to  the  highest  classes  of  that  com- 
munity. A  death  occurred  in  a  prominent  family  some  dis- 
tance from  the  town.     As   the  family  had  no  direct  connec- 


tion  with  any  church,  a  neighbor  who  had  recently  spent  a 
Sunday  in  New  Market,  and  heard  young  Schmucker 
preach,  suggested  that  he  should  be  invited  to  conduct  the 
funeral  services,  in  connection  with  an  uneducated  local 
Baptist  preacher  of  the  neighborhood.  At  the  funeral  Mr. 
Schmucker  felt  it  to  be  proper  to  ask  the  local  preacher,  an 
elderly  man,  to  deliver  his  discourse  first.  Our  young 
preacher  with  all  his  attainments,  had  up  to  this  time  pre- 
pared only  one  funeral  sermon,  (no  doubt  an  excellent  one), 
on  the  text,  "  Blessed  are  the  dead,"  etc.  This  sermon  had 
been  committed  to  memory.  When  the  aged  Baptist 
turned  to  Rev.  xiv.  1 3  and  read  his  text,  "  Blessed  are  the 
dead,"  the  dismay  of  the  young  preacher  may  be  easily 
conceived.  But  as  the  discourse  proceeded  in  a  rambling 
t>"ain  of  thought,  with  scarcely  any  reference  to  the  text,  the 
case  assumed  a  more  hopeful  aspect.  At  the  conclusion 
of  his  discourse  the  ground  occupied  by  Schmucker's  writ- 
ten discourse  had  scarcely  been  touched.  The  old  preacher 
said,  there  was  a  young  man  present  who  would  now  make 
a  few  remarks.  He  therefore  delivered  his  sermon 
as  it  had  been  written  and  fixed  in  his  memory.  The  large 
audience,  embracing  most  of  the  intelligence  of  that  region, 
looked  with  wonder  on  the  young  man  ;  so  intellectual,  so 
solemn  in  manner,  so  admirable  in  his  style  of  speaking, 
uttering  thoughts  so  appropriate  to  the  occasion,  so  thor- 
ough in  the  discussion  of  the  subject,  so  earnest  in  his 
appeals,  so  happy  in  ministering  consolation  to  the  bereaved 
family — and  withal  having  the  appearance  of  an  extempora- 
neous discourse,  a^  he  took  up  the  old  man's  text  at  the 
point  he  left  off — the  effect  was  remarkable.  This  effort  at 
once  stamped  him,  in  the  estimation  of  the  elite  of  that 
region,  as  a  young  man  of  astonishing  gifts  and  attainments. 
This  representation  is  altogether  authentic. 

Before  going  to  Virginia,  and  after  his   return,  before 


accepting  the  call,  he  preached  in  some  of  the  churches  in 
and  near  York.  He  also  visited  Baltimore  and  Philadel- 
phia, and  preached  in  some  of  the  churches  both  in  the 
German  and  English  languages. 

The  following  extract  from  his  diary  during  his  first 
visit  to  Virginia,  will  be  interesting  to  the  reader,  and  give 
us  an  idea  of  the  state  of  the  church  there  at  that  time  : 


Tuesday,  Sept.  6th.  Arrived  at  Gettysburg  last  even- 
ing. Called  on  Brother  Herbst,  who  was  very  friendly. 
Staid  with  him.  After  tea  we  walked  down  to  Mr,  Buehler, 
found  him  friendly,  and  well;  but  rather  too  much  involved 
in  politics. 

When  I  had  come  near  to  Gettysburg,  and  saw  the 
mountains  which  lie  between  this  and  Hagerstown,  my 
breast  was  filled  with  delightful  feelings.  My  thoughts, 
which  had  previously  been  occupied  about  Brother  Herbst, 
instantaneously  leaped  over  Gettysburg,  and  over  the 
mountains,  and  dwelt  with  an  almost  unknown  pleasure 
upon  my  friend,  E.  G. 

During  the  time  that  I  was  there  (Woodstock,  Va.,) 
I  was  rather  dejected.  The  Brethren,  Reck  and  Krauth, 
had  given  me  so  dark  a  picture  of  the  manners  of  the  Wood- 
stockers,  that  I  thought  no  faithful  minister  could  with  any 
comfort  reside  there  ;  and  this  was  resting  on  my  mind.  I 
was,  indeed,  more  melancholy  than  a  Christian  ought  to  be. 
But  when  I  rode  off  with  uncle  Jacob,  the  case  was 
changed.  He  is  the  least  mental  of  the  Schmuckers,  very 
rustic  and  uninformed.  His  observations  were  so  local, 
and  possessed  withal  something  of  a  native  peculiarity,  that 
they  rendered  it  not  a  little  difficult  for  me  to  maintain  my 
gravity.  He  kept  me  in  very  frequent  inward  laughter. 
But  on  the  morning  previous  to  my  departure  from 
Frederick,  I  was  enabled  to  cast  my  cares  upon  the  Lord^ 


and  look  up  to  him  for  guidance.  Blessed  religion,  which 
can  dispel  the  gloomy  cares  of  this  life,  and  enable  us  to 
believe,  though  we  see  not !  The  circumstance  which 
dejected  me  was,  that  God  seemed  to  leave  me  so  long  in 
doubt,  where  he  would  have  me  labor. 

This  morning  I  came  to  town  with  rather  a  heavy 
heart,  yet  feeling  much  of  the  power  of  religion.  I  went  to 
Mr.  Ott,  was  very  kindly  received ;  but  found  that  the 
church  here  is  rather  a  cold  one.  I  went  to  church  much 
depressed.  The  assembly  was  remarkably  large  for  this 
town.  I  preached  on  Isaiah  Iv.  6 :  "  Seek  ye  the  Lord 
while  he  may  be  found,  call  ye  upon  him  while  he  is  near," 
and  blessed  be  God,  I  felt  a  peculiar  solemnity  and  a  sense 
of  divine  aid.  The  audience  was  remarkably  attentive.  In 
the  afternoon  I  had  all  the  English  people  there,  church 
very  full,  I  preached  from  i  John  ii.  28  :  "  Little  children, 
abide  in  him,"  I  also  felt  great  solemnity  and  fluency,  and 
the  audience  was  very  attentive.  Singing  excellent.  I  am 
sure  I  never  preached  with  greater  solemnity  and  feeling 
any  two  sermons.  I  feel  thankful  to  God,  that  he  has  been 
thus  near  to  me  to-day;  "  Bless  the  Lord,  O  my  soul,"  etc. 
Mr.  Ott  told  me  that  he  had  been  told  from  different 
sources,  and  from  the  most  respectable  English  people  in 
the  town,  that  no  young  man  had  ever  been  in  this  town 
who  was  so  liked  in  both  languages  as  I.  He  said,  that 
he  had  always  been  a  friend  of  uncle  Nicholas,  and  there- 
fore could  not  do  any  thing  for  me  until  he  was  convinced 
that  Nicholas  wished  to  give  it  up.  But  that  if  Nicholas 
gave  them  up,  and  I  came  here  and  preached  both  lan- 
guages, the  church  would  be  much  increased.  The  Eng- 
lish Episcopal  preacher,  Lansing,  is  deaf,  and  will  leave  at 
the  end  of  a  year,  and  then  all  the  Episcopalians,  who 
amount  to  five  in  town  and  four  ironmasters  in  the  vicinity, 
would  join  my  church.     Smith,  the  English    Presbyterian, 


is  engaged  as  teacher  and  preacher  for  one  year.  This 
congregation  consists  of  Dr.  Irwin  and  family. 

This  evening  Mr.  Williams,  an  Episcopalian,  and  Mr. 
Moreland  of  the  same  church,  son-in-law  to  Mr.  Ott, 
called  to  see  me.  Mr.  Williams  is  very  intelligent  and 
apparently  from  his  talk,  pious,  a  man  of  noble  heart,  who 
wishes  me  to  come  here.  Mr.  Moreland  is  also  very  intelli- 
gent, though  I  did  not  learn  so  much  of  his  character. 
What  great  reason  have  I  to  bless  God,  for  his  kind 
dealings  toward  me  !  O  my  soul !  put  thy  trust  always  in 
God,  even  the  living  God !  for  he  is  thy  covenant  keeping 

Tuesday,  Sept.  igth.  Yesterday  came  here  to  uncle 
Nicholas  and  was  very  kindly  received.  Spent  the  after- 
noon and  this  whole  day  conversing  with  him  on  different 
points.  He  is  a  man  of  good  talents  and  respectable  infor- 
mation. He  is  very  willing  to  give  me  two  of  his  congre- 
gations, Woodstock  and  Huddle's  schoolhouse,  if  I  see  fit 
to  settle  here.  He  is  very  kind.  We  have  talked  over  all 
the  circumstances  of  the  town  and  of  New  Market.  Henkel 
and  sons  persecute  instinctively  everything  that  bears  the 
name  of  Schmucker.  Nicholas  is  a  true  Christian.  I  gave 
him  some  general  views,  or  rather  abstract  views  of  my 
matrimonial  intentions,  and  he  approves  them.  His  wife  is 
a  very  sensible,  goodnatured,  pious  woman.  Became  pious, 
he  told  me,  within  the  last  two  years. 

Thursday  21st.  Although  I  trust  my  love  to  God 
is  supreme,  and  though  I  examine  and  weigh  with  the 
utmost  solemnity  the  important  subject  of  my  settlement  in 
these  congregations,  yet  daily  do  I  dedicate  myself  anew  to 
his  service.* 

*  Here  the  diary  is  abruptly  broken  off,  a  number  of  pages  having 
been  cut  out  from  the  manuscript,  and  irretrievably  lost,  which  leaves 
a  chasm  of  several  months  in  the  narrative. 



Nov.  26.  This  day  I  preached  twice — once  for  Rev. 
Mr.  Mayer,  in  the  afternoon,  to  an  unusually  large  audience, 
and  in  the  evening  for  Brother  Cruse,  to  as  full  a  house  as 
was  ever  collected  there  (so  they  told  me).  In  the  after- 
noon I  preached  only  with  tolerable  warmth — my  feelings 
had  been  congealed  by  several  hours  previous  and  unavoid- 
able intercourse  with  Mr.  M ,  with  whom  I  dined.     In 

the  evening  I  felt  better,  and  trust,  by  the  grace  of  God,  did 
considerable  good.  Paid  two  or  three  visits  after  church — 
was  attended  by  Rev.  Brother  Cruse,  who  was  very  friendly 
and  attentive,  and  desired  to  be  on  corresponding  terms. 
We  agreed  that  when  either  had  anything  to  communicate, 
he  should  write.  Took  leave  of  Mrs.  Kneb's  family,  was  very 
urgently  invited  to  make  their  house  my  home  when  I 
come  next  to  the  city. 

Have  conclusive  evidence  that  Mr.  M is  not  pious, 

and  probably  that  he  is  not  fundamentally  sound — was  told 
that  he  several  times  refused  the  degree  of  D.  D.,  but 
believe  him  a  man  of  fine  talents  and  veiy  respectable  learn- 

Have  been  wonderfully  led  and  guided  by  my  God 
since  I  have  been  here.  O  may  thy  goodness  fill  my  soul 
with  gratitude  and  praise.  Heard  much  about  how  the 
people  were  pleased  with  my  sermon.  Miss  Mary  Lex 
presented  me  with  Gosner's  works  in  three  volumes,  splen- 
did morocco  binding,  and  Mr.  Lex,  Senior,  with  Dr. 
Jablonski  on  Ecclesiastes  xii.  i,  etc.,  i  volume  quarto. 

Visited  Dr.  Wilson's  new  church,  120  feet  by  85 — a 
large  part  of  it  cut  off  for  vestry  room  and  lobbies,  so  that 
the  actual  church  room  inside  is  square  or  nearly  so — the 
ceiling  very  low  and  flat,  except  a  small  curve  at  the  edges, 
the  gallery  reaches  round  three  sides  and  is  very  low — 
windows  low. 



Dec.  jrd.  Preached  in  the  morning  for  Dr.  Kurtz, 
German ;  afternoon  for  Mr.  Helfenstein,  EngHsh.  Was 
received  with  much  attention  and  friendship  by  Dr.  Kurtz 
and  my  other  acquaintances. 


Dec.  Thursday  22nd,  1820.  On  Tuesday  I  left  Win- 
chester, where  I  had  been  treated  with  much  attention  by 
my  friends  Messrs.  Bakers,  Mrs.  Streit,  etc.  Mrs.  Streit 
has  five  children  at  home,  two  boys,  one  about  twenty,  the 
other  about  fourteen  years  old ;  and  three  girls,  the  one 
nineteen,  another  twelve,  and  another  eight  years  old.  Was 
more  pleased  with  Mrs.  Streit's  disposition  than  ever.  Con- 
versed with  her  on  father's  concerns,  she  said  he  is  young 
and  must  marry  again. 

Left  Winchester  about  10  o'clock,  fed  at  Strasburg,  and 
traveled  on  toward  Woodstock.  The  road  was  very  muddy 
and  bad,  and  it  becoming  dark,  my  tour  was  very  unpleas- 
ant. I  was  becoming  rather  dejected,  when  I  met  two 
travelers  coming  toward  me.  I  inquired  the  distance  to 
Woodstock,  and  was  recognized  by  uncle  Nicholas  and  Mr. 
Ott.  They  spoke  and  we  were  much  rejoiced.  They  were 
on  their  way  to  visit  a  sick  man,  but  turned  back  to  Mr. 
Ott's.  I  got  supper,  and  Mr.  Ott  gave  me  one  of  his 
horses,  and  we  went  all  three  together  to  the  sick  man, 
administered  the  sacramental  supper  to  him,  and  returned. 
Wednesday  morning  visited  Mr.  Moreland  and  Mr.  Wil- 
liams, and  went  with  uncle  Nicholas  to  his  house.  On 
Thursday  it  rained,  but  I  wishing  to  go,  uncle  Nicholas 
accompanied  me  six  miles  in  the  rain,  though  I  wished  him 
not  to  do  it.  I  arrived  at  Mr.  Bower's,  and  was  received 
with  his  usual  excessive  and  sincere  friendship.  Here  then 
I  would  send  up  an  acknowledgement  of  my  gratitude  to 


the  God  of  mercy,  who  has  led  me  hitherto.  On  my 
arrival  I  was  informed  of  the  various  and  unpleasant  inci- 
dents  which    occurred   during   my  absence.     That    Peter 

S wished  to  come  back,  and  had  written,  informing 

the  people  of  this,  and  telling  them  (which  is  not  true)  that 
he  thought  I  would  not  come.  Mayerheffer  also  offered,  in 
case  I  refused,  and  scolded  the  people  for  not  giving  him 
the  first  opportunity. 

Jan.  6.  The  vestries  of  the  town  and  Solomon's 
Church  wrote,  or  rather  requested  me  to  write  to  Uncle 
Peter  (they  dictating  the  letter)  to  inform  him  of  my  arrival 
and  adding,  that  he  need  not  come  now,  and  hoping  he 
would  spend  his  time  agreeably  there. 


Having  accepted  the  call  of  the  Woodstock  pastorate, 
he  entered  on  his  work  with  zeal  and  energy,  and  both  as  a 
pastor  and  a  preacher  he  was  eminently  successful.  This 
will  appear  from  Dr.  Diehl's  account  of  his  labors  in  the 
Shenandoah  Valley  : 

"  To  form  a  correct  estimate  of  Prof.  Schmucker  as  a 
preacher,  we  must  not  view  him  in  the  pulpit  as  he  was  in 
his  later  years.  We  must  go  back  to  his  pastoral  life  from 
1820  to  1826.  Though  he  delivered  his  sermons  without 
manuscript,  he  was  not  an  extemporaneous  preacher.  He 
made  full  preparation,  writing  his  sermons  with  great  care. 
Such,  however,  was  his  facility  in  memorizing  his  own 
compositions,  that  three  readings  would  often  be  sufficient 
to  transfer  an  entire  sermon  from  the  manuscript  to  his 
memory.  His  sermons  were  framed  after  the  model  of  the 
best  authorities  fifty  years  ago.  Going  to  the  root  of  his 
subject,  analyzing  it  carefully,  arranging  his  matter  system- 
atically, clothing  his  thoughts  in  a  clear,  Addisonian  style, 
instructive  and  practical  at  the  same  time,  an   occasional 


flower  of  rhetoric,  appeals  to  the  conscience  as  well  as  to 
reason,  touching  at  times  the  fountain  of  emotions,  always 
solemn  in  aspect  and  dignified  in  manner,  distinct  in  his 
enunciation,  clear  in  voice  and  loud  enough  to  be  easily 
heard  by  all,  he  was  such  a  preacher,  in  1822,  as  all  classes 
delighted  to  hear,  and  universally  regarded  as  having  extra- 
ordinary ability  and  attractiveness." 

"  He  was  not  favorably  located  for  the  development  of 
preaching  ability.  The  audiences  have  much  to  do  in 
bringing  out  power  in  the  pulpit.  The  people  to  whom  he 
ministered — those  four  small  congregations  of  plain,  uned- 
ucated people  to  whom  he  broke  the  bread  of  life,  would 
exert  no  stimulating  power  upon  a  highly  intellectual  and 
cultured  young  man.  The  tendency  would  rather  be  to 
repress  excellence.  His  quick  intelligence  soon  took  the 
measure  of  their  capacity.  His  earnest  piety  prompted  him 
to  labor  for  their  spiritual  improvement.  It  is  probable 
that  his  chief  aim,  in  those  four  or  five  old-fashioned  pul- 
pits, was  to  impress  the  elements  of  the  gospel,  the  first 
principles  of  Christian  truth,  upon  the  minds  and  con- 
sciences of  his  flock.  To  make  them  comprehend  what  he 
said,  and  to  enforce  the  doctrines,  promises,  warnings  and 
consolations  to  which  he  gave  utterance,  required  constant 
efforts  at  simplifying,  and,  consequently,  a  repression  of  his 
scholarly  tastes  and  habits.  Had  he  received  only  one- 
fourth  of  the  educational  training  with  which  he  was  fur- 
nished, he  would  probably  have  preached  in  a  style  better 
adapted  to  the  appreciation  of  that  people.  And  it  may  be,, 
that  when  he  sent  out  some  smart  student  of  his,  like  Sam- 
uel Hoshour,  to  fill  his  country  appointments,  some  people 
may  have  thought  that  the  student  of  one  year's  theological 
reading  could  preach  as  well  as  the  young  professor 
with  all  his  college  and  seminary  honors.  Had  he  been 
settled  over  an  intelligent  congregation  in  a   large  place. 


under  the  stimulating  power  of  appreciating  audiences,  his 
preaching  would  have  been  of  a  much  higher  order,  than 
that  which  came  in  clear  ringing  tones  from  the  goblet- 
shaped  pulpits  of  the  New  Market  parish.  It  was  when  he 
went  from  home  and  preached  in  places  like  Winchester, 
Frederick,  Hagerstown,  York,  or  Philadelphia,  that  his 
powers  were  fully  enlisted.  The  testimony  of  intelligent 
laymen  who  heard  him  on  such  occasions,  is  unanimous, 
that  fifty  years  ago  Samuel  S.  Schmucker  was  a  delightful 
and  highly  profitable  preacher.  His  reputation  in  the 
places  mentioned  was  such,  that  when  it  was  known  that 
he  would  preach  in  any  of  those  towns,  the  intelligent  peo- 
ple of  all  denominations  flocked  to  hear  him." 

There  were  other  good  preachers  in  the  Lutheran 
church  at  that  day — Dr.  C.  Endress,  a  man  of  a  high  order 
of  intellect  and  extensive  erudition,  in  the  pulpit  at  Lancas- 
ter, till  his  death,  1827  ;  Dr.  George  Lochman,  an  exceed- 
ingly popular  pastor  and  preacher,  at  Harrisburg,  till  1826; 
and  Dr.  F.  Christian  Schaeffer,  one  of  the  effective  and 
attractive  preachers  of  the  time,  in  New  York,  till  1832. 
The  man  with  whom  Mr.  Schmucker  was  more  frequently 
compared  was  Benjamin  Kurtz,  of  Hagerstown,  a  young 
man  also,  but  older  than  he  by  precisely  four  years,  being 
also  born  on  the  28th  of  February,  (1795).  When 
Schmucker  entered  the  ministry,  Kurtz  was  already  attract- 
ing notice  as  a  rising  man  in  the  church.  While  young 
Schmucker  was  sprightly,  intellectual,  scholarly,  practical, 
and  at  times  impressive,  he  was  on  great  occasions,  too 
didactic  for  the  popular  appreciation  ;  Kurtz  was  ardent, 
evangelical,  heart-moving  and  successful.  On  some  occa- 
sions he  was  overwhelmingly  powerful ;  and  not  many 
years  afterward  generally  regarded  as  the  very  first  of  our 
English  preachers.  Among  the  cotemporaries  of  Schmucker 
in  the  pulpits  of  other  denominations,  there  were  men  of 


transcendent  ability.  Dr.  Mason  was  not  yet  dead.  Lyman 
Beecher  was  rising  toward  the  zenith  of  his  glory.  Duncan 
was  already  brilliant  in  the  Baltimore  pulpit.  The  charm- 
ing Summerfield  was  already  looming  upward,  shedding 
his  heavenly  light  over  the  land.  Bascom  was  filling  a 
large  space  in  the  public  eye. 

Now,  while  in  many  of  the  elements  of  popular  elo- 
quence Mr.  Schmucker,  even  under  the  most  favorable 
influences,  was  not  fitted  to  take  a  place  in  the  same  rank 
with  those  brilliant  lights  of  the  American  pulpit,  yet  taking 
the  entire  man,  his  fine  intellect,  his  large  attainments,  his 
scholarly  tastes,  his  evangelical  spirit,  his  fidelity  to  duty 
and  his  deep  devotion  to  the  interests  of  the  church,  he 
was  worthy  to  be  the  contemporary  and  compeer  of  those 

As  pastor  his  experience  was  limited.  Even  during 
the  period  of  pastoral  life  at  New  Market,  he  was  taxed 
with  so  many  other  duties  that  his  best  energies  could  not 
be  given  to  pastoral  work,  if  by  pastoral  work  we  are  to 
understand  the  ministerial  duties  performed  outside  of  the 
pulpit.  But  in  this  department  of  his  work  he  was  faithful. 
He  never  failed  to  visit  the  sick  or  the  awakened,  when 
informed  of  their  condition.  He  ministered  consolation  to 
the  bereaved.  It  has  been  said,  that  he  rarely  engaged  in 
conversation  with  a  parishoner,  without  giving  the  conver- 
sation a  religious  turn.  Probably  a  few  minutes  of  religious 
talk  from  the  lips  of  young  Schmucker  left  a  better  influence 
upon  the  church  member,  than  the  social  visit  of  several 
hours'  duration  from  some  of  his  contemporaries. 

After  the  expiration  of  his  first  pastoral  year,  his  time 
was  so  occupied,  that  very  little  could  be  spared  for  his  peo- 
ple, excepting  what  was  required  for  visits  to  the  sick  and 
those  in  spiritual  difficulty  or  distress.  And  he  was  suc- 
cessful, as   the   fruits   of  his    ministry   abundantly   prove. 


Upon  the  very  best  authority  it  has  been  said,  that  when 
Mr.  Schmucker  began  his  ministry,  not  one  in  four  of  the 
New  Market  families  had  a  Lutheran  member  in  it.  When 
he  left,  in  less  than  six  years,  not  one  in  four  was  without  a 
member  of  his  church. 

In  a  sketch  of  his  life  published  by  Rev.  H.  C. 
Schierenbeck,  1863,  the  materials  of  which  were  drawn 
from  the  most  reliable  source,  it  is  said,  "  He  labored  from 
house  to  house  for  the  spiritual  welfare  of  his  people.  He 
held  weekly  prayermeetings :  instructed  the  youth  in  the 
catechism  after  the  manner  of  the  Patriarch  Muhlenburg, 
and  established  Sunday-schools.  His  pulpit  ability  gave 
weight  to  his  message,  and  he  was  greatly  beloved  by  his 

The  statistical  reports  to  the  Synod  of  Maryland  and 
Virginia  bear  out  this  statement.  At  the  Synod  of  Freder- 
ick, 1 82 1,  the  end  of  his  first  pastoral  year,  he  reported 
twenty  additions  by  confirmation,  and  ninety  communicants. 
At  the  Synod  of  Cumberland,  1822,  forty  confirmed,  and 
135  communicants.  At  Shepherdstown,  1823,  seventeen 
confirmed.  At  Middletown,  1824,  forty -two  confirmed. 
At  Hagerstown,  1825,  forty  confirmed,  and  191  communi- 
cants. Commencing  with  five  small  congregations,  having 
an  aggregate  communion  list  of  seventy,  to  which  he  added 
twenty  the  first  jear,  and  an  average  of  nearly  forty  every 
year  afterwards,  from  a  small  Lutheran  community,  and 
leaving,  in  four  congregations,  at  his  resignation  in  1826, 
about  two  hundred  communicants,  shows  a  ministry  as 
fruitful  as  that  of  any  contemporary  pastor.  In  estimating 
the  fruits  of  a  ministry,  the  extent  of  material  to  work  upon 
must  be  taken  into  the  account.  There  were  pastors,  of 
course,  who  confirmed  more  than  forty  annually,  during 
those  five  years.  But  they  had  large  pastoral  districts,  with 
three  or  tour  hundred  families,  and  seven  or  eight  hundred 


communicants.  Young  Schmucker  commenced,  at  New 
Market,  with  thirty-five  or  forty  families.  Yet,  from  this 
limited  material  his  yearly  accessions  were  large.  It  is 
probable  that  in  no  other  parish  of  our  church,  during  those 
five  years,  were  there  confirmed,  every  year,  a  number  equal 
to  the  number  of  families  at  the  beginning. 

The  following  extracts  from  the  diary  after  his  licens- 
ure, and  while  he  was  a  candidate,  may  be  interesting  and 
instructive.  Parts  of  it  are  written  in  German,  English  and 

1820,  June  20.  Funeral  Sermon  at  the  burial  of  Mr. 
Bernhardt.  Text,  John  x.  27-30.  Theme:  The  privileges  of 
the  true  followers  of  Christ. 

I.  The  character  of  the  true  followers  of  Christ; 
II.  Their  privileges. 

28th.     Baptized  two  children  at  Kreutz  Creek  Church. 

July  2.  Preached  at  Carlisle  for  Brother  Keller.  In 
the^morning.     Text:  Acts  iii.  19. 

I.  The  nature  of  true  repentance. 

1.  It  embraces  a  change  in  the  views 

a.  Of  God  ; 

b.  Of  the  divine  law  ;  and  of 

c.  The  future  state. 

2.  In  \h.e feelings  or  dispositions; 

3.  In    the    practical    experience    and    life  of  the 

II.  The  proofs  or  verification  of  this  conversion. 
It  is  the  only  way  of  true  happiness ; 

1.  In  this  life  ; 

2.  In  death  ; 

3.  In  eternity. 

Evening,  Jeremiah  ix.  23,  24.  Theme:  The  true  Glory  of 


I.  Consider  some  of  the  objects  of  the  worldly  man's 
glory ; 

a.  Riches  ; 

b.  Fame ; 

c.  Wisdoni ; 

II,  Consider  the  object  of  the  Christian's  glory  ;  true 
and  saving  knowledge  of  God. 
III.  Show  why   we  ought  to  glory  in  the  latter  and  not 
in  the  former  ; 

a.  Because  God  commands  it  in  our  text; 

b.  Because  the   former  are  not,  and  the  latter  are 

proper  objects  of  human  glory  ; 

c.  Because  man  holds  a  high  rank  in  the  grade  of 

July  g.  York.  Text :  Psalm  ex.  3.  The  skeleton  is 
founded  on  the  following  new  translation  of  the  Hebrew : 
"  After  the  time  of  thy  victory  thy  people  shall  bring  thee 
willing  offerings  in  the  beauty  of  holiness,  and  children 
shall  be  born  unto  thee  as  the  morning  dew  flows  in  the 
eastern  horizon."  Theme:  The  joyful  consequences  of  the 
victory  of  Christ  our  King. 
I.  The  victory  itself; 

Give  a  history  of  the  rise,  progress  and  termina- 
tion of  the  conflict  between  Jesus  and  Satan ; 
II.  The  joyful  consequences  thereof; 

1.  A  people  shall  be  gathered; 

2.  The  people  shall  bring  him  willing  offerings ; 

a.  A  profession   of  their  faith  by  joining  the 

visible  church  ; 

b.  By  sacrificing  the  pleasures  of  the  world  ; 

c.  By  yielding  themselves  a  living  sacrifice  to 

Application,   i.  To  those  who  are  of  his  people  ; 

2.  To  those  who  are  not  of  his  people. 



From  July  2j  to  September  j,  he  preached  every 
Sunday  in  some  one  or  the  other  Lutheran  Churches  in  York 
Town  or  County. 

September  i^.  Preached  at  Strasburg,  Va.,  on  John 
X.  27-30. 

ii^th.  Preached  at  Woodstock,  Va.  Isaiah  Iv.  6 
"  Seek  ye  the  Lord  while  he  may  be  found,  call  upon  him 
while  he  is  near," 

i^tk.     Preached    at    Solomon's    Church     near    New 

.   Market,  Virginia,  on  Rom.  viii.  9.     "  But  ye  are  not  in  the 

flesh,  but  in  the  Spirit,  if  so  be  that  the  Spirit  of  God  dwell 

in  you.     Now,  if  any  man  have  not  the  Spirit  of  Christ,  he 

is  none  of  his." 

2ph.  Preached  at  New  Market,  on  Micah  vi.  3.  "  O 
my  people,  what  have  I  done  unto  thee  ?  and  wherein  have 
I  wearied  thee  ?  Testify  against  me." 

2ph.  Preached  at  Plains  meeting-house  in  English 
and  German. 

26th.  Preached  at  Armentrauts.  Text :  Isaiah  Iv.  6 
in  German. 

I.  By  nature  we  have  not  the  Lord  ; 
II.  If  we  would  have  him,  we  must  seek  him ; 

III.  How  shall  we  obey  the  command  of  the  text ; 

IV.  If  we  do  not  seek  him  now,  we  may  not  find  him  in 

In  the  evening,  at  the  same  place  on  Ephesians  v.  16. 
"  Redeeming  the  time,  because  the  days  are  evil." 

November  4..  Preached  at  Quickels  Church.  Text  : 
Matt.  XX.  16.     Theme:  The  chatiges  in  the  Church  of  Christ. 

I.  The  persons ; 

a.  The  first ; 

b.  The  last. 


II.  The  changes  ; 

a.  The  first  shall  become  the  last ; 

b.  The  last  shall  become  the  first. 

November  26.  Preached  for  Rev.  Mayer  in  Philadel- 
phia, on  Prov.  iii.  17.  "His  ways  are  ways  of  pleasantness, 
and  all  her  paths  are  peace." 

The  same  day  in  the  evening  preached  for  Brother 
Cruse  to  a  crowded  and  very  attentive  audience.  Text : 
Rev.  xiv.  13.  "Blessed  are  the  dead  which  die  in  the 

I.     The  persons.    They  are  such  as  lived  in  Jesus,  viz : 

1.  In  the  faith  of  Jesus; 

2.  In  the  communion  of  Jesus  ; 

3.  In  obedience  to  Jesus. 
II.  Their  future  blessedness  ; 

(a.)  They  shall  rest  from  their  labors,  in  promoting 
the  Kingdom  of  God 

1.  In  their  own  souls  ; 

a.  From  the  labor  of  self-denial ; 

b.  From  the  use  of  means  of  grace  ; 

c.  From  spiritual  watchfulness  ; 

d.  From  sorrow  for  their  sins. 

2.  In  the  souls  of  others  ; 

(b.)  Their  works  shall  follow  them  ;  applications. 
December  2.     In  the   morning  for  Dr.  Kurtz  in  Balti- 
more,  Text :  Acts   iii.  20.     "  And    he    shall    send    Jesus 
Christ,  which  before  was  preached  unto  you." 

jrd.  In  the  afternoon  for  Rev.  Helfenstein,  the  Re- 
formed pastor. 

loth.  Preached  in  York,  on  Heb.  ii.  3.  "  How  shall  we 
escape,  if  we  neglect  so  great  salvation,  which  at  the  first 
began  to  be  spoken  by  the  Lord,  and  was  confirmed  unto 
us  by  them  that  heard  him." 


Exordium.  The  salvation  of  an  immortal  being  is  infi- 
nitely important.  Therefore  the  inspired  writers  were  led 
to  speak  most  earnestly,  and  as  they  were  not  deprived  by 
inspiration  of  their  natural  capacities,  they  made  use  of 
human  forms  of  speech.  St.  Paul  gives  expression  to  his 
ardent  feelings  by  means  of  an  antithesis,  "  How  shall  the 
transgressor  escape  ?  "  etc. 

Theme  :  The  unhappy  conditio7i  of  those  who  neglect  the 
great  Salvation, 

I.  The  Great  Salvation  embraces  two  principal  parts  ; 

1.  Deliverance  from  the  slavery, 

a.  Of  the  world  ; 

b.  Of  Satan ; 

c.  Of  our  own  sinful  nature  ; 

d.  Of  the  curse  of  the  law  in  this  life  and  the  life 

that  is  to  come. 

2.  In  the  blessings  of 

a.  The  restoration  of  the  image  of  God ; 

b.  The  restoration  of  the  favor  of  God  ; 

c.  Adoption  as  children  of  God. 

3.  The  greatness  of  this  salvation  is  shown  ; 

a.  By  the  price  it  cost — the  blood  of  Christ ; 

b.  The  opinions  of  many  saints  and  learned  men  ; 

c.  The  death  of  the  martyrs  ; 

d.  The    nature    of   the    salvation — it    is   eternah 

II.  The  persons  who  neglect  this  salvation. 

1 .  Those  who  deny  the  divine  revelation  ; 

2.  Those    whose    Christianity    is    but    an   outward 

form  ; 

3.  Those     who    have   had    good    impressions,   but 

resisted  them.     Application. 

98  DIARY   FROM    DEC.    1 7   TO   APRIL   4. 


December  ij.  Preached  at  Winchester  for  Brother 

December  21.  Arrived  at  New  Market,  Shenandoah 
County,  Va,,  and  by  the  grace  of  God,  in  reliance  on  the 
aid  of  God,  took  charge  of  my  churches. 

2pk.  Preached  Thursday  before  Christmas  in  the 
morning,  in  Solomon's  Church,  German,  and  in  the  after- 
noon at  New  Market. 

January  /,  1821.  Spent  the  day  and  the  night  previ- 
ous to  New  Year  in  meditation,  self-examination  and 

ist.  Preached  in  New  Market,  on  Job  xvi.  22. 
"  When  a  few  more  years  are  come,  then  shall  I  go  the  way 
whence  I  shall  not  return." 

i-6th.  This  week  I  spent  in  pastoral  visits,  principally 
in  Solomon's  Church. 

I4^th.  Preached  at  Mount  Pleasant  to  a  large  and 
attentive  audience,  and  accepted  the  charge  of  that  church, 
on  application  of  the  vestry.  It  had  formerly  been  an 
Episcopal  Church,  but  the  minister  having  left  them,  they 
applied  to  me,  and  conform  to  Lutheran  forms. 

Jan  22.  was  a  day  of  peculiar  solemnity,  self-examina- 
tion and  abasement  to  my  soul,  and  I  trust,  truly  profitable 
to  me. 

Feb.  II.  Preached  in  the  morning  at  Mount  Pleasant. 
N.  B.  In  the  church  at  Mt.  Pleasant  I  preach  only  Eng- 
lish, because  the  congregation,  having  been  Episcopal,  do 
not  understand  any  German. 

April  4.  Wednesday  commenced  the  instruction  of 
the  catechumens  preparatory  to  confirmation,  in  the  New 
Market  congregation.  In  the  evening  I  held  prayermeet- 
ing,  and  made  an  address  of  an  hour's  length  to  the  assem- 
bly, who  appeared  very  attentive  and  serious. 

DIARY    FROM    APRII,   20   TO  JUNE    lO.  99 

20th.  Good  Friday,  Preached  in  Armentraut's  to  a 
very  large  assembly. 

22nd.  Easter  Sunday.  Preached  in  the  morning  at 
Mt.  Pleasant.  Afternoon,  New  Market  in  German.  Eas- 
ter Monday,  New  Market  in  English*. 

2^111.  Preached  in  Solomon's  Church  on  Matt.  xx. 
16  :  "  So  the  last  shall  be  first,  and  the  first  last :  for  many 
be  called,  but  few  chosen." 

As  some  had  imbibed  prejudices  agaiuoL  tiie  General 
Synod,  I  read  the  proceedings  of  its  session  at  Hagerstown 
together  with  the  constitution,  and  defended  the  General 
Synod.     All  appeared  to  be  satisfied  with  it. 

May  ^i.  Preached  at  Armentraut's,  Mark  xvi.  i6,  in 
both  languages,  "  He  that  believeth  and  is  baptized,  shall 
be  saved  ;  but  he  that  believeth  not  shall  be  damned." 

Baptized  three  children  in  the  church,  then  rode  two 
miles  to  baptize  another.  This  day  I  rode  thirty  miles, 
preached  twice,  baptized  four  children,  and  visited  four  dif- 
ferent families,  and  I  not  unfrequently  do  this  in  one  day. 

June  3rd.  Preached  at  Mt.  Pleasant  to  a  large  audience. 
Preached  in  New  Market  in  German,  on  the  nature  of  the 
Holy  Sacrament  of  the  Lord's  Supper,  and  presented  the 
various  customs  and  views  of  this  ordinance  for  the  instruc- 
tion of  the  hearers. 

gth.  I  held  meetings  of  the  catechumens  every  day 
this  week,  excepting  two.  On  Saturday  previous  to  Whit 
Sunday  I  confirmed  twenty-three  persons,  some  of  whom 
were  fifty  years  of  age,  and  held  service  preparatory  to  the 
Lord's  Supper. 

lotk.  Administered  the  Supper  of  my  Lord  and  Mas- 
ter in  the  New  Market  congregation  to  sixty  communicants. 
Preached  in  both  languages  to  a  numerous  and  attentive 

On  the  whole  I  have  great  reason  to  believe  that   I 


have  not  labored  in  vain  in  my  congregations.  There  are 
several  who  have  been  truly  converted,  and  at  least  twenty 
who  have  convictions  of  a  religious  kind,  and  very  many 
who  are  very  attentive  to  preaching.  The  morality  of  the 
people  in  general  in  my  congregations  is  good.  Some 
prejudice  has  been  instilled  into  the  minds  of  some  by  the 
Henkels,  who  are  much  opposed  to  the  General  Synod  of 
our  church.  I  frequently  hold  prayermeetings  during  the 

The  foregoing  is  an  abbreviation  of  my  journal — entire 
it  would  have  been  tedious  for  the  Synod. 

NEW    YEAR    DAY. 

Jan.  7,  /(5*2J.  By  the  gracious  providence  of  that 
God,  who  governs  the  universe  and  all  things  in  it,  I  have 
been  permitted  to  behold  another  New  Year's  Day  in  the 
land  of  mortals  !  And  I  would,  with  the  deepest  rever- 
ence of  heart,  bow  in  humble  submission  to  the  will  of  my 
God,  willing  to  live  as  long  as  he  will,  and  willing,  I  trust, 
when  he  shall  call,  to  leave  these  scenes  of  mortality. 
Another  year  of  my  life  is  gone.  All  ot  its  successive  mo- 
ments have  fled  into  eternity,  and  borne  with  them  to  the 
chancery  of  heaven  a  record  of  all  the  deeds,  and  all  the 
words,  and  all  the  thoughts  which  were  done  in  them  ;  and 
there  they  shall  stand  recorded  till  the  day  of  judgment ! 
Thou  Lamb  of  God,  which  takest  away  the  sin  of  the 
world,  I  bless  thy  holy  name,  that  by  the  grace  afforded 
unto  me,  I  find  myself  on  the  way  to  heaven  ;  that  I  am 
still,  I  trust,  a  sincere  follower  of  my  Lord  and  Savior. 



1821 — 1823. 







February  28,  182 1,  he  was  married  to  Miss  Elenora, 
daughter  of  Mr.  John  Geiger,  of  Hagerstown,  Md.  The 
ceremony  was  performed  by  Rev.  Benjamin  Kurtz,  who 
was  at  that  time  pastor  of  the  Lutheran  Church  in  Hagers- 

She  was  a  real  helpmeet  to  him,  and  a  devotedly  pious 
woman.  The  following  account  of  a  journey  of  the  young 
married  couple  will  be  very  interesting  to  the  readers.  It  is 
taken  from  his  diary  and  is  headed : 


In  the  fall  of  1822  my  health  had  been  much  impaired 
by  the  excessive  heat  and  dryness,  by  preaching  sermons, 
combined  with  more  labor  than  I  was  well  able  to  bear. 
Whilst  traveling  to  the  Synod  at  Cumberland,  I  was  fre- 
quently unable  to  sit  up  without  the  greatest  effort.  My 
digestive  system  was  much  impaired,  and  my  debility  ex- 
ceedingly great.  On  my  return  from  Synod,  I  started,  by 
recommendation  of  the  physician,  to  Capon  Springs,  in 
company  with  Elenora,  my  wife.     When  approaching  the 


mountain,  between  the  ridges  of  which  the  Spring  lies,  it 
was  becoming  dusk,  although  we  were  yet  seven  miles 
from  the  place  of  our  destination.  I  proposed  to  remain  at 
the  last  tavern,  until  morning  ;  but,  Elenora  wishing  to  be 
at  the  end  of  the  journey,  I  proceeded.  It,  however,  soon 
became  very  dark,  the  traveling  very  tiresome,  as  I  had  to 
lead  the  horse,  being  unable  to  see  the  road  from  the  gig, 
and  dangerous,  too,  on  account  of  the  very  steep  descents 
at  many  places  on  the  side  of  the  road.  After  traveling 
several  hours  in  this  very  unpleasant  manner,  without  see- 
ing or  hearing  a  human  being,  in  the  midst  of  a  mountain- 
ous country,  unknown  to  us,  we  espied  a  fire  at  a  distance. 
We  were  very  much  rejoiced  at  the  sight,  expecting  to  find 
some  living  being  who  would  tell  us  the  road,  and  inform 
us  how  near  we  were  to  the  Springs.  But  alas,  when  we 
reached  the  fire,  it  proved  to  be  merely  the  burning  of  the 
underwood,  which  had  been  set  on  fire.  I  took  out  my 
watch  and  found  it  was  lo  o'clock!  We  had  expected  to 
be  at  the  Springs  by  9,  and  therefore  feared  that  we  had 
missed  the  road.  I  hallooed,  my  voice  echoed  through  the 
mountains,  but  no  answer  was  heard.  After  resting  a  while, 
being  scarcely  able  to  lead  the  horse  any  farther  in 
my  debilitated  state,  we  traveled  onward  about  half  a  mile, 
when  I  again  entered  the  gig,  and  driving  at  a  pace  down 
hill,  trusting  to  Providence  and  the  faithfulness  of  my  horse, 
the  animal  suddenly  stopped,  and  though  urged,  refused 
to  go  farther.  I  got  out,  and  passing  onward  to  the  horse's 
head,  found  him  close  up  to  a  wagon.  Ah,  thought  I, 
here  surely  is  a  wagoner  who  was  also  benighted,  and  he 
will  be  company  for  us.  I  called  loud,  but  no  friendly 
voice  replied.  Thinking  there  might  be  a  dog  about  the 
wagon,  I  whistled  ior  him,  but  discovered  nothing.  I  then 
climbed  along  the  side  of  the  wagon  (the  road  was  washed 
out  three  feet  deep)  to  the  front,  and  found  the  horses  gone. 


the  wagon-tongue  aground  against  a  large  tree,  two  feet  in 
diameter,  which  had  fallen  across  the  road.  After  a  fruit- 
less attempt  to  get  around  the  wagon,  we  determined  to 
remain  in  the  mountain.  I  therefore  unharnessed  the 
horse,  tied  him  by  the  line  to  the  wheel,  made  a  kind  of 
bed  in  the  empty  wagon,  assisted  Elenora  to  get  into  it,  and 
there,  under  the  protection  of  Providence,  slept  safe  in  the 
mountain,  having  had  no  supper,  and  not  knowing  where 
we  were.  In  the  morning  I  could  drive  around  the  tree, 
proceed  on,  and  in  one  mile  reached  the  Springs. 

On  the  third  of  July,  1823,  he  sustained  an  overwhelm- 
ing affliction  in  the  death  his  wife.  In  his  diary,  written 
at  Shanondale  Springs,  Va.,  August  15th,  he  gives  an 
account  of  her  sickness,  death  and  burial.  We  have  never 
read  anything  more  pathetic,  touching,  and  withal,  submis- 
sive to  the  will  of  God,  than  this  tribute  to  his  sainted  wife. 
That  must,  indeed,  be  a  hard  heart,  which  can  remain 
unmoved  by  its  perusal. 

ABOUT    AUG.    15,   1823. 

Upwards  of  four  weeks  have  now  elapsed  since  my 
God  visited  me  with  the  most  mysterious  and  appalling 
dispensation.  In  the  interval  that  has  elapsed,  my  mind 
has  had  time  to  recover  from  that  suspense  and  anxiety, 
which  the  long  expectation  of  the  death  of  my  dearest  and 
most  devoted  wife  had  excited ;  and  my  feelings  are  no 
longer  now  those  of  dreadful  anticipation,  but  a  painful,  yet, 
I  trust,  resigned  retrospect  of  the  wonderful  ways  of  God. 
Before  her  death  I  feared  the  loss  of  the  object  of  my  dear- 
est affection,  but  since  that  event  I  have  learned  to  feel  that 
I  have  lost  my  wife,  the  partner  of  my  bosom,  the  solace  of 
my  life ;  my  daily,  hourly  and  momentary  companion ;  yea, 

I04  DEATH   OF   HIS   WIFE. 

I  feel  as  if  I  had  buried  part  of  myself.  That  beautiful,  and 
graceful,  and  perfect  body,  which  she  denied  to  the 
addresses  of  more  than  a  dozen  others,  some  the  most 
wealthy  and  respectable  persons  in  Maryland,  and  gave  to 
me,  that  body  is  now  mouldering  in  the  dust,  is  returning 
into  those  elementary  principles  of  matter  out  of  which  the 
hand  of  the  great  and  intelligent  Artificer  has  constructed  it. 
But  I  find  relief  from  those  horrible  feelings,  into 
which  I  at  first  had  sunken,  by  contemplating  that  joyful 
doctrine,  which  reason,  indeed,  could  not  teach,  but  which 
is  brought  to  light  by  the  Gospel,  that  all  the  hairs  of  that 
dear  head  are  numbered,  and  that  the  providential  protec- 
tion of  God  extends  no  less  to  every  particle  of  her  dissolv- 
ing body,  than  it  did  to  the  beautiful  form,  which  was 
composed  of  them  ;  that  as  she  departed  from  this  life,  a 
firm  believer  in  the  Lord  Jesus,  and  in  the  strong  assurance 
of  her  acceptance  v/ith  God,  that  God  will  not  suffer  her  to 
endure  pain  of  any  kind  ;  yea,  I  rejoice,  my  dearest  wife, 
with  a  melancholy  joy  in  the  thought,  that  you  are  now  in 
the  arms  of  that  blessed  Savior  on  whom  you  so  often 
called,  and  on  whose  merits  alone  you  relied  for  happiness 
and  heaven  ;  I  rejoice  in  the  happy  thought,  that  agreeably 
to  the  request  several  times  made  on  your  deathbed,  you 
are  my  guardian  angel,  ministering  unto  me,  an  heir  of 
salvation.  Now  you  are  convinced  of  the  benevolence  of 
the  design  for  which  you  were  permitted  to  suffer  so  much ; 
now  you  know  that  you  were  permitted  to  suffer  by  a  good 
and  holy  God,  who  studies  your  greatest  and  best  interest ; 
now  you  are  enjoying  ineffable  felicity  in  heaven.  Yes,  you 
were  happy  in  the  arms  of  your  beloved  husband,  but  you 
are  infinitely  more  so  in  the  arms  of  our  coinmon  God.  O, 
delightful  thought !  He  is  our  common  God  !  We  shall, 
at  some  future  period,  worship  Him  together,  as  we  daily 
did  on    earth ;   nay,  in    an    infinitely   higher   and    happier 

DEATH   OF   HIS   WIFK.  I05 

degree  !  Sometimes,  blessed  spirit,  my  heart  would 
mourn,  that  thou  wast  not  permitted  to  enjoy  the  lawful 
pleasures  of  this  life,  for  which  thou  wast  so  highly  quali- 
fied ;  but  my  religion  tells  me,  that  instead  of  losing  these, 
thou  hast  gained  infinitely  greater  happiness,  and  therefore 
bidst  my  mourning  heart  be  silent.  When  I  recollect  the 
declaration  made  in  the  beginning  of  your  serious  illness, 
that  separation  from  me  was  the  only  remaining  thing 
which  you  thought  hard,  my  heart  would  mourn,  and  wish 
you  back ;  but  when  I  remember,  that  being  separated 
from  me,  thou  art  united  to  God,  I  rejoice  m  your  gain,  and 
endeavor  to  feel  an  humble  satisfaction  in  my  loss. 

0  that  God  may  preserve  me  faithful  to  his  cause,  and 
prepare  me  for  admittance  to  the  same  heaven  in  which 
thou  now  art. 

1  find  some  consolation  in  the  reflection,  that  nothing 
was  left  undone,  which  man  could  do,  to  save  the  life  of 
my  wile.  I  had  the  advice  of  four  of  the  best  physicians, 
which  the  neighboring  country  afforded,  and  the  constant 
attendance  of  two.  I  am  therefore  convinced,  that  her 
death  was  not  the  result  of  any  neglect  of  the  appointed 
means  of  preserving  life,  but  the  appointment  of  God. 

About  three  weeks  previous  to  her  death,  when  she 
was  very  low  for  several  days,  so  that  we  expected  her  de- 
parture hourly,  I  sent  to  Brother  Jacob  of  Woodstock,  to 
come  and  visit  us  ;  to  baptize  our  little  son,  whose  baptism 
had  been  deferred  from  time  to  time,  on  account  of  the 
wish  of  my  dear  wife,  to  present  him  to  God  in  church  per- 
sonally herself  He  came,  and  the  day  was  an  awfully  solemn 
one.  Mrs.  Williamson,  my  dear  wife's  most  intimate  friend, 
and  the  friend  of  God,  stood  as  sponsor  ;  I  myself  held  him 
in  my  arms  during  the  baptism,  and  gladly  gave  him  to  my 
God,  and  besought  his  protection  for  him.  Afterwards  I 
administered  for  the  last  time  to  my  wife  the  Holy  Supper 


of  our  blessed  Lord  and  Savior.  Mrs.  Williamson  and  Mr. 
Foote  communed  with  us.  O  God,  it  was  an  awful  day ! 
Lord,  make  me  submissive  to  thine  awful  and  mysterious 
will !  It  is  a  source  of  pleasing  reflection,  that  my  dear 
wife  retained  the  perfect  use  of  her  mental  faculties,  until 
the  last  moment  of  her  life.  During  the  last  day  and  night 
she  occasionally  yet  conversed  with  me,  though  only  a  few 
sentences  at  a  time.  I  now  desire  to  say,  "  The  Lord  gave, 
the  Lord  hath  taken  away,  blessed  be  the  name  of  the 

It  was  the  third  of  July,  at  half-past  two  o'clock  in  the 
morning,  that  she  died ;  on  the  fourth,  at  eleven  o'clock  she 
was  buried. 

Brother  Foote  preached  the  funeral  sermon,  on  "The 
righteous  hath  hope  in  death,"  in  the  English  language, 
and  Uncle  Nicolas  preached  in  the  German.  The  audience 
was  very  numerous  and  attentive.  May  the  death  of  her 
body  prove  the  life  of  the  soul  to  many  of  those  who  wit- 
nessed those  solemnities. 

On  Monday  after  her  death  I  started  with  Sister 
Henrietta ;  we  went  by  stage  to  Hagerstown,  thence  to 
York,  where  I  spent  five  days ;  then  to  Fredericktown,  to 
Brother  Schaeffer ;  thence  to  Bedford  Springs  with  Sister 
Betsy ;  staid  two  weeks,  during  which  I  visited  Brother 
George  at  his  iron  works ;  returned  to  Hagerstown,  and 
am  by  the  grace  of  God  come  so  far  on  my  journey. 

At  the  meeting  of  the  Maryland  and  Virginia  Synod 
in  Fredericktown,  Md.,  Sept.  2,  1821,  a  letter  was  sent, 
from  the  congregations  of  his  charge,  expressing  their  de- 
cided approbation  of  his  deportment  generally,  and  the 
doctrines  taught  by  him. 

The  Synod  directed  Mr.  Kibler  to  pursue  his  theolog- 
ical studies  etc.,  under  the  instructions  of  Rev.  S. 


In  the  Ministerium  it  was 

Resolved,  That  the  Revs.  Messrs.  Graeber,  Kehler, 
Krauth  and  S.  Schmucker,  be  ordained  this  evening,  and 
that  Rev.  M.  Wachter  be  likewise  ordained,  immediately 
after  he  shall  take  charge  of  congregations. 


October  gth,  18 2j.  I  have  just  answered  a  letter  from 
my  friend,  Robert  Baird,  teacher  in  the  Lamma  School,  at 
Princeton,  N.  J.,  which  he  wrote  to  me  at  the  request  of  the 
Board  of  the  American  Bible  Society,  requesting  that  I 
would  consent  to  accept  an  appointment  as  agent,  and 
make  one  or  more  tours  through  different  parts  of  the 
United  States,  to  promote  the  interests  of  the  Society  by 
forming  auxiliaries. 

From  a  variety  of  reasons,  I  stated  to  him,  it  was  im- 
possible for  me  to  accept  the  offer.  The  work  itself  is  one 
in  which  I  should  delight  to  engage. 

The  image  of  my  departed  wife  is  also  often  before 
me ;  those  feelings  of  desolation  and  melancholy,  excited 
by  the  mournful  catastrophy,  I  regret  to  find,  are  as  acute 
as  they  were  six  months  after  her  death.  Everything  re- 
minds me  of  her, — here  a  sentence  written  in  a  book, — 
there  an  effusion  of  affection  recorded  on  one  of  my  most 
frequented  pages,  rouses  all  my  former  feelings,  and  I  can- 
not deny,  makes  me  unhappy.  May  God  pardon  my  in- 
ordinate love  for  her  !  May  he  teach  me  submission  ;  may 
he  comfort  my  uneasy  heart,  and  in  due  time  take  me  unto 
himself,  for  the  Redeemer's  sake. 

December  8th,  1824.  I  have  just  had  the  happiness  to 
learn,  that  Mrs.Beale  Steenbergen  was  awakened  by  my  dis- 
courses at  the  Sacramental  season  at  this  place  in  October. 
O  that  God  would  carry  on  the  good  work  in  her  heart, 
and  make  her  a  true  child  of  God  !     She  is  a  most  amiable 


and  accomplished  lady,  very  affectionate  and  interesting, 
and  how  much  more  eternal  interest  would  be  added  to 
her,  if  her  soul  were  yet  truly  transformed  into  the  divine 
image  !  O  that  God  may  make  me  instrumental  in  leading 
many  more  souls  to  the  Redeemer  ! 

Yesterday  I  received  a  letter  from  one  of  the  principal 
members  of  the  English  Lutheran  Church  in  Philadelphia, 
stating,  that  English  preaching  was  to  be  introduced 
shortly  in  Michael's  and  Zion  Churches,  and  informing  me, 
that  their  members  desired  me  for  their  minister. 

When  I  was  at  Baltimore,  I  was  also  requested  by  one 
of  the  managers  of  the  English  Lutheran  Church,  then  to 
say  definitely,  whether  they  could  expect  to  obtain  my  ser- 
vices, if  they  should  elect  me.  But  the  Lord  knows,  I  have 
no  desire  of  being  in  any  of  these  great  places,  but  would 
rather  live  in  the  country,  and  have  leisure  to  educate 
young  men  for  the  holy  ministry. 

O  Lord,  teach  me  thy  will,  and  let  me  be  guided  by 
plain  intimations  of  thy  providence.  O  Lord,  I  would  ac- 
knowledge thee  in  all  my  ways,  and  pray,  that  according  to 
thy  word  thou  wouldst  direct  my  path.  Not  my  will,  O 
Lord,  but  thine  be  done. 

DOVER,  MASS.,  IN  1 824. 

Left  Nczv  Market,  May  j.  Strasburg  Conference  on 
the  15th.     Settled  all  difficulties,  Dei  gracia. 

May  igth.  Arrived  in  the  steamboat  Thistle,  after  a 
pleasant  passage,  in  New  York  at  lo  o'clock  this  day.  At 
Princeton  I  submitted  my  work  to  Drs.  Alexander  and 
Miller  and  Professor  Hodge.  They  expressed,  personally 
and  in  writing,  to  me  their  high  approbation.  Dr.  Alex- 
ander examined  the  notes  on  the  Trinitarian  controversy, 
and  said,  "  The  reasoning  is  clear  and  conclusive."     I  had 


staid  at  the  public  inn,  but  at  the  invitation  of  my  old 
friend,  Mr.  White,  removed  to  his  house,  and  made  it  my 
home.  Was  invited  to  dine  at  Prof  McLean's,  with  Presi- 
dent Carnahan  and  other  distinguished  gentlemen.  Found 
the  President  an  humble,  retiring,  and  almost  diffident  man. 
But  he  did  not,  during  this  and  several  other  visits,  display 
the  evidence  of  an  extraordinary  mind.  My  old  friend,  Mr. 
Baird,  is  master  of  the  grammar  school,  and  his  school  is  re- 
puted to  be  the  best  in  New  Jersey.  But  the  glory  of 
Nassau  is  past,  and  I  think  there  is  but  little  doubt,  it  will 
sink  still  lower,  and  never  rise  to  its  former  celebrity. 

Nnv  York.  After  my  arrival  I  called  on  Brother 
Schaeffer,  at  No.  132  Bowery,  and  was  received  with  his 
usual  affection  and  candor.  Found  his  health  better  than 
usual.  He  hired  a  coach  and  took  me  to  see  the  Aetna, 
which  has  been  shattered  by  the  explosion  of  her  boiler, 
(which  was  of  the  high  pressure  kind),  by  which  about 
thirteen  persons  were  killed  and  many  seriously  wounded. 
It  was  an  awful  calamity,  and  I  would  render  thanks  to 
God,  that  I  was  not  in  the  boat ;  it  was  only  one  day's 
journey  ahead  of  me,  I  learned  with  surprise,  that  Dr. 
Romyn  has  been  officially  accused  of  intoxication  !  !  !  and 
that  Rev.  McLead,  Jr.,  was  sent  off  for  the  same  reason  !  ! 
that  Dr.  McLead  is  suspected  of  the  same  detestable  prac- 
tice in  a  slight  incipient  degree.  Brother  Schaeffer  informs 
me,  that  the  Neologians  of  their  Synod  are  opposed  to  Mr. 
Hazelius,  and  wish  to  have  Wackerhagen  in  his  stead ;  that 
they  oppose  the  orthodox  with  much  rancour  and  determi- 
nation, and  that  the  Hartwick  students  are  acquainted,  in 
some  degree,  with  this  state  of  ecclesiastical  nixation. 
Brother  Schaeffer  has  two  students,  Messrs.  Gaertner  and 
Wessel  Brother  Lintner,  whom  Brother  Schaeffer  has 
pronounced  sound  in  the  faith,  has  been  compelled,  in  self- 


defense,  to  publish  a  periodical  publication  of  rather  an 
anti-calvinistic  nature. 

Among  the  distinguished  divines  of  Germany,  who  are 
orthodox,  and  at  present  fearlessly  active,  Claus  Harms  is 
one  of  the  very  first,  if  not  the  greatest  himself  He  pub- 
lished nine-five  theses  against  the  Neology  of  the  day,  at  the 
celebration  of  the  centennial  jubilee  of  the  Reformation. 
These  excited  extreme  attention,  and  drew  from  the  press 
several  kindred  publications,  either  in  opposition  to  their 
doctrines,  or  in  support  of  them.  He  is  a  resident  of  Kiel, 
Holstein,  near  Hamburg.  He  sometime  since  declined, 
from  religious  motives,  a  call  to  a  Probsthum,  connected 
with  great  pecuniary  advantages,  and  his  flock  were  so  de- 
lighted, that  they  immediately  presented  him  a  house  of 
residence,  (he  being  very  poor,)  Schleiermacher  wrote 
against  his  theses. 

Klein's  Dogmatic  gives  both  the  orthodox  and  hetero- 
dox views;  but  the  spirit  of  the  work  seems  to  be  (I  judge, 
however,  only  from  a  slight  examination)  rather  "  Hellen- 

Franz  Theremin,  koeniglicher  Hof-und  Dom-Prediger, 
published  in  1817,  a  volume  of  sermons  of  a  decided  ortho- 
dox character  for  the  professed  purpose  of  promoting  or- 
thodoxy and  true  piety.  In  his  preface  he  professes  to 
have  experienced  the  power  of  religion  in  his  heart,  and  his 
prefactory  remarks  are  of  a  delightfully  zealous  and  ar- 
dently evangelical  nature.  The  fact,  that  a  man  of  such 
sentiments  is  court  preacher  in  Berlin,  affords  strong  evi- 
dence of  the  returning  prevalence  of  orthodoxy.  More- 
over, I  am  informed  by  Rev.  Vandersloot,  of  Virginia,  that 
fifty  per  cent  of  the  preachers  in  Berlin  are  orthodox.  The 
above  sermons  are  in  one  volume,  Octavo,  314  pages, 

L.  C.  G.  Strouch,  Haupt  Pastor  zu  Nicolai,  wrote  in 


opposition  to   Dr.  Garlich,   and  has  been    assailed   on  all 
sides  by  the  orthodox.* 

During  my  stay  at  New  York,  I  visited  Professor 
Turner,  of  the  Episcopal  Theological  Seminary,  submitted 
my  version  to  his  perusal,  and  received  his  recommenda- 
tion. His  deportment  was  remarkably  friendly,  and  his 
manners  are  those  of  an  accomplished  Christian  gentleman. 
My  old  friend  Mr.  Schroeder  accompanied  me  to  his  house. 
Mr.  Schroeder  is  vicar  in  the  stead  of  Dr.  and  Bishop 
Hobart,  who  is  now  on  a  tour  to  England  for  his  health. 
On  Sunday  preached  twice  for  Rev.  Schaeffer  in  St.  Mat- 
thews Church,  which  is  a  most  elegant  and  remarkably 
tasteful  edifice.  It  is  a  perfect  model  of  a  church,  and  is 
visited  as  such  by  many  persons  intending  to  build.  There 
is  no  gallery ;  there  is  an  excellent  and  very  good  toned 
organ  in  it;  which  cost  ;^2,ooo.  The  expense  of  the  whole 
building,  as  it  now  stands,  was  ^30,000,  of  which  ^16.000 
are  paid.  The  edifice  is  90  feet  in  length,  and  about  68 
feet  in  breadth.  The  ceiling  is  flat  and  low, very  lozv.  The 
floor  is  an  inclined  plane,  so  that  the  seats  rise  as  they  re- 
cede from  the  pulpit.  The  pulpit  is  all  mahogony  wood, 
and  rather  lower  than  common.  The  organ  is  in  a  projec- 
tion of  semicircular  form,  directly  back  of  the  pulpit,  and 
above  the  vestry-room.  The  doors,  which  are  four  in  num- 
ber, are  all  at  the  gable  end,  and  next  to  the  street ;  two 
lead  from  the  vestry-room  to  the  altar  on  either  side  of  the 
enclosure  around  the  altar.  The  entrance  into  the  pulpit  is 
up  a  flight  of  stairs  in  the  vestry-room  and  through  a  door 
into  the  pulpit.  There  is  a  basement  story  under  the  whole 
edifice,  in  which  Mr.  Hoxel  and  a  number  of  other  males 

*  We  fear  the  ardent  hopes  expressed  in  the  foregoing  of  the  in- 
creasing progress  of  orthodoxy  in  Germany,  have  not  been  fully  re- 
alized.— Ed. 


and  females  teach  one  of  the  most  extensive  and  respectable 
schools  in  the  city.  The  clergy  in  New  York  are,  in  gen- 
eral, not  distinguished  for  piety.  I  visited  also  the  Rev. 
Geisenhainer,  pastor  of  the  German  Lutheran  Church,  who 
is  a  man  of  very  distinguished  talent. 

Tuesday,  May  2^th.  Left  New  York  at  8  o'clock,  a.  m., 
in  the  steamboat  United  States,  for  New  Haven.  The  fare 
through  is  ^3.00,  including  board. 

The  object  of  his  journey  to  Andover,  Mass.,  was  to 
consult  with  Prof.  Moses  Stuart,  in  regard  to  the  transla- 
tion of  Storr  and  Fiatt's  Biblical  Theology.  On  this  sub- 
ject he  wrote ;  "  When  I  left  Princeton  there  were  three 
pia  desideria,  which  were  very  near  to  my  heart,  for  the 
welfare  of  our  church.  A  translation  of  some  one  eminent 
system  of  Lutheran  Dagmatics,  a  Theological  Seminary, 
and  a  College  for  the  Lutheran  Church." 

He  set  himself  to  work  to  do  what  in  him  lay  to  meet 
these  wants.  At  Princeton  already  he  had  selected  Mos- 
heim's  Elementa  Theologise  Dagmaticae,  which  selection 
was  warmly  commended  by  his  father  and  by  his  intimate 
friend,  F.  C.  Schaeffer,  of  New  York.  Dr.  Koethe,  of  Alt- 
stadt,  near  Jena,  urged  him  to  take  Storr  and  Flatt,  and 
Dr.  Moses  Stuart,  of  Andover,  strongly  urged  him  to  do 
so.  He  so  decided  and  translated,  re-arranged,  enlarged 
and  published  this  work.  The  first  edition  was  printed  in 
Andover,  in  two  volumes  8vo.,  by  Hagg  and  Gould,  in 
1826.  The  second  edition,  somewhat  abridged,  also 
printed  in  Andover,  by  Gould  and  Neuman,  one  volume  in 
1836.     It  was  also  reprinted  in  England  in  1845. 


During  his  pastorate  in  Virginia,  he  organized  a  class 
of  theological  students.     This  httle  school  of  the  prophets 


was  the  nucleus  of  the  theolog^ical  seminary  at  Gettys- 
burg. Dr.  Diehl  gives  the  following  account  of  it,  in  his 
biographical  sketch  : 

"  In  1820,  several  prominent  pastors  were  giving  theo- 
logical instruction  to  candidates  for  the  ministry.  Dr.  Hel- 
muth  had  trained  some.  Drs.  Lochman  and  D.  F.  Schaef- 
fer  had  each  a  little  private  theological  school.  There  was 
no  Lutheran  Theological  Seminary,  except  Hartwick,  and 
it  was  far  off  and  poorly  organized.  Candidates  for  the 
Lutheran  ministry  were  under  the  necessity  of  repairing  to 
the  theological  seminaries  of  other  denominations,  or  put- 
ting themselves  under  the  private  mstruction  of  eminent 
pastors.  Very  few  went  to  foreign  schools.  A  number 
had  gone  to  Philadelphia,  Harrisburg  and  Frederick. 

The  talents  and  learning  of  young  Schmucker,  soon 
pointed  him  out  as  the  man  to  teach  candidates.  At  the 
first  Synod  he  attended,  after  his  setth  ment,  1821,  the 
Synod  placed  a  catechist  and  theological  student,  Mr. 
Kibler,  of  North  Carolina,  under  his  tuition.  Soon  after- 
ward others  sought  his  services.  J.  B.  Reck,  Samuel  K. 
Hoshour,  J.  P.  Kline,  J.  G.  Morris  and  others,  found  their 
way  to  New  Market.  A  private  theological  school  of 
higher  repute,  and  promising  larger  dimensions,  than  any 
hitherto,  was  growing  up  in  Shenandoah  County,  when  the 
General  Synod  determined  to  establish  a  Seminary." 

Dr.  Morris,  who  was  one  of  the  first  pupils  in  this  Pro- 
Seminary,  gives  the  following  account  of  it  in  his  own  char- 
acteristic style  : 

"  After  he  had  been  settled  there  several  years  he  con- 
ceived the  idea  of  establishing  a  sort  of  Pro-Seminary.  This 
was  in  1823,  and  it  gradually  led  to  the  founding  of  the 
schools  we  now  have  at  Gettysburg.  Here,  the  second 
time,  I  became  the  pupil  of  S.  S.  Schmucker.  There  were 
five  other  young  men  who  constituted  the  class,  and  a  mis- 


cellaneous  crowd  it  was.  I  mean  that  we  were  in  every 
stage  of  preparation  ;  one  was  a  college  graduate,  another 
could  spell  but  a  few  words  of  the  Greek  Testament,  and  a 
few  others  had  the  same  difficulty  with  English.  But  they 
were  all  trained  to  be  useful  men.  The  mode  of  teaching 
was  not  very  systematic,  and  we  toddled  along  after  a  very 
remarkable  fashion. 

Our  teacher  was  at  that  time  engaged  in  translating 
the  Theology  of  Storr  and  Flatt,  which  was  published  at 
Andover,  and  which  reached  a  second  edition.  He  was  a 
most  untiring  worker,  and,  being  a  widower,  he  had  not  the 
cares  of  a  household,  not  even  taking  his  meals  in  the 
parsonage.  He  thus  devoted  his  whole  time  to  his  books, 
I  never  knew  him  to  take  a  walk  or  do  anything  else  for 
mere  exercise.  He  did  not  seem  to  require  it ;  at  least  I 
never  knew  him  to  suffer  from  severe  confinement  to  head 
work.  He  had  no  visitors  to  annoy  him,  and  was  very  im- 
patient of  intruders.  His  study  was  in  a  remote  part  of  the 
house  from  ours,  and  I  do  not  think  one  of  us  darkened 
the  door  of  that  sacro-sanctum  in  a  month.  So  neither  did 
he  ever  enter  our  workshop,  except  once  a  day  at  recita- 
tion. He  had  no  time  for  social  intercourse,  and  we  had 
none  to  hear  a  lecture  on  propriety," 

While  Morris  was  a  student  in  the  Pro-Seminary  in 
Virginia,  he  was  confirmed  by  Rev,  S.  S.  Schmucker,  and 
received  as  a  communicant  member  of  the  church.  This 
information  he  imparted  to  Dr.  B.  Sadtler  a  few  days  before 
his  death.  Some  doubts  having  been  expressed,  as  to  the 
correctness  of  this  statement,  by  friends  who  maintained 
that  he  had  been  confirmed  by  Dr.  J,  G.  Schmucker,  in 
York,  Pa.,  and  received  as  a  member  of  Christ  Lutheran 
Church,  Rev,  Dr.  G.  W.  Enders  kindly  searched  the  re- 
cords of  Christ  Lutheran  Church.  He  found  there  a  record 
of  the  baptism  of  Johann  Gottlieb  Morritz,  on  January  8th, 


1804,  by  Rev.  Jacob  Goehring,  but  no  record  of  his  con- 
firmation. Dr.  Enders  then  wrote  to  Rev.  Dr.  S.  Henkel, 
pastor  of  the  Lutheran  Church  at  New  Market,  Va.,  and 
received  the  following  reply  : 

"  I  went  to  see  Miss  Martha  Cline,  daughter  of  the 
late  Rev.  J.  P.  Cline,  who  has  possession  of  her  father's 
diary.  I  there  found  the  following  information  :  '  On  Sun- 
day, April  25,  1824,  Rev.  Dr.  S.  S.  Schmucker  had  a  com- 
munion meeting  at  Mt.  Jackson,  seven  miles  north  of  this 
place.  J,  G.  Morris  was  confirmed.'  This,  I  think,  is  reli- 
able, and  the  information  you  want.  I  hope,  this  will  prove 
satisfactory.  Yours  fraternally, 

S.  Henkel." 

It  will  be  noticed,  that  this  church  at  Mt.  Jackson,  is 
the  same,  which  was  formerly  Episcopalian,  but  called  Rev. 
Schmucker  to  become  their  pastor,  and  became  a 
Lutheran  Congregation. 


On  October  12th,  182^,  he  was  married  to  his  second  wife. 
Miss  Mary  Catharine  Steenbergen,  daughter  of  Mr.  Wil- 
liam Steenbergen,  of  Shenandoah  County,  Va,  The  Steen- 
bergens  and  the  Beales  were  two  prominent  English  fami- 
lies, of  high  respectability  and  wealth,  said  to  have  de- 
scended from  a  branch  of  the  nobility  of  England.  They 
owned  large  contiguous  tracts  of  the  most  beautiful  and 
fertile  lands  in  the  Valley  of  Virginia,  and  were  intermar- 
ried with  each  other.  The  eldest  son  of  the  second  mar 
riage  was  named  Beale  M.  Schmucker.  * 

See  Family  Record,  Page  26. 



1819 — 1823. 

Numerical  strength  of  the  church — spread  of  the 
church — initiatory  steps — convention  ,  in  balti- 
more— object  of  the  general  synod — hagerstown 







The  General  Synod  of  the  Evangelical  Lutheran 
Church,  in  the  United  States  of  North  America,  was  organ- 
ized in  Hagerstown,  Md ,  in  1820.  The  Lutheran  Church 
of  this  country"  was  not  then  very  large.  It  is  estimated  that 
there  were  then  in  the  whole  country  only  170  ministers, 
850  congregations,  (some  of  which  were  very  small  indeed) 
and  about  35,000  members. 

These  were  scattered  over  a  great  extent  of  country, 
principally  in  the  eastern  part  of  Pennsylvania,  New  York, 
Ohio,  Maryland  and  Virginia,  and  North  and  South  Caro- 

The  following  were  the  only  synodical  bodies  then 
organized  : 

The  Synod  of  Pennsylvania,  with  85  ministers. 


The  Synod  of  New  York,  with  17  ministers  and  eight- 
een congregations. 

The  Synod  of  Maryland  and  Virginia,  with   15  minis- 
ters and  5,863  members. 

The  Synod  of  North  Carolina,  with  12  ministers. 
The  Synod  of  West  Pennsylvania  was  organized  in 
1825,  with  7  ministers. 

"As  the  church  began  to  diffuse  itself  over  a  more  ex- 
tended territory,  and  the  number  of  district  synods  was  in- 
creased, the  propriety  of  forming  some  central  bond  of 
union  was  often  discussed.  The  conviction,  from  year  to 
year,  deepened  among  those  who  were  interested  in  the 
prosperity  of  the  church,  that  a  step  of  this  kind  was  neces- 
sary, in  order  that  injudicious  divisions  might  not  arise,  and 
that  more  general  uniformity  in  the  usages  and  practice  of 
the  church  might  prevail.  Our  best  men  felt,  that  the  oc- 
casional intercourse  of  the  District  Synods,  through  their 
representatives,  assembled  in  a  general  convention,  would 
secure  to  the  church  great  advantages,  and  impart  increased 
strength  and  more  efficient  action  to  all  those  enterprises, 
in  which  conventions  are  so  essential  to  success.  This  was 
the  origin  of  the  General  Synod,  which  forms  a  new  epoch 
in  our  history,  and  has  been  a  great  blessing  to  the 
church." — Ev.  Quarterly,  Jan.  i86g. 

The  initiatory  steps  were  taken  by  the  Synod  of  Penn- 
sylvania, which  is  the  mother  of  the  other  Synods,  and  em- 
braced more  ministers  and  members  at  that  time,  than  all 
the  others  put  together.  The  first  traces  of  it  are  found  in 
the  meeting  of  the  Synod  at  Harrisburg,  in  18 18,  of  which 
Dr.  J.  G.  Schmucker,  was  then  president,  and  at  which  it 

"  Resolved,  that  the  Synod  regard  it  as  desirable,  that 
the  different  Evangelical  Synods  in  the  United  States 
should,  in  some  way  or  other,  stand  in  closer   connection 


with  each  other,  and  that  the  Reverend  Ministerium  be 
charged  with  the  consideration  of  the  matter,  and  if  the 
Reverend  Ministerium  recognize  the  advisability  of  it,  that 
some  such  desirable  union  be  effected  if  possible."  "  Ex- 
traordinary unanimity  and  the  most  hearty  concord  and 
brotherly  love  prevailed  at  this  meeting,  for  which  the 
secretary  records  fervent  thanksgiving."  * 

The  officers  were  appointed  a  committee  to  give  effi- 
cacy to  the  movement.  Communications  expressive  of  the 
Synod's  action  were  accordingly  forwarded  to  the  other 
Synods,  and  they  were  invited  to  send  deputies  to  the  next 
annual  meeting  of  the  Pennsylvania  Synod,  to  be  held  in 
Baltimore,  on  Trinity  week,  in  1819,  for  the  purpose  of 
considering  the  expediency  of  organizing  a  General  Synod. 

At  that  convention  a  letter  was  read  from  Pastor  Quit- 
man, of  New  York,  favoring  a  more  intimate  union  of  the 
Synods.  And  the  North  Carolina  Synod,  holding,  "  that 
toward  such  a  union  of  our  church  all  possible  assistance 
ought  to  be  rendered,"  promptly  elected  its  secretary.  Rev. 
Gottlieb  Shober,  to  attend  the  above  meeting  in  Baltimore, 
and  in  the  name  of  the  Synod,  endeavor  to  effect  such  a  de- 
sirable union.  He  was  accorded  a  seat  and  a  vote,  and  his 
presence  for  this  particular  object  gave  great  encourage- 
ment to  the  Synod  to  proceed,  and  it  became  the  para- 
mount subject  of  consideration.  A  committee  was  ap- 
pointed, consisting  of  Revs.  F.  D.  Schaeffer,  J.  Daniel 
Kurtz,  and  J.  George  Schmucker,  with  Messrs.  Demuth, 
Keller  and  Schorr  of  the  laity,  and  the  delegate,  Rev.  G. 
Shober,  to  examine  the  whole  matter  and  to  outline  a  plan 
as  early  as  possible. 

*  Seven  years  before  the  Pennsylvania  Synod  had  taken  the  initi- 
atory steps  for  the  organiza  ion  of  a  General  Synod;  namely,  in  the 
year  18 II,  "Revs  Storch  and  Shober  introduced  and  advocated  the 
opening  of  correspondence  with  the  Pennsylvania  S>nod,  in  accord- 
ance with  the  warmly  expressed  wishes  for  a  closer  union  with  these 
brethren  of  our  common  faith." — Minutes  N.  C.  Synod. 


The  report  of  the  committee  was  thoroughly  discussed, 
and  its  plan  for  the  establishment  of  a  General  Synod 
adopted  by  a  vote  of  42  to  8.  Its  first  paragraph  states 
that,  "  in  view  of  the  extension  of  the  church  over  the 
greatest  part  of  the  United  States  of  North  America,  and  as 
the  members  of  the  said  church  are  anxious  to  walk  in  the 
spirit  of  love  and  concord,  under  one  rule  of  faith,  *  *  *  it 
appears  to  be  the  almost  unanimous  wish  of  the  existing 
synods  or  ministeriums,  that  a  fraternal  union  ol  the  whole 
Evangelical  Lutheran  Church  in  these  United  States  might 
be  effected  by  means  of  some  central  organization." 

The  plan  thus  adopted  by  the  Synod  of  Pennsylvania 
was  signed  by  J.  George  Schmucker,  President,  and  Conrad 
Jaeger,  Secretary, and  was  published  for  general  distribution 
among  all  the  ministers  and  delegates  of  the  several  synods, 
with  the  understanding,  that  they  were  to  take  action  upon 
it  as  soon  as  possible,  and  that,  if  three-fourths  of  the 
synods  adopted  it,  "at  least  in  its  spirit  and  essentials,"  the 
President  of  the  Synod  of  Pennsylvania  should  proceed  to 
call  a  convention  of  deputies  who  at  such  time  and  place  as 
he  might  determine,  would  meet  for  the  purpose  of  framing 
for  themselves  a  constitution,  to  be  conformed  as  nearly  as 
possible  to  the  plan  proposed. 

The  proposition  having  been  favorably  received  by  the 
requisite  number  of  synods,  the  convention  for  effecting  an 
organization  was  announced  to  be  held  at  Hagerstown, 
Md.,  October  22,  1820.  There  appeared  as  deputies  from 
the  Synod  of  Pennsylvania,  Drs.  George  Lochman,  F.  W. 
Geisenhainer,  Christian  Endress,  J.  G.  Schmucker,  H.  A. 
Muhlenberg,  (a  son  of  Henry  E.  Muhlenberg,  D.  D.,  and 
grandson  of  the  Patriot),  and  Messrs.  Christian  Kunkel, 
William  Hensel,  and  Peter  Strickler ;  from  the  Synod  o. 
New  York,  Drs.  F.  P.  Mayer  and  F.  C.  Schaeffer ;  from  the 
Synod    of    North     Carolina,    Revs.    G.    Shober    and    P 


Schmucker  ;  from  the  Synod  of  Maryland  and  Virginia,  Drs. 
J.  D.  Kurtz,  D.  F.  Schaeffer,  and  Mr.  George  Shryock.  "  It 
was  much  regretted  by  all  present,  that  from  the  Synod  of 
the  State  of  Ohio,  the  expected  deputies  did  not  appear." 

J.  D,  Kurtz,  D.  D.,  was  chosen  President  of  the  Con- 
vention, and  H.  A.  Muhlenberg,  D.  D.,  secretary.  A  more 
important  meeting  was  never  held  within  the  bounds  of  the 
Lutheran  Church  this  side  of  the  Atlantic,  and  a  nobler 
band  of  enlightened  men  could  not  have  been  found  at  that 
time  within  her  pale,  or  outside  of  it. 

They  seem  to  have  realized  the  responsibilities  with 
which  they  were  charged  in  laying  the  foundation  of  a 
United  Lutheran  Church  on  this  continent,  and  with  the 
spirit  of  the  utmost  harmony  they  built  so  wisely  that  their 
structure,  with  some  modifications,  still  remains,  and  has 
been  by  general  consent  one  of  the  most  powerful  instru- 
ments in  determining  the  character  and  advancing  the  gen- 
eral welfare  of  the  church. 

The  organization  of  the  General  Synod  forms  a  new 
era  in  the  history  of  the  Lutheran  Church  of  this  country. 
Although  one  cherished  object  of  its  founders 
has  not  been  realized  ;  namely,  the  union  of  all  the  Luth- 
eran Synods  into  one  organic  body,  to  work  conjointly 
and  harmoniously  in  extending  the  kingdom  of  Christ  and 
the  building  up  of  the  Lutheran  Church  ;  yet  incalculable 
good  has  been  accomplished  in  the  establishment  of  her 
literary  and  theological  institutions,  in  awaking  a  deeper 
spiritual  life  among  her  people,  a  more  active  and  liberal 
benevolence,  resulting  in  the  establishment  of  Home  and 
Foreign  Missionary  and  Church  Extension  Societies,  and 
last,  but  not  least,  her  reflex  influence  on  those  synods, 
which  have  receded  from  her,  or  have  never  even  united  with 
her.  Already,  during  the  Reformation  period,  divisions 
had   rent  the   Protestant  Churches   into  opposing  factions. 


Even  in  the  days  of  Luther  efforts  were  made  to  unite  the 
Lutherans  and  the  Reformed,  the  followers  of  Luther, 
Zwingle  and  Calvin,  into  Christian  unity  and  brotherhood  ; 
in  America  the  effort  was  repeated  to  unite  the  Lutherans 
and  Reformed  into  one  Evangelical  organization,  but  the 
efforts  failed.  So,  alas,  also  the  repeated  efforts  in  America 
to  unite  all  the  Lutherans  into  one  homogeneous  Church 
have  failed.  The  General  Synod  has  tried  it,  the  General 
Council  has  tried  it,  neither  has  succeeded,  and  at  present 
the  church  is  far  more  split  up  into  opposing  factions,  than 
ever  before.  Voices  are  at  this  time  again  loudly  calling 
for  a  united  Lutheran  Church  in  America.  Colloquiums 
have  been  held,  delegates  exchanged,  Lutheran  Leagues 
are  organized,  committees  on  fraternal  conferences  ap- 
pointed. What  shall  be  the  final  result  God  only  knows 
and  time  will  show.  But  whether  there  shall  be  a  united 
Lutheran  Church  in  this  country,  embracing  all  the  differ- 
ent languages,  nationalities  and  organizations,  bearing  the 
Lutheran  name,  whether  there  shall  be  such  a  union  or  not, 
the  General  Synod,  by  the  help  and  grace  of  God,  will  go 
forward,  unchecked  by  opposition  from  without  or  mis- 
guided friends  within  her  pale. 


It  has  been  objected  that  he  could  not  have  had  any 
thing  to  do  with  the  organization  of  the  General  Synod,  be- 
cause he  was  too  young  at  that  time,  only  20  years  of  age, 
merely  a  licentiate,  and  did  not  become  an  ordained  minis- 
ter until  1 823, nearly  four  years  after  the  incipient  steps  had 
been  taken. 

The  statement  in  the  College  Book,  by  his  son.  Dr.  B. 
M.  Schmucker,  will  throw  some  light  on  the  subject.  He 
thus  writes  of  his  father  : 

"  In  the  General  Synod  and  its  work  he  took  an  active 


part,  from  his  entrance  into  the  ministry  to  the  close  of  his 
Hfe.  Though  not  a  delegate  to  that  body  until  its  third 
meeting  in  1823,  he  was  present  in  1819,  1820,  and  1821, 
When  in  1823  the  Ministerium  of  Pennsylvania  withdrew, 
and  the  existence  of  the  General  Synod  was  imperilled,  he 
was  very  active  in  the  measures  taken  to  prolong  its  life, 
and  became  prominent  in  the  group  of  young  ministers, 
whose  energies  were  aroused  to  meet  the  demands  of  that 
decisive  period." 

We  append  Dr.  Diehl's  account  of  his  early  connection 
with  the  General  Synod.  Dr.  Diehl  was,  indeed,  a  warm 
friend  of  Dr.  Schmucker,  although  he  did  not  agree  with 
him  in  all  his  doctrinal  views.  He  was  regarded  as  "  a 
very  conservative  man,"  and  therefore  his  testimony  is  all 
the  more  valuable.    Dr.  Diehl  writes  : 

"  When  Rev.  G.  Shober,  of  North  Carolina,  at  the 
meeting  of  the  Pennsylvania  Synod,  at  Baltimore,  brought 
forward  the  first  formal  proposition  for  the  establishment  of 
a  General  Synod,  Mr.  Schmucker  was  a  student  in  the 
Princeton  Seminary.  He  had,  however,  accompanied  his 
father,  who  was  President  of  the  Synod,  to  that  convention. 
When  the  convention  for  the  framing  and  adoption  of  a 
constitution  for  a  General  Synod,  met  at  Hagerstown,  Oct. 
22,  1820,  he  had  entered  the  ministry  and  attended  this 
convention,  though  not  a  delegate.  That  convention  em- 
braced a  large  portion  of  the  ablest  ministers  in  the  church, 
Dr.  J.  G.  Schmucker,  Dr.  Lochman,  Dr.  Endress,  H.  A. 
Muhlenberg,  Dr.  Mayer,  Dr.  V.  C.  Schaeffer,  of  New  York, 
Drs.  SchaefTer  and  J.  Daniel  Kurtz,  of  Maryland,  were  in 
that  body.  It  is  said  that  young  Schmucker,  a  visitor  pres- 
ent, interchanged  views  with  the  leading  men,  and  was  not 
without  influence. 

"  At  the  first  convention  of  the  General  Synod,  at  Fred- 
erick, Oct.  22,  1 82 1,  Mr.  Schmucker  was    not   a    delegate. 

deiiEgate;  at  second  convention.  123 

So  he  could  not  take  part  directly  in  the  initiatory  steps 
and  the  organization  of  the  General  Synod.  Yet,  as  his 
father,  probably  the  most  active  member  of  the  first  two 
conventions,  at  Hagerstown  and  Frederick,  treated  his  son 
Samuel,  in  many  respects,  as  a  companion,  and  discussed 
all  church  questions  with  him,  there  can  be  no  doubt,  that 
Samuel  exerted  considerable  influence,  through  his  father 
and  other  delegates,  in  the  framing  of  the  constitution,  and 
at  the  first  business  convention.  He  was  however  a  dele- 
gate to  the  second  General  Synod,  at  Frederick,  Oct.  21, 
1823.  Here,  also,  we  find  him  at  once  an  active  member, 
taking  a  leading  part  in  all  important  business.  He  was 
one  of  the  committee  to  examine  a  catechism  prepared  for 
the  Synod.  He  offered  a  resolution,  which  was  adopted, 
that  the  materials  furnished  by  the  minutes  of  the  district 
synods,  should  be  wrought  into  a  pastoral  address  to  the 
churches,  in  the  name  of  the  General  Synod.  He  brought 
forward  his  proposition  adopted  by  the  Maryland  and  Vir- 
ginia Synod,  recommending  the  appointment  of  a  commit- 
tee on  foreign  correspondence.  This  was  adopted.  His 
Formula  was  now  adopted  also  by  the  General  Synod.  He 
drew  up,  for  the  General  Synod,  the  pastoral  address  to  all 
the  Lutheran  churches  in  the  United  States,  which  was 
printed  with  the  minutes, — an  admirable  production  ol 
eleven  pages,  giving  a  resume  of  all  the  synods  in  this 
country,  and  a  general  account  of  the  Lutheran  Church  in 
Germany,  Sweden,  Denmark,  Norway,  Russia,  etc.  He 
was  again  a  member  of  the  third  General  Synod,  at  Freder- 
ick, Nov.  7,  1825.  He  was  the  author  of  many  of  the  most 
important  resolutions  passed  at  this  convention.  He  was 
one  of  the  committee  to  report  on  an  important  letter  from 
Dr.  Planck,  of  the  University  of  Goettingen.  He  furnished 
a  translation  of  the  letter.  Both  were  printed.  He  also 
prepared  the  plan  for  the  establishment  of  a  Theological 

124        schmucker's  participation  in  the  organization. 

Seminary,  which  embraced  the  germ  and  general  principles 
of  the  charter  and  constitution  afterwards  of  the  Gettysburg 
Seminary.  He  was  one  of  the  committee  to  prepare  a 
hymn-book,  liturgy,  and  collection  of  prayers.  The  other 
members  were  Dr.  J.  G.  Schmucker,  C.  P.  Krauth,  G. 
Shober,  and  B.  Keller.  He  again  wrote  the  pastoral  ad- 
dress of  the  General  Synod  to  the  churches.  And  at  this 
Synod  he  was  elected  the  first  Professor  of  Theology  in  the 

The  Pennsylvania  Synod  sent  delegates  to  the  first 
regular  meeting  of  the  General  Synod,  in  1821,  and  then 
abandoned  her  own  child.  Dr.  Diehl  gives  a  graphic  ac- 
count of  Mr.  Schmucker's  herculean  effort  to  save  the  in- 
fant organization  from  destruction  after  the  Pennsylvania 
Synod's  withdrawal : 

"  If  Mr.  Schmucker  was  too  young  to  be  one  of  the 
nominal  founders  of  the  General  Synod,  he  is  entitled  to 
the  lasting  gratitude  of  the  church  for  saving  it  from  disso- 
lution at  the  most  critical  moment.  The  mother  Synod  oi 
Pennsylvania,  after  attending  through  her  delegates  one 
business  convention  in  1821,  determined  in  1823  to  with- 
draw. This  was  considered  the  death-blow  of  the  General 
Synod,  The  New  York  and  the  Ohio  Synods  had  not 
come  in.  There  were  but  two  small  Synods  left  in  the 
General  Synod, — that  of  Maryland  and  Virginia  and  that  of 
North  Carolina.  West  Pennsylvania  was  not  yet  organized. 
Samuel  S.  Schmucker,  more  than  any  other  man,  felt  that 
this  was  the  crisis  of  the  Lutheran  Church.  If  the  noble 
effort  of  uniting  the  Synods,  and  organizing  the  church 
should  be  frustrated,  there  was  no  future  in  the  country  for 
the  church  of  the  Great  Reformer.  So  general  was  the  im- 
pression, in  1823,  that  no  convention  of  the  General  Synod 
would  be  held  in  October  that  year,  that  the  members  of 
the  Synod  of  Pennsylvania,  living  west  of  the  Susquehanna, 


and  who  were  favorable  to  the  General  Synod,  in  appoint- 
ing a  special  conference,  with  a  view  to  organizing  the 
West  Pennsylvania  Synod,  fixed  on  the  very  day  that  had 
been  appointed  two  years  before  for  the  meeting  of  the 
General  Synod.  When  S.  S.  Schmucker,  in  Virginia, 
learned  these  things,  he  was  deeply  concerned.  He 
thought  the  very  life  of  the  General  Synod  depended  upon 
the  West  Pennsylvania  brethren  organizing  their  confer- 
ence in  advance  of  the  day  appointed  for  the  General 
Synod,  so  that  they  might  organize  and  send  a  delegation. 
The  friends  of  the  General  Synod  had  now  lost  heart.  It 
was  believed  that  the  delegates  appointed  by  the  North 
Carolina  Synod,  having  learned  the  withdrawal  of  the  Penn- 
sylvania Synod,  would  not  undertake  a  long  journey  to 
Frederick  ;  for  they  looked  upon  the  General  Synod,  as  in 
the  act  of  expiring.  But  there  was  one  young  Lutheran 
minister  equal  to  the  crisis.  Samuel  S.  Schmucker  deter- 
mined if  possible  to  save  the  youthful  organization  from 
this  death  blow.  If  he  could  help  it,  under  Heaven's  bless- 
ing, the  bruised  reed  should  not  break,  the  smoking  flax 
should  not  be  quenched.  He  at  once  wrote  to  the  North 
Carolina  brethren,  urging  them  by  all  means  to  come  to 
Frederick  in  October.  He  wrote  to  the  Tennessee  breth- 
ren, urging  them  to  send  delegates.  He  wrote  to  several 
in  Ohio  ;  and  to  many  of  the  West  Pennsylvania  ministers, 
urging  them  to  change  the  time  of  their  special  conference, 
and  hold  it  a  few  weeks  earlier,  so  as  to  organize  and  ap- 
point delegates.  In  letters  to  Ohio,  Tennessee  and  North 
Carolina,  he  expressed  a  hope  that  the  Pennsylvania  Synod 
would  reconsider  her  act,  and  at  a  future  convention  return. 
(This  she  did  thirty  years  afterward.)  He  paid  a  visit  to  his 
father  at  York,  to  urge  on  him  the  change  of  time  for  the 
special  conference.  He  called  on  all  the  brethren  along  his 
route.  Reck,  Schaeffer,  Kurtz,  Krauth,  Sr.,  Herbst,  etc.    By 


his  herculean  efforts  he  succeeded  in  turning  the  tide,  and 
securing  a  respectable  attendance  of  delegates  at  Frederick 
in  October,  1823  : — two  ministers  from  North  Carolina,  a 
full  delegation  from  Maryland  and  Virginia,  two  clerical 
delegates  of  the  West  Pennsylvania  Conference,  and  one 
commissioner  from  the  Synod  of  Ohio.  It  is  difficult  to 
measure  the  momentous  interests  that  hung  upon  the  reso- 
lution he  inspired  in  the  fainting  hearts  of  the  brethren  in 
that  critical  hour.  He  saved  the  General  Synod  from  de- 
struction, and,  with  her,  secured  the  prosperity  of  the  Luth- 
eran Church  in  this  country." 

The  following  extracts  from  his  diary  will  give  the 
reader  an  idea  of  his  deep  interest  in  the  General  Synod 
and  his  personal  efforts  to  save  it  from  dissolution : 

"  I  have  within  the  last  six  weeks  written  sixteen  letters 
to  different  parts  of  our  church,  in  order  to  support  the 
General  Synod,  which  would  have  certainly  been  dropped, 
in  consequence  of  the  secession  of  the  Pennsylvania  Synod, 
had  it  not  been  for  the  exertions,  which  God  enabled  me  to 
make  during  my  tour  down  the  country,  after  the  death  of 
my  wife.  I  also,  at  the  request  of  some  of  the  clergy,  wrote 
a  long  German  address  to  the  special  conference,  which 
met  on  the  fifth  inst.,  and  is  perhaps  now  in  session  at 
York,  Pa.  The  time  of  their  meeting  had  been  appointed 
on  the  day  of  the  meeting  of  the  General  Synod,  but  I  per- 
suaded father,  (who  was  the  pastor  of  Christ  Church  in 
York),  to  publish  it  two  weeks  earher,  so  that  they  could 
adopt  measures  to  support  the  General  Synod,  and  send  a 
deputy  to  the  meeting.  And  my  address  to  them  was  to 
promote  this  object.  O,  that  God  would  bless  his  own 
work,  and  not  suffer  the  gates  of  hell  to  prevail  in  any  re- 
spect against  his  kingdom !  " 

"  My  soul  has  for  four  months  past  been  most  intensely 


interested  about  the  wellfare  of  our  church   in  Denmark, 
and  Sweden." 

While  examining  the  Historical  library  in  Gettysburg, 
we  found  among  the  literary  remains  of  Dr.  Schmucker, 
the  following  extracts  from  one  of  his  lectures,  delivered  to 
the  theological  students.  It  appears  to  be  the  conclusion 
of  one  of  his  lectures  on  Church  Government,  and  gives  the 
account  of  the  separation  of  the  Pennsylvania  Ministerium 
from  the  General  Synod,  and  the  successful  effort  made  to 
save  it  from  dissolution.  It  is  an  important  document,  and 
we  give  it  lierewith  for  the  benefit  of  our  readers  : 


"  With  gratitude  to  God,  we  turn  from  the  compli- 
cated,* unstable  and  unsatisfactory  code  of  human  enact- 
ments, to  the  blessed  Book  which  the  Protestant  Church  in 
these  United  States  regards  as  the  ultimate  and  only  infal- 
lible source  of  their  views  and  legislation  on  the  subject. 
The  views  of  the  Lutheran  Church  on  this  subject  are  de- 
tailed in  the  Formula  of  Government  and  Discipline, 
adopted  by  the  General  Synod,  and  prepared  by  appoint- 
ment of  said  body,  and  of  the  Synod  of  Maryland  and  Vir- 
ginia. As  the  circumstances  of  its  organization  and  history 
cannot  be  without  interest  to  all  who  expect  to  practice  by 
the  aid  of  this  Formula  through  life,  we  will  specify  some 
of  them,  especially,  as  you  have  no  other  means  of  arriving 
at  them  in  detail.  The  Formula  consists  of  three  parts. 
The  first  relates  to  congregations,  their  members  and  pas- 
tors ;  the  second  to  synods ;  and  the  third  to  the  General 

"  That  part  of  the  Formula  which  relates  to  individual 
congregations ;  viz  :  the  first  seven  chapters,  was  prepared 
by  us  (Schmucker)  in  New  Market,  Va.,  as  a  member  of  a 
committee,  consisting  of  Revs.  A.  Reck,  B.  Kurtz,  and  my- 


self,  appointed  by  the  Synod  of  Maryland  and  Virginia,  on 
September  24,  1821.  It  was  presented  to  the  committee  at 
a  meeting,  held  March  5,  1822,  in  the  house  of  Rev.  A.  C. 
Reck,  then  pastor  of  the  church  in  Winchester,  Va.  After 
having  been  examined  and  adopted  by  said  committee,  it 
was  reported  to  the  Synod  in  August,  1822,  during  its 
meeting  at  Cumberland.  It  was  adopted  by  that  body,  and 
printed  (not  published)  for  the  first  time  unofficially,  at  the 
expense  of  the  late  Dr.  Schaeffer  and  myself,  by  George  W. 
Sharp,  in  Fredericktown,  Md.,  April  23,  1823,  for  the  pur- 
pose of  being  laid  before  the  General  Synod.  Having  been 
submitted  to  that  body  in  October,  1823,  it  was  approved 
and  recommended  to  other  synod's  for  adoption. 

"  The  second  part  of  the  Formula  which  relates  to  dis- 
trict synods;  viz:  from  Chapter  VII  to  Chapter  XX,  in- 
clusive, that  is,  till  the  constitution  of  the  General  Synod, 
was  also  prepared  by  us  in  conformity  to  the  resolution  of 
the  General  Synod  at  their  session  in  Gettysburg,  October, 
1827,  and  reported  to  the  next  General  Synod,  convened  at 
Hagerstown,  October,  1829. 

"It  was  adopted  at  the  same  session,  and  commended  to 
the  different  district  synods. 

"  The  third  part  of  the  Formula,  constituting  Chapter 
XXI,  is  the  constitution  of  the  General  Synod. 


"At  the  time  when  the  formation  of  the  General  Synod 
was  first  formally  discussed,  which  was  in  the  year  18 19, 
East  and  West  Pennsylvania  Synods  were  embraced  in  one 
synodical  body,  which  also  comprehended  the  State  of 
Maryland  and  part  of  Virginia.  This  meeting  at  which  the 
preparatory  steps  were  taken,  convened  in  Baltimore  on  the 
Sunday  after  Whitsunday  in  18 19.     As  the  minutes  of  that 


convention,  so  far  as  they  relate  to  this  subject,  were  pub- 
lished in  a  separate  pamphlet,  which  is  now  rarely  met  with, 
and  as  it  presents  a  brief  sketch  of  the  reasons,  which  in- 
fluenced the  members  of  that  body,  and  of  the  steps  which 
were  taken,  we  shall  extract  the  paragraph  more  immedi- 
ately concerned,  and  present  a  translation  of  it.  It  may  not 
be  amiss  to  state,  that  the  '  Plan  Entivurf,  or  sketch  of  a 
plan  of  union  then  adopted,  had  never  been  translated  into 
English : 

'  Whereas  the  Evangelical  Lutheran  Church  has, 
under  the  guidance  of  divine  providence  extended  itself 
over  the  greater  part  of  the  United  States  of  North 
America,  and 

'  Whereas  the  members  of  said  church  are  desirous 
of  walkj^ng  together  in  the  spirit  of  love  and  unity,  guided 
by  one  rule  of  faith  ; 

'  Therefore,  the  ministers,  and  generally  also,  lay  dele- 
gates of  the  Evangelical  Lutheran  Church,  have  hitherto 
annually  met,  and  held  synodical,  or  as  others  term  them, 
ministerial  sessions,  in  order  to  preserve  the  bond  of  love 
and  unity,  and  to  settle  any  differences,  which  may  have 
arisen.  But  as  the  number  of  these  synods  or  ministeri- 
ums,  has  been  multiplied  in  consequence  of  the  great  ex- 
tension of  said  church,  and  from  the  same  cause  may  in- 
crease still  more,  and  thus  eventually  unnecessary  and  in- 
jurious divisions  might  arise,  and  also  deviations  from  the 
common  design  hitherto  had  in  view  by  said  church  ; 

'  Therefore,  the  existing  synods,  or  ministeriums,  seem 
almost  unanimously  to  desire,  that  a  fraternal  union  of  the 
entire  Evangelical  Lutheran  Church  in  these  United  States 
might  be  formed  by  some  central  connexion.' 

"  Such,  according  to  the  statement  of  the  parties  them- 
selves, were  the  reasons,  which  influenced  them  in  endeav- 
oring to  form  some  bond  of  union  in  our  church.  At  the 
meeting  of  the  Pennsylvania  Synod,  above  referred  to,  the 
Rev.  G.  Shober,  a  venerable  minister  of  our  church  in 
North  Carolina,  appeared  as  delegate  for  the  express  pur- 


pose  of  proposing  and  urging  the  formation  of  a  general 
union  among  our  synods.  That  zealous  and  respected 
father  of  our  church,  who  has  since  gone  to  his  rest,  had 
prepared  the  outline  of  a  plan,  which  was  read  before  the 
synod,  very  much  resembling  the  constitution  of  the  Pres- 
byterian Assembly  of  the  Presbyterian  Church.  This  was 
submitted  by  him  to  the  Synod,  and  formed  the  basis  of 
the  discussion  on  the  subject. 

"Several  days  of  fraternal  deliberation  took  place, which 
having-  ourselves  been  present,  we  can  testify,  that  the  spirit 
of  brotherly  love  most  visibly  reigned. 

"  The  so-called  '  Plan  Entwurf; '  that  is,  sketch  of  a 
plan,  was  adopted.  In  this  plan  the  strongest  features  of 
the  outline,  presented  by  Rev.  Shober,  were  softened  down, 
almost  into  Congregationalism.  The  '  Plan  Entwurf^ 
signed  by  Rev.  J.  G.  Schmucker,  D.  D.,  as  President,  and 
Rev.  Conrad  Jaeger,  as  Secretary  of  Synod,  was  printed  and 
sent  to  all  the  different  Lutheran  Synods. 

"  The  '  Plan  Entwurf,  having  met  the  approbation  of 
three  fourths  of  the  existing  synods,  the  President  of  Penn- 
sylvania Synod,  according  to  the  i  ith  section  of  the  '  Plan 
Entwurfl  published  a  meeting  of  the  delegates,  to  form  a 
constitution  for  the  General  Synod,  at  Hagerstown,  on  the 
22d  of  October,  1820.  At  this  convention  Dr.  Daniel 
Kurtz  was  chosen  chairman,  and  Rev.  H.  Muhlenberg, 

"  From  the  Synod  of  Pennsylvania  Dr.  J.  G. 
Schmucker,  Dr.  Lochman,  Dr.  Endress,  Rev.  F.  C.  Geisen- 
hainer  and  Rev.  H.  Muhlenberg,  together  with  the  lay- 
delegates,  C.  Kunkel,  Wm.  Hensel  and  P.  Strickler.  From 
the  Synod  of  New  York,  Rev.  P.  F.  Mayer,  and  Rev.  F.  C. 
Schaeffer,  with  no  lay-delegates.  From  the  Synod  of 
North  Carolina,  Rev.  G.  Shober  and  Peter  Schmucker,  with 
no    lay-delegate,  and    from    the  Synod    of  Maryland,   Dr. 


Daniel  Kurtz  and  Rev.  D.  F.  Schaefifer,  with  the  lay-dele- 
gate, Mr.  George  Shryock. 

"  The  Synod  of  Ohio  was  also  expected  to  send  dele- 
gates, but  they  did  not  appear,  and  although  I  was  present 
at  the  meeting,  also,  I  do  not  recollect  whether  the  reason 
was  assigned  on  their  minutes,  and  as  my  collection  of 
Ohio  minutes  began  with  the  year  182 1,  I  am  unable  to 
say,  what  action  that  body  took  on  the  subject,  although  I 
well  recollect,  that  their  principal  ministers  were  at  first 
known  to  be  favorable  to  the  union,  and  were  expected  to 
unite  in  the  establishment  of  the  General  Synod. 

"  The  first  regular  General  Synod  under  the  constitution 
was  held  in  Fredericktown,  Md.,  October  21,  22,  23,  in  the 
year  1 82 1.  At  this  meeting  delegates  were  in  attendance 
from  Pennsylvania,  Maryland  and  Virginia,  and  North 
Carolina,  but  in  consequence  of  a  mistake  in  the  advertise- 
ment by  the  secretary,  which  fixed  the  time  one  week 
earlier,  than  had  been  appointed  by  the  Synod,  about  half 
of  the  delegates  did  not  appear.  Some  started  agreeably  to 
the  early  advertisement,  and  hearing  of  the  mistake  on  the 
way,  turned  back.  The  secretary  himself,  Dr.  Endress, 
having  come  to  York  a  week  too  soon,  and  finding  that  the 
brethren  would  not  generally  come,  till  the  time  appointed 
by  Synod,  remained  a  week  at  father's,  and  then  went  with 
him  to  Synod. 

"  In  September  of  this  year  the  Synod  of  Ohio  had  the 
constitution  of  the  General  Synod  under  consideration  and 
postponed  their  final  answer  till  the  ensuing  year,  at  which 
time  the  subject  was  resumed,  and  two  delegates  appointed 
to  attend  the  meeting  of  the  next  General  Synod,  and  report 
on  the  proceedings,  after  which  the  question  of  permanent 
union  with  said  body  should  be  finally  decided.  The  dele- 
gates appointed  were  the  Revs.  P.  Schmucker  and  Steck. 
There  was  therefore  a  very  flattering  prospect,  at  this  time. 


of  the  union  of  the  whole  Lutheran  Church  in  the  General 
Synod.  There  was  then  no  other  synod  remaining,  as  the 
whole  church  was  in  182 1,  embraced  in  the  Synods  of  Ohio, 
Pennsylvania,  Maryland  and  Virginia,  and  North  Carolina 
and  adjoining  States. 

"  About  this  time  an  event  occurred,  which  to  all  ap- 
pearances was  expected  to  put  an  end  to  the  General 
Synod,  and  blast  the  hopes  which  had  been  cherished  for 
the  improvement  of  our  Zion. 

"  Owing  to  various  disturbances  and  opposition  excited 
by  political  demagogues,  by  infidels  and  by  a  few  renegade 
Germans  from  Europe,  the  Synod  of  Pennsylvania,  at  a 
meeting  held  at  Lebanon,  May  26th-29th,  in  the  year  1823, 
passed  resolutions  to  relinquish  the  idea  of  sustaining  a 
General  Synod.  Instead  of  nobly  braving  the  opposition 
of  ignorance,  prejudice  and  irreligion,  and  taking  measures 
to  circulate  better  information  among  the  churches,  they 
resolved  to  abandon  the  General  Synod,  to  take  no  steps 
towards  establishing  a  theological  seminary,  and  to  adhere  to 
those  resolutions  till  their  churches  requested  them  to 
abandon  them,  and  instructed  their  president  to  communi- 
cate these  resolutions  to  the  other  synods  who  had  united 
in  the  General  Synod.  As  the  Pennsylvania  Synod  at  that 
time  constituted  more  than  half  of  the  whole  church,  and 
had  been  chiefly  instrumental  in  establishing  the  General 
Synod,  her  abandonment  of  the  cause  was  deemed  by 
nearly  all  as  decisive  of  the  fate  of  that  institution.  How 
fully  this  impression  prevailed,  may  be  seen  from  the  fact 
that  the  members  of  the  Pennsylvania  Synod  who  resided 
west  of  the  Susquehanna,  some  of  whom  were  very  warm 
friends  of  the  General  Synod,  after  the  passage  of  the  above 
resolutions  at  Lebanon,  consulted  together  about  holding  a 
special  conference,  considering  the  General  Synod  as  de- 
funct, and    appointed    their    conference    on    the    very    day 

schmucker's  efforts  to  save  gen.  synod.  133 

which  had  been  fixed  for  the  meeting  of  the  General  Synod 
in  the  ensuing  fall.  This  was  indeed  an  important  crisis.  It 
was  evident  that  if  this  attempt  to  establish  a  General 
Synod  should  be  abandoned,  nothing  like  it  could  be  at- 
tempted for  years,  and  our  church  would  continue  in  her 
former  lifeless  and  distracted  condition. 

"  With  these  views,  as  soon  as  I  heard  of  the  recession 
of  the  Pennsylvania  Synod,  I  felt  convinced  that  faithful- 
ness to  the  cause  of  our  beloved  Zion  required  a  desperate 
effort  to  sustain  the  General  Synod,  notwithstanding  the 
fearful  odds  of  influence  arrayed  against  it.  I  therefore 
immediately  wrote  to  the  principal  brethren  friendly  to  the 
cause,  and  in  a  few  days  determined  to  visit  those  brethren 
personally,  and  devise  means  to  sustain  the  General  Synod. 
With  this  view  I  started  from  home  about  a  week  after  the 
news  of  the  recession  of  the  Pennnsylvania  Synod  reached 
me,  and  visited  the  principal  brethren.  At  Frederick  in 
conjunction  with  Rev.  D.  F.  Schaeffer,  we  wrote  letters  to 
all  the  ministers  of  the  different  synods  who  had  been 
elected  as  delegates  to  the  General  Synod  to  be  held  in 
October  ensuing,  and  besought  them  not  to  regard  the 
course  of  the  Pennsylvania  Synod — assured  them  that  the 
General  Synod  should  be  sustained,  and  begged  them  to 

"  I  then  went  to  Gettysburg  to  Rev.  Herbst,  who  was 
one  of  our  most  zealous  and  active  ministers,  took  him 
along  to  York,  and  there  formed  the  following  agreement, 
of  which  I  still  have  the  original  memorandum,  which  runs 
as  follows  : 

'At  a  meeting  in  York,  July  15th,  1823,  present  J.  G. 
Schmucker,  J.  Herbst  and  S.  S.  Schmucker,  it  was  agreed  : 

I.  That  J.  G.  Schmucker  shall  publish  the  time  o 
the  West  Pennsylvania  special  conference  on  the  first  Sun- 
day in  October  (instead  of  the  third  Sunday.) 


2,  That  J.  G.  S.  and  J.  H.,  shall  use  their  utmost  in- 
fluence at  the  Special  Conference  to  have  the  following  re- 
solutions passed  : 

(a)  Resolved,  That  we  are  convinced  of  the  impor- 
tance of  the  General  Synod. 

(b)  That  in  Christian  love  we  lay  this,  our  opinion, 
before  the  next  Synod  at  Carlisle. 

(c)  That  two  members  of  this  conference  be  chosen 
to  attend  the  General  Synod  at  Frederick,  and  to  present 
this,  our  opinion. 

3.  Resolved,  That  S.  S.  Schmucker  promise  and 
guarantee  the  presence  of  one  or  more  members  of  the 
Maryland  and  Virginia  Synod  at  the  session  of  the  Penn- 
sylvania Special  Conference  to  advocate  the  interests  of  the 
General  Synod,  and  aid  in  forming  plans  for  the  further- 
ance of  this  object  in  conjunction  with  the  Pennsylvania 

"  Conformably  to  this  arrangement,  father  assumed  the 
responsibility  of  changing  the  time  fixed  by  conference,  and 
published  the  meeting  of  the  conference  two  weeks  earlier 
than  had  been  determined  at  Lebanon.  The  conference 
met  on  the  first  Sunday  in  October  in  1823.  I  had  pre- 
pared and  sent  to  them  a  long  and  earnest  appeal,  urging 
them  by  every  proper  motive  not  to  think  of  abandoning 
the  General  Synod,  which  appeal  was  read  and  favorably 
considered.  The  result  of  their  deliberations  was,  that  the 
Conference  adopted  the  resolutions  which  had  been  agreed 
on  by  us,  and  sent  two  delegates,  father  and  Rev.  Herbst,  to 
the  General  Synod,  which  was  held  at  the  appointed  time, 
and  thus  that  system  of  measures  secured  which  has  since 
eventuated  in  the  establishment  of  this  seminary,  the 
adoption  of  a  system  of  government  and  discipline,  a  hymn 
book,  and  numberless  other  benefits  to  our  beloved  Zion, 

"This  General  Synod,  the  second  ever  held  in  our 
American  Church,  consisted  of  seven  ministers  and  two 
laymen ;  viz.,  Daniel  and  D.  Sherer  of  North  Carolina ;  Dr. 


Daniel  Kurtz,  David  Schaeffer,  myself,  and  Mr.  Lehr,  and 
J  Ebert,  of  Md.  and  Va.;  Dr.  J.  G.  Schmucker  and  Rev. 
Herbst,  of  West  Pennsylvania." 

Concerning  the  above  Dr.  Richard  remarks,  in  the 
LutJierafi  Observer: 

"  We  thus  see  how  and  by  whom  the  General  Synod 
was  saved.  The  principal  part  of  the  work  was  done  by  a 
young  man  not  yet  twenty-five  years  old.  The  crisis  was 
without  doubt  the  most  important  in  the  history  of  our 
Church  in  the  United  States.  God  had  provided  the  man 
for  the  hour.  The  General  Synod  was  sustained,  its 
Lutheranism  from  that  hour  became  more  pronounced,  and 
the  Lutheran  Church  itself  in  this  country  was  saved  from 
that  union  with  the  Reformed,  which  was  so  long  sought 
by  the  Pennsylvania  Synod.  '  Destroy  it  not  for  a  blessing 
is  in  it.'  " 

It  seems  very  singular  that,  with  the  exception  of  Dr. 
Diehl,  none  of  the  writers  who  profess  to  give  a  history  of 
the  General  Synod,  have  said  anything  about  the  part 
which  Dr.  Schmucker  took  in  its  organization  and  preserva- 
tion from  dissolution.  Dr.  Jacobs,  in  his  "  History  of  the 
Lutheran  Church  in  the  United  States,"  gives  an  account 
of  the  organization  of  the  General  Synod  and  the  recession 
of  the  Pennsylvania  Ministerium,  but  gives  no  hint  of  Dr. 
Schmucker's  efforts  to  save  it  from  dissolution. 

Dr.  Morris,  in  his  "  Fifty  Years  in  the  Ministry,"  gives 
a  brief  history  of  the  General  Synod  and  an  extended  bio- 
graphical sketch  of  Dr.  Schmucker;  but  unaccountably 
overlooks  his  participation  in  the  organization  of  the  Gen- 
eral Synod,  and  his  successful  efforts  for  its  preservation. 

When  the  General  Synod  met  in  Hagerstown,  where  it 
had  been  organized  in  1820,  the  President  in  his  sy nodical 
sermon  very  appropriately  emphasized  the  remarkable 
coincidence,  that  this,  the  70th  Anniversary  of  the  General 


Synod,  was  celebrated  in  the  place  where  it  had  been 
organized,  but  in  the  printed  copy  of  his  sermon  containing 
a  brief  history  of  the  General  Synod,  I  do  not  find  the 
name  of  Dr.  Schmucker  once  mentioned  in  connection, 
with  its  origin  or  preservation. 

In  Dr.  Wolf's  book,  "  Lutherans  in  America,"  there  is 
no  allusion  to  Dr.  Schmucker's  agency  in  rescuing  the  Gen- 
eral Synod  from  dissolution.  This  is  all  that  is  said  about 
it :  "  The  hopes  whicli  had  been  cherished  for  the  improve- 
ment of  our  Zion  seemed  blasted,  and  many  were  disposed 
to  abandon  the  project  of  a  union.  Happily  the  project 
was  of  God,  and  brave  and  capable  men  with  strong  faith 
and  with  true  hearts,  men  capable  of  enduring  hardship 
and  of  meeting  the  issue,  were  provided  for  the  crisis." 

We  must  presume  that  these  later  historians  have  not 
made  themselves  acquainted  with  all  the  facts  in  the  case. 
Another  generation  has  come  up,  "  who  know  not  Joseph." 




1775— 1823. 

Hindrances  and  opposition  to  the  general  synod. 

The  revolutionary  war — infidelity— socinianism  among 






The  Revolutionary  War  at  the  close  of  the  i8th  and 
the  beginning  of  the  19th  centuries  had  a  very  demor- 
ahzing  effect  on  the  country  and  the  church. 

French  and  English  Infidelity  and  German  Rational- 
ism of  the  grossest  type  had  gained  great  prevalence  among 
the  educated  or  higher  classes  of  society,  and  found  expres- 
sion in  Tom  Paine's  "  Age  of  Reason."  As  a  consequence, 
the  morals  of  the  common  people  were  at  a  very  low  state. 
The  members  of  the  New  York  Ministerium,  as  can  be 
seen  from  young  Schmucker's  letter  to  his  father,  were 
nearly  all  Socinians,  and  the  Pennsylvania  Ministerium 
was  not  much  better.  These  were  the  two  largest  bodies 
of  Lutherans    in  America  at   that   time,  containing   more 

138  BAD  MORALS. 

members  than  all  the  other  small  synods,  scattered  over 
other  parts  of  the  country,  taken  together.  There  was  a 
little  salt  yet  left  in  the  church,  however,  that  kept  the 
whole  mass  from  spiritual  putrifaction.  This  was  found  in 
such  men  as  Helmuth,  Schmidt,  Lochman,  J.  G.  Schmucker, 
the  Schaeffers,  who  became  the  nucleus  of  the  Gen- 
eral Synod.  But  the  great  bulk  of  the  ministers  in  the  two 
above  named  Synods  were  Socinians.  Socinianism  denies 
all  the  fundamental  doctrines  of  the  Christian  religion,  as 
will  be  seen  by  the  following  definition  :  "  Socinianism  is  a 
system  of  doctrines  taught  by  Faustus  Socinus,  an  Italian 
theologian  of  the  i6th  century,  who  denied  the  Trinity,  the 
deity  of  Christ,  the  personality  of  the  devil,  the  native  and 
total  depravity  of  man,  the  vicarious  atonement,  and  the 
eternity  of  future  punishment.  His  theory  was,  that  Christ 
was  a  man  divinely  commissioned,  who  had  no  existence 
before  he  was  conceived  by  the  Virgin  Mary ;  that  human 
sin  was  the  imitation  of  Adam's  sin,  and  that  human  salva- 
tion was  the  imitation  and  adoption  of  Christ's  virtue ;  that 
the  Bible  was  to  be  interpreted  by  human  reason  ;  and  that 
its  language  was  metaphorical,  and  not  to  be  taken  liter- 

The  state  of  morals  among  the  people  corresponded 
with  the  debasing  Socinianism  among  the  ministry.  The 
following  extract  from  the  biography  of  Dr.  Archibald 
Alexander  gives  a  glimpse  of  the  state  of  things  in  the  Val- 
ley of  Virginia  from  1789  to  18 18.  Whether  this  is  a  true 
picture  of  the  state  of  religion  in  other  parts  of  the  country 
we  will  not  undertake  to  say.     The  following  is  his  account; 

"  My  only  notion  of  religion  was,  that  it  consisted  in 
oecoming  better.  I  had  never  heard  of  any  conversions 
among  the  Presbyterians.  The  state  of  morals  and  religion 
in  the  country,  after  the  Revolutionary  War,  was  very  bad. 
The  old  continental  soldiers,  many  of  whom  in  that  quarter 


were  convicts,  now  returned,  and  having  received  certificates 
for  their  wages,  were  able  to  hve  for  a  while  in  idleness  and 

dissipation.     Robert   ,   a   shrewd,    intelligent    man, 

who  was  one  of  this  number,  had  acquired  a  house  in  Lex- 
ington, the  old  farm  house  of  Israel  Campbell,  who  owned 
the  land.  Here  he  collected  all  the  vagrants  in  the  country, 
and  a  drunken  bout  would  be  kept  up  for  weeks.  They 
called  themselves  the  Congress,  and  made  Bob  their  presi- 
dent. Hard  battles  were  fought  here.  The  better  class  of 
people  were  much  injured  by  the  profane  and  licentious 
manners  of  the  officers  of  the  disbanded  army,  as  the  lower 
classes  by  the  soldiery.  There  were  a  few  pious  people  in 
the  land,  who  kept  up  the  pov/er  of  religion,  and  were  as 
salt  to  preserve  the  mass  from  universal  putrifaction." 

-i  .... 

The  Protestant  Episcopal  Church  in  Virgmia  seems  to 
have  been  in  a  still  more  deplorable  condition,  not  only  as 
regards  the  laity,  but  still  more  so  in  regard  to  her  ministry. 
This  is  what  Archdeacon  Tiffany  of  New  York  says  in  his 
history  of  the  Episcopal  Church  : 

"  Two-thirds  of  the  preachers  are  made  up  of  leaden 
lay  priests  of  the  Vesteries  ordination  (evidently  lay-read- 
ers) and  are  both  the  grief  and  shame  of  the  rightly 
ordained  clergy  there." 

"  The  General  Assembly  of  the  Presbyterian  Church, 
after  similar  deliverances  in  previous  years,  declared  in 
1798:  'We  perceive  with  pain  and  fearful  apprehension  a 
general  dereliction  of  religious  principle  and  practice — an 
abounding  infidelity — a  dissolution  of  religious  society 
seems  to  be  threatened.  Formality  and  deadness,  not  to 
say  hypocrisy,  visibly  pervade  every  part  of  the  Church. 
The  profligacy  and  corruption  of  public   morals  have  ad- 


vanced  with  a  progress  proportioned  to  our  declension  in 
religion.'  "  * 

"  The  Evangelical  Lutheran  Church  had  her  full  share 
of  these  disastrous  experiences.  Rev.  Storch,  writing  from 
North  Carolina,  in  1803,  says  :  '  Party  spirit  has  risen  to  a 
fearful  height.  The  prevalence  of  infidelity,  the  contempt 
of  the  best  of  all  religions,  its  usages  and  servants,  the 
increase  of  irreligion  and  crime,  have  occasioned  me  many 
sad  hours.'  She  had  fearful  trials  in  addition  to  those 
which  threatened  the  extinction  of  other  denominations 
that  had  advanced  beyond  her  in  organization  and  growth. 
She  was  subjected  to  fiery  ordeals  which  once  more  and  to 
the  last  degree  tested  her  vitality  and  her  inherent  powers 
of  endurance." 

Some  of  the  prominent  ministers  became  absorbed  in 
party  politics,  permitted  themselves  to  be  elected  to  politi- 
cal offices,  and  resigned  the  ministry  of  the  Gospel.  The 
writer  distinctly  recollects  hearing  one  of  these  old  minis- 
ters, in  Pennsylvania,  earnestly  discussing  political  ques- 
tions, on  Sunday  morning,  with  the  male  members  of  his 
congregation,  outside  of  the  church,  till  it  was  time  to  go 
into  the  pulpit  and  preach. 

Rev.  J.  P.  G.  Muhlenberg,  the  eldest  son  of  the  Patri- 
arch Muhlenberg,  was  one  of  the  predecessors  of  Rev.  S.  S. 
Schmucker  at  Woodstock,  Va.  In  January,  1776,  he 
preached  his  farewell  sermon.  After  service  he  laid  aside 
his  clerical  robe,  disclosed  a  military  uniform,  and  enlisted, 
outside   of  the  church,  about  300  men   for  service  in  the 

*  "  A  frightfal  apcstacy  from  religion  ensued.  Skepticism  and  reck- 
less blasphemy  became  common  Infidelity  was  never  more  rampant 
among  influential  citizens  ard  professional  men,  never  more  deliter- 
ious  in  its  work.  Revelation  was  decried  as  without  authority  or  evi- 
dence, moral  obliga'ion  as  a  cobweb.  'The  clergy  were  a  laughing 
stock,  or  objects  of  disgust.'  Young  men  especially  became  enam- 
ored of  the  new  ideas.  Bishop  White  of  Virginia  wrote,  that  scarcely 
a  young  man  of  any  literary  culture  believed  in  Christianity," — U^'ol/. 


revolutionary  army.  He  became  Colonel  of  a  regiment, 
participated  in  a  number  of  battles,  and  was  promoted  to 
the  grade  of  Brigadier  General.  After  the  war  he  was 
called  back  by  his  old  congregation  to  Woodstock,  in 
1783.  But  he  declined  the  call,  and  was  elected  to  the  leg- 
islature of  Pennsylvania.  After  this  he  was  elected  to  con- 
gress successively  from  1789  to  1801. 

Rev.  Henry  A.  Muhlenberg,  was  pastor  of  Trinity 
Lutheran  Church  in  Reading,  Pa.,  from  1802  till  1828, 
when  he  resigned  his  charge,  and  soon  after  was  elected  a 
member  of  the  twenty-second  congress,  from  the  districts 
of  Berks  and  Lehigh  Counties.  To  this  post  he  was  re- 
elected until  1838.  In  1835  he  was  nominated  as  the  can- 
didate of  the  Democratic  party  in  Pennsylvania  for  gover- 
nor, but  was  defeated.  In  1837,  President  Van  Buren  ten- 
dered him  a  position  in  his  cabinet,  and  also  a  mission  to 
Russia,  both* of  which  he  declined  ;  but  in  1838  he  accepted 
the  mission  to  Austria,  and  was  unanimously  confirmed  by 
the  Senate.  In  1844  he  was  again  nominated  by  the 
Democratic  party  for  governor,  and  would  undoubtedly 
have  been  chosen,  had  not  his  death  occured  before  the 
election. — Spragne. 

The  following  letter  dated,  Nov.  12th,  1828,  was  writ- 
ten by  Rev.  J.  G.  Schmucker,  D.  D.,  of  York,  when  he 
heard  of  Rev.  H.  A.  Muhlenberg's  election  to  Congress. 

"  My  dear  and  much  respected  Brother:  — I  am  truly 
sorry  that  you  have  relinquished  your  Episcopal  charge  for 
one  of  vastly  less  importance  in  the  kingdom  of  God. 
There  are  thousands  qualified 'for  congressmen  before  you 
find  one  fit  for  a  truly  able  messenger  of  the  glorious 
gospel  of  Christ.  Besides  all  this,  you  are  perfectly  ac- 
quainted with  the  state  of  our  church  in  this  country,  and 
how  much  we  stand  in  need  of  your  first  rate  and  superior 
abilities  and  labors.     When  I  consider  the  loss  your  Synod 


sustains,  I  cannot  but  pronounce  it  irreparable.  You  are 
the  only  one  who  possessed  sufficient  weight  of  character, 
around  whom  the  brethren  formed  a  rallying  point  of 
union  ;  and  thus  by  proper  exertion  and  judicious  manage- 
ment, you  might,  like  your  worthy  father  and  grandfather, 
have  proved  a  vast  blessing  to  the  church. 

J.  George  Schmucker." 

Our  readers  will  be  interested  in  the  following  congre- 
gational call  extended  to  Rev.  H.  A.  Muhlenberg  in  1802. 
It  will  also  indicate  the  confessional  state  of  the  churches 
in  the  Pennsylvania  Ministerium  at  that  time.  The  con- 
gregation at  Reading  was,  no  doubt,  at  that  time  one  of 
the  largest  in  the  church. 

specimen  of  a  congregational  call. 

It  was  extended  by  the  Lutheran  Trinity  Church  of 
Reading,  to  Rev.  H.  A.  Muhlenberg,  grandson  of  the 
Patriot,  H.  M.  Muhlenberg: 

"  Inasmuch  as  the  Evangelical  Lutheran  Church  of 
Reading  has  elected  Rev.  H.  A.  Muhlenberg  as  their 
teacher  and  preacher,  therefore  we  desire  and  expect  of 
him,  that  he  will  preach  in  this  congregation  the  pure  and 
simple  vvord  of  God,  administer  the  holy  Sacraments  in  a 
Scriptural  manner,  visit  the  sick,  etc. 

"  On  the  other  hand  we  promise  for  ourselves  and  our 
congregation,  so  long  as  he  remains  our  pastor,  and  faith- 
fully performs  his  duty,  the  following  : 

"  Free  residence  in  the  parsonage  and  the  use  of  the 
grounds  attached  thereto. 

"  Six  cords  of  hickory  and  six  cords  of  oak  wood. 

"  Five  hundred  dollars  per  annum,  payable  every  half 

"  Also  the  customary  perquisite. 

"  And  especially  all  love  and  friendship,  which  a  faith- 


ful  and  conscientious  pastor  should  have,  so  that  he  may 
fulfill  his  office  among  us  with  joy,  and  not  with  grief." 

Dr.  Fry,  in  his  "  History  of  Trinity  Church  "  remarks, 
"  It  was  a  sign  of  the  times  that  in  neither  of  these  calls 
(Muhlenberg's  and  Miller's)  was  there  any  mention  of  the 
Confessions  of  the  Lutheran  Church,  which  were  always 
mentioned  in  the  calls  of  the  pastors  during  the  preceding 
century." — Frys  History  pages  ij6  and  757. 

Rev.  Christopher  Emanuel  Schultze  was  a  son-in-law 
of  Dr.  Henry  Melchior  Muhlenberg,  born  in  1740  and  died 
1809.  His  son,  John  Andrew,  was  for  several  years  Gov- 
ernor of  Pennsylvania. 

Another  great  obstacle  in  the  formation  of  the  General 
Synod  was  the  unyielding  adherance  of  the  early  Luther- 
ans to  the  German  language,  while  the  synods  and  congre- 
gations composing  the  General  Synods  were  predominently 
English.       ^ 

The  antipathy  to  English,  on  the  one  hand,  and  the 
anxiety  to  have  English  on  the  other,  occasioned  a  violent 
struggle  in  the  Philadelphia  Congregation,  of  which  Drs. 
Helmuth  and  Schmidt  were  the  pastors.  The  advocates  of 
English  under  the  leadership  of  General  Peter  Muhlenberg 
insisted  that  a  third  pastor  should  be  called,  who  would 
officiate  in  Engl'sh.  The  feeling  was  intensified  by  the 
impression  on  the  part  of  the  opponents  of  the  English, 
that  Rev.  H.  A.  Muhlenberg,  afterwards  pastor  in  Reading 
and  minister  to  Austria,  then  completing  his  studies  under 
Dr.  Kunze,  was  to  be  the  English  pastor.  At  the  election, 
Jan.  6,  1806,  1,400  votes  were  polled,  the  majority  against 
the  proposition  being  130.  Prior  to  this  the  controversy 
had  been  carried  into  the  Ministerium,  which  at  its  meeting 
in  Germantown  in  1805,  passed  the  resolution,  that  it 
"  Must  remain  a  German  speaking  Ministerium,"  and  for- 
bidding  the  introduction  of  any  measure,  "  which  would 


necessitate  the  use  of  any  other  language,  than  the  German 
in  synodical  session."  The  English  speaking  Lutherans 
then  organized  themselves  into  a  congregation.  This  was 
the  first  exclusively  English  Lutheran  Congregation  in 
Pennsylvania.  It  was  organized  in  Philadelphia,  by  Dr. 
Mayer,  who  ministered  in  the  same  church  for  upwards  of 
half  a  century.  * 

In  his  "  Retrospect  of  Lutheranism,"  Dr.  Schmucker 
gives  the  following  description  of  the  state  of  the  country 
during  and  succeeding  the  Revolutionary  war  : 

"The  struggle  by  which  this  glorious  declaration  of  In- 
dependence was  sustained  and  in  which  our  forefathers 
took  a  distinguished  part,  was  like  every  othsr  war,  detri- 
mental to  the  religious  prosperity  of  the  community.  Chris- 
tianity is  a  religion  of  peace,  and  the  tempest  of  war  never 
fails  to  blast  and  scatter  the  leaves  which  are  for  the  healing 
of  nations.  Hear  the  account  of  one  of  those  venerable 
men,  the  Rev.  Dr.  Helmuth,  just  after  General  Gage  had 
landed  at  Boston  with  9,000  British  troops,  dated  February 
25th,  1775.  '  Throughout  the  whole  country  great  prepar- 
ations for  war  are  making,  and  almost  every  person  is 
under  arms.  The  ardor  is  indescribable  which  is  mani- 
fested in  these  melancholy  circumstances.  If  a  hundred 
men  are  required,  many  more  immediately  offer,  and  are 
dissatisfied  when  all  are  not  accepted.  I  know  of  no  sim- 
ilar case  in  history.  Neighborhoods  concerning  which  it 
would  have  been  expected,  that  years  would  be  requisite 
to  induce  them  voluntarily  to  take  up  arms,  became 
strongly  inclined  for  war,  so  soon  as  the  battle  of  Lexing- 
ton was  known.  Quakers  and  Menonists  take  part  in  the 
military  exercises,  and  in  great  numbers  renounce  their 
former    religious    principles.     The    hoarse    din    of  war    is 

*  See  Jacob's  History,  Page  328. 


hourly  heard  in  our  streets.  The  present  disturbances  inflict 
no  small  injury  on  religion.  Every  body  is  constantly  on 
the  alert,  anxious,  like  the  ancient  Athenians,  to  hear  the 
news,  and  amid  the  mass  of  news  the  hearts  of  men  are, 
alas,  closed  against  the  good  old  word  of  God.  The  Lord 
is  chastising  the  people,  but  they  do  not  feel  it.  Those 
who  appear  to  be  distant  from  danger  are  unconcerned  j 
and  those  whom  calamity  has  overtaken  are  enraged  and 
meditating  vengeance.  In  the  American  army  there  are 
many  clergymen,  who  serve  both  as  chaplains  and  as  offi- 
cers. I  myself  know  two,  one  of  whom  is  a  Colonel  and 
the  other  a  Captain.  The  whole  country  is  in  a  perfect 
enthusiasm  for  liberty.  The  whole  population,  from  New 
England  to  Georgia  is  of  one  mind  and  determined  to  risk 
life  and  all  things  in  defence  ol  liberty.  The  few  who  think 
differently  are  not  permitted  to  utter  their  sentiments.  In 
Philadelphia  the  English  and  German  students  are  formed 
into  military  companies,  wear  uniform,  and  are  exercised 
like  regular  troops.  Would  to  God  that  men  would  once 
become  as  zealous  and  unanimous  in  asserting  their  spirit- 
ual liberty,  as  they  are  in  vindicating  their  political  free- 
dom !  * 

"  This  melancholy  state  of  things  lasted  upwards  of 
seven  years. — Many  of  the  churches  were  destroyed 
throughout  the  land,  and  especially  in  New  England. 
Zion's  church,  the  largest  in  Philadelphia,  was  occupied  as 
a  hospital  t  by  the  British  army  in  1778,  and  the  congrega- 
tion for  a  season  wholly  expelled  ;  and  their  other  church, 
St.  Michaels,  which  had  been  built  1743,  the  year  after 
Muhlenberg's  arrival,  was  used  by  the  enemy  as  a  garrison 
church,  half  of  every  Lord's  day,  the   congregation   having 

*  Hallische  Nachrichten  p.  1367 — 8. 
IHallische  Nachrichten  p.  1408. 


the  use  of  it  in  the  afternoon.  During  the  ravages  of  this 
war,  no  regular  reports  were  forwarded  to  Halle,  and  our 
acquaintance  with  the  particulars  of  our  history  is  necessar- 
ily circumscribed.  Many,  however,  of  the  fathers  of  the 
church  survived  the  revolutionary  struggle,  and  remained 
in  the  field  during  the  earlier  part  of  this  period  ;  yet  one 
by  one  they  dropped  off,  and  were  received  to  their  eternal 
rest.  From  the  (Kirchenagende)  *  Directory  for  Worship,' 
published  in  1786,  three  years  after  the  Independence  of 
these  United  States  was  acknowledged  by  Britain  and  the 
war  closed,  we  learn,  that  at  that  time  our  ministry  in  the 
Middle  States  embraced  the  following  twenty-four  persons  : 
Henry  Melchior  Muhlenberg,  D.  D.,  senior  of  the  minis- 
terium,  Nicolas  Kurtz,  his  younger  brother  William  Kurtz, 
Lewis  Voigt,  John  Andrew  Krug,  Christian  Imanuel 
Schultze,  John  George  Eager,  Just  Christian  Henry  Hel- 
muth,  D.  D.,  John  Frederick  Schmidt,  John  Christopher 
Kunze,  D.  D.,  Gotthilf,  Henry  Ernst  Muhlenberg,  D.  D., 
Conrad  Wildbahn,  Jacob  B.  Buskirk,  John  Friderici,  Chris- 
tian Streit,  John  George  Jung,  Conrad  Roeller,  Jacob  Geo- 
ring,  Daniel  Schroeter,  Daniel  Lehman,  Henry  Moeller, 
Frederick  Ernst,  Frederick  Valentine  Melsheimer,  and 
Daniel  Kurtz,  D.  D. 

"  In  addition  to  these,  the  following  laborers,  among 
many  others,  entered  the  field  during  the  second  period, 
and  carried  forward  the  work  of  the  Lord  :  John  Frederick 
Weinland,  Frederick  David  Schaeffer,  D.  D.,  Wm.  Carpen- 
ter, George  Lochman,  D.  D.,  John  George  Schmucker, 
D.  D.,  Christian  Endress,  D.  D.,  Ernst  L.  Hazelius,  D.  D., 
Philip  F.  Mayer,  D.  D.,  John  Bachman,  D.  D  ,  John  Ruth- 
rauff,  George  Flohr,  Paul  Henkel,  John  Stauch,  F.  W. 
Geissenhainer,  D.  D.,  Augustus  Wackerhagen,  D.  D.,  G.  A. 
Lintner,  D.  D.,  G.  B.  Miller,  D.  D.,  Jno.  Herbst,  John 
Knosky,  H.  Muhlenberg,  D.  D.,  David  F.  Schaeffer,  D.  D., 


John  Hecht,  Jacob  Miller,  D.  D.,  Ulrich,  Baetis,  Ernst, 
D.  D.,  J.  Becker,  D.  D.,  F.  C.  Schaeffer,  D.  D.,  J.  P.  Shin- 
del,  A.  Reck,  B.  Kurtz,  D.  D.* 

"  The  number  of  congregations  and  ministers  was  much 
increased  during  this  period  ;  but  owing  to  the  want  of  a 
suitable  institution  for  their  education  and  to  other  causes, 
the  proportion  of  men  destitute  of  a  learned  education  was 
also  augmented.  Nor  can  it  be  denied,  that,  whether  it  is 
attributable  to  the  unhallowed  influence  of  the  war,  or  to 
this  and  other  causes  in  conjunction,  the  standard  of  piety 
in  the  churches  was  somewhat  on  the  decline,  especially  in 
the  latter  part  of  this  period.  As  the  same  remark  is  also 
applicable  to  other  religious  denominations  of  our  land,  the 
war  of  the  Revolution  and  the  war  with  England  in  1812 
were  most  probably  its  principal  reason ;  for  a  general 
effect  requires  an  equally  general  cause.  With  this  cause 
co-operated  another,  almost  as  influential,  the  general  and 
unprecedented  facilities  offered  by  our  young  and  nascent 
country  to  accumulate  deceitful  riches,  and  to  neglect  the 
treasures  in  heaven ;  and  also  the  less  pious  character  of 
the  late  accessions  made  to  our  churches  by  emigration 
from  Germany,  then  devastated  and  demoralized  by  the 
deadly  poison  of  war." 

In  the  minutes  of  the  Maryland  and  Virginia  Synod,, 
held  in  Shepherdstown,  Va.,  November,  1823,  we  find  a 
petition  from  a  meeting  held  in  Baltimore,  beseeching  the 
Reverend  Synod  to  send  severa)  of  their  brethren  succes- 
sively to  preach  in  the  English  language.  They  state  in 
their  petition,  that  Lutherans  have  left,  and  others  are  wan- 
dering for  the  want  of  those  doctrines  and  principles  which 
they  deem  compatible  with  the  Holy  Scriptures,  and  the 
practice  of  their  forefathers. 

*  To  which  should  be  added  S.  S.  Schmucler,  D.  D. 


It  was 

"  Resolved,  that  Synod  approve  of  the  intention  of  our 
brethren  in  Baltimore,  to  establish  an  English  Evangelical 
Lutheran  Church  in  that  city,  and  sincerely  wish  them  the 
divine  blessing  in  their  undertaking." 

After  discussion  the  yeas  and  nays  were  called  for,  and 
the  result  was  as  follows  : 

Yeas  :  Revs.  Sackman,  Benj.  Kurtz,  Koehler,  Krauth, 
S.  S.  Schmucker,  Schnee,  Winter,  Ruthrauf,  Moeller; 
Messrs.  Ebert,  Esig,  Rohrer,  Weis,  Jr. 

Nays:  Rev.  Mr.  Haas,  Messrs.  Link,  Paulus,  Strayer, 

Thirteen  yeas  and  five  nays.  The  President,  D.  F. 
Schaeffer,  had  no  vote,  except  there  had  been  a  tie.  It  was 

^^  Resolved,  that  any  of  our  brethren,  who  officiate  in  the 
English  language,  may  visit  the  petitioners  according  to 
their  request ;  and  it  was  further 

Resolved,  that  under  existing  circumstances  it  is  desira- 
able,  that  brethren,  who  may  visit  Baltimore  for  the  pur- 
pose above  specified,  to  regulate  their  appointments  so  as  to 
interfere  as  little  as  possible  with  the  services  performed  in 
the  German  Lutheran  Church,  and  that  those  who  are  at 
this  time  members  of  the  German  congregation,  and  may 
attach  themselves  to  the  contemplated  English  church, 
should  not,  for  the  present,  withdraw  their  support  from 
said  congregation." 

This  was  the  beginning  of  the  first  English  Lutheran 
congregation  in  Baltimore.  Rev.  J.  G.  Morris  became  its 
first  pastor,  and  served  it  with  marked  ability  and  success 
for  many  years. 

In  regard  to  the  design  of  the  General  Synod,  and  the 
withdrawal  of  the  Pennsylvania  Ministerium,  Dr.  Schmucker 
writes  in  his  Dedication  to  the  Church  of  the  Redeemer, 
1866:  "The  original  design  of  the  General  Synod  of  our 
church,  in  this  country,  was  to   effect  a  fraternal   union   or 


confederation,  of  limited  and  chiefly  advisory  powers,  be- 
tween all  the  Lutheran  Synods  then  existing  in  our  coun- 
try. This  object  was  also  happily  effected  in  the  organiza- 
tion of  that  body  in  1820,  in  regard  to  all  those  synods, 
except  that  of  Ohio,  which  had  not  yet  completed  its  con- 
nection with  us  in  1823.  In  that  year  the  Pennsylvania 
Synod,  after  having  attended  a  single  meeting,  withdrew 
from  the  union,  not  on  account  of  any  dissatisfaction  with 
its  principles,  (for  they  expressly  affirmed  the  contrary,)  but 
because  their  congregations  had  listened  to  the  misrepre- 
sentations of  ignorance  and  prejudice,  which  were  caught 
up  and  circulated  in  their  congregations  by  political  dema- 
gogues, for  selfish  purposes.  The  charges,  forsooth,  were, 
that  the  General  Synod,  the  Bible  Societies,  Tract  Socie- 
ties, and  Thi^ological  Seminaries  were  all  parts  of  a  secret 
scheme  to  unite  church  and  state,  and  to  introduce  into  our 
church  in  this  country  religious  coercion,  like  that  in  the 
Fatherland.  Thirty  years  afterwards  the  Pennsylvania 
Synod  again  united  with  the  General  Synod." 

Dr.  Morris  represents  the  matter  in  his  brusk  manner 
thus  :  "  A  resolution  was  passed  (at  the  meeting  of  the  Gen- 
eral Synod  in  Frederick,  1823)  expressing  deep  regret  that 
the  Pennsylvanians  were  induced  by  peculiar  circumstances 
to  secede  from  the  institution  which  they  had  aided  in 

"  '  The  peculiar  circumstances  '  were  the  prejudices  of 
the  congregations,  and  the  fear  entertained  by  some  ot  the 
ministers,  that  the  General  Synod  would  exercise  too  much 
authority,  and  invade  the  rights  of  the  districts ;  all  of 
which  was  simple  nonsense,  and  unworthy  of  the  men  who 
pretended  to  entertain  these  fears.  The  fact  is,  that  some 
of  those  ministers  were  intimidated  by  the  ravings  of  some 
fanatical  foreigners,  who  made  the  simple  people  believe 
that  their  civil  liberties  were  in  peril,  and   that   church   and 


state  were  about  to  be  united  through  the  agency  of  the 
Synod.  Some  of  the  ministers  were  afraid  to  assert  their 
rights,  lest  they  might  lose  their  bread." 

Dr.  Jacobs  gives  the  cause  for  the  withdrawal  of  the 
Ministerium  as  follows  : 

"  The  withdrawal  of  the  Ministerium  of  Pennsylvania 
was  due  to  the  fact  that  the  leaders  of  the  Synod  were  una- 
ble to  overcome  the  opposition  of  the  rural  districts.  A 
country  school  teacher,  by  the  name  of  Carl  Gock,  pub- 
lished a  small  book,  in  which  he  excited  the  prejudices  of 
the  country  people  against  the  General  Synod.  The 
scheme  was  declared  to  be  a  plan  of  the  ministers  to  tread 
the  rights  of  the  people  under  foot.  An  entire  chapter  was 
devoted  to  a  picture  of  the  despotism  exercised  by  Romish 
priests  in  Europe,  and  a  warning  that  the  General  Synod 
was  attended  with  such  perils.  Another  chapter  dwells  en 
the  great  evils  of  theological  seminaries,  and  urges  that  the 
money  of  the  people  would  be  better  spent  in  establishing 
elementary  schools.  All  the  proceedings  of  the  General 
Synod,  it  was  urged,  will  be  English,  and  the  rights  of  the 
German  will  be  given  away,  because  the  lay  delegates  will 
not  know  what  is  transpiring.  It  will  be  an  aristocratic 
spiritual  congress.  As  to  the  expenses,  who  is  to  pay 
them?     We  farmers,  collections  upon  collections,  etc.* 

"The  country  clergy  from  the  beginning  had  not  cared 
much  for  the  General  Synod,  which  had  its  chief  advocates 
in  Philadelphia,  Harrisburg,  York,  Lancaster  and  Reading. 
While  they  had  generally  voted  for  it,  they  made  no  efforts, 
when  the  excitement  against  it  arose  among  their  people,  to 

*  The  writer  becomes  most  eloquent  in  the  apostrophe:  "  Spirit  of 
Washington,  appear  from  the  spirit  world,  quicken  in  us  the  true 
sense  of  freedom,  in  order  that  the  foundation  thou  hast  laid  we  may 
defend,  even  with  our  blood."     Jacobs'  Church  History  p.  360. 


instruct  them,  or  withstand  the  current,  but  acquiesced  and 
carried  their  demands  to  Synod. 

"  The  form  of  opposition,  however,  was,  that  the  General 
Synod  interfered  with  the  plans  that  had  been  projected  for 
a  closer  union  with  the  Reformed,  and  the  establishment  of 
a  Lutheran  Reformed  theological  seminary.  Congregations 
in  Lehigh  County  petitioned  the  Synod,  for  this  reason,  to 
'  return  to  the  old  order  of  things  ;  '  and  the  Synod,  in  the 
spirit  of  charity  (?)  towards  its  congregations,  in  order  that 
nothing  might  interrupt  the  mutual  fraternal  love  that  sub- 
sisted between  the  brethren,  consented,  by  a  vote  of  seven- 
ty-two to  nine,*  to  desert  the  child  which  it  had  brought 
into  being." 

The  opposition  to  the  General  Synod  was  not  confined 
to  the  laity  ;  some  of  the  prominent  ministers  of  the  Penn- 
sylvania Ministerium  were  also  opposed  to  it.  An  example 
of  this  is  given  in  a  biographical  sketch  of  Rev.  Jacob  Mil- 
ler, D.  D.,  pastor  of  the  Trinity  Lutheran  Church  in  Read- 
ing, by  Dr.  Hiester  H.  Muhlenberg  :  "  Still  another  of  his 
strong  prejudices  was  to  be  seen  in  his  opposition  to  the 
General  Synod,  which  he  looked  upon  as  a  mere  scheme 
for  religious  and  even  political  influence.  Whether  this 
view  originated  in  mere  distrust  of  the  men,  who  were  at 
the  head  of  the   enterprise,  or   in  general   views  of  human 

weakness,  or  both,  I  am    not   able   to   say I    have 

repeatedly  argued  this  point  with  him,  and  could  never 
even  get  him  to  agree  to  the  expediency  of  the  General 
Synod  as  a  bond  of  closer  union  to  our  churches.  Noth- 
ing, in  his  judgment,  but  similarity  in  religious  faith  and 
principles  could  be  permanent." 

*  The  nine  were  Dr.  G.  Lochman,  (J.  G.  Schmucker?)  Revs.  J. 
Heibst,  B.  Keller,  C.  T.  Cruse  and  J.  Schnee;  and  the  lay  delegates 
Barnitz  of  York,  Stoever  of  Germantown,  Schmeiser  of  Gettysburg, 
and  Bohn  of  Berlin.     Jacobs'  History  p.  361. 

152  ATTEMPTED    REUNION   IN    1839. 

In  1839  a  movement  was  made  to  have  the  Minister- 
ium  resume  its  connection  with  the  General  Synod,  which 
will  explain  the  foregoing  : 

"The  vestry  and  congregation  met  in  the  church. 
The  president  of  the  vestry,  Rev.  Dr.  Jacob  Miller,  informed 
the  congregation  that  he  was  instructed  by  the  Reverend 
Synod  to  take  the  vote  of  the  congregation,  whether  they 
desired  to  join  the  General  Synod,  or  to  remain  as  they  now 
are.  The  vote  was  taken  and  was  unanimous  against 
making  a  change.     So  testifies  John  Hanold,  Secretary. 

"  Dr.  Miller  personally  was  opposed  to  the  return  of 
the  Ministerium  of  Pennsylvania  to  the  General  Synod,  and 
at  the  subsequent  meeting  of  that  body  offered  the  resolu- 
tion, that  for  the  present  it  was  not  advisable,  which  was 
adopted  by  a  vote  of  33  to  28."  * 

We  must  not  suppose,  however,  that  Dr.  Jacob  Miller 
was  the  only  minister  in  the  Pennsylvania  Ministerium  who 
was  opposed  to  the  General  Synod.  It  will  be  noticed  that 
at  the  meeting  of  the  Ministerium  in  Baltimore,  1819,  where 
the  initiatory  steps  were  taken,  the  motion  to  form  a  gen- 
eral Synod  was  adopted  by  a  vote  ot  forty-two  in  favor,  and 
eight  against  the  organization.  The  names  of  the  eight 
men  who  voted  in  the  negative  are  not  given,  but  they 
were  doubtless  influential  members  and  Dr.  Miller  probably 
was  one  of  them. 

But  opposition  to  the  General  Synod  was  found  not 
only  in  the  Ministerium  of  Pennsylvania.  It  had  some 
warm  friends  and  advocates  in  the  New  York  Ministerium  ; 
but  in  the  minutes  of  that  body  in  the  year  1822,  we  find 
that  it  was  not  thought  expedient  to  send  delegates  "  for  the 
present."  The  year  previous,  the  president  had  been 
requested    to  lay  before  the   next  Synod  a  circumstantial 

*  History  of  Trinity  Church,  Reading,  Pa.     Page  169 


report  concerning  the  decision,  which  he  received  from  the 
different  church  councils,  on  the  subject  of  a  proposed 
union  with  the  General  Synod. 

"  The  Secretary  stated,  that  but  few  congregations  had 
sent  in  their  declarations  concerning  the  General  Synod  ; 
and  that  a  majority  of  the  few,  who  had  expressed  an  opin- 
ion on  the  subject,  had  deemed  the  proposed  plan  inexpedi- 
ent for  the  present." 


The  Synod  of  Ohio  presented  eight  objections  against 
uniting  with  the  General  Synod.  Among  these  were  the 
following : 

"  The  introduction  of  uniform  hymn  books  and  liturgies 
is  contrary  to  Article  VII  of  the  Augsburg  Confession"; 

"  The  freedom  and  parity  of  the  ministry  is  infringed 
upon,  since  the  delegates  to  the  General  Synod  will  usurp 
their  rights  ; 

"  An  act  of  incorporation  will  follow,  and  the  resolutions 
will  be  enforced  by  the  strong  arm  of  the  law ; 

"  The  Ministerium  of  Ohio  must  remain  a  German  speak- 
ing body,  and  in  the  General  Synod  the  Enghsh  will  soon 
prevail."  * 

How  unreasonable  these  objections  were  !  It  is  difficult 
to  see  how  intelligent,  sensible  men  could  urge  them ; 
the  Ohio  Synod  certainly  has  long  since  disowned  them  in 
theory  and  practice. 

The  New  York  Ministerium  had  assisted  in  forming 
the  General  Synod  in  1820,  but  did  not  send  delegates 
again  till  the  ninth  session,  in  Hagerstown,  June  1837,  sev- 
enteen years  after.  It  seceded  again  in  1866-7,  and  became 
a  part  of  the  General  Council. 

*  Jacobs'  History  of  the  Lutheran  Church,  p.  159. 



The  most  violent  and  persistent  opposition  to  the  or- 
ganization of  the  General  Synod,  however,  came  from  what 
was  then  called  the  Tennessee  Conference.  Their  opposi- 
tion was  founded  mainly  on  doctrinal  grounds.  In  the 
year  1821  they  appointed  a  committee,  consisting  of  Adam 
Miller,  David  Henkel,  Ambrose  Henkel,  and  others,  to 
"  compile  objections  to  the  General  Synod,  and  have  them 

The  Synod  approved  the  objections  compiled  by  the 
committee  appointed  at  the  previous  year's  session  in  opposi- 
tion to  the  constitution  of  the  General  Synod.  Their  principal 
objections  to  the  constitution  of  the  General  Synod  seem 
to  have  been : 

1.  "  That  it  was  not  sufficiently  definitive  on  the  Luth- 
eran doctrine  of  the  Sacraments. 

2.  "  That  it  declared  that  Christ  had  given  no  special 
direction  or  order  for  the  establishment  of  Church  Govern- 

3.  "  That  it  maintained  that  the  synods  should  be  ruled 
by  the  majority." 

From  a  German  paper,  published  in  Baltimore,  June 
25,  1823,  the  lennesseeans  heard  that  the  Pennsylvania 
Ministerium  had  withdrawn  its  connection  with  the  General 
Synod.  In  view  of  this  fact,  and  in  order  to  obtain  desired 
information,  they  deemed  it  proper  to  submit  the  following 
inquiries  to  the  Pennsylvania  Ministerium.  It  will  be 
noticed  that  some  of  the  inquiries  point  to  the  Rationalism 
and  the  third  one  especially  to  the  Socinianism  of  some  of 
the  members  of  the  Pennsylvania  Ministerium  at  that  time : 

I.  ''  Do  you  believe,  that  Holy  Baptism, administered 
with  natural  water,  in  the  name  of  the  Father,  and  of  the 
Son,  and  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  effects  the  forgiveness  of  sins, 
delivers  from  death  and  the  devil,  and  confers  everlasting 


salvation  upon  all  who  believe  it,  as  the  words  and  promises 
of  God  declare  ? 

2.  "  Do  you  believe,  that  the  true  body  and  blood  of 
Christ,  under  the  form  of  bread  and  wine  in  the  Holy  Sup- 
per, are  present,  administered,  and  received  ?  Do  you  also 
believe,  that  the  unbelieving  communicants  receive  in  this 
Supper  the  body  and  blood  of  Christ,  under  the  form  of 
bread  and  wine  ? 

"  We  do  not  ask  whether  the  unbelievers  obtain  the 
forgiveness  of  their  sins  thereby,  but  whether  they  also  re- 
ceive the  body  and  blood  of  Jesus  in  this  Sacrament. 

3.  "  Do  you  believe,  that  Jesus  Christ,  as  true  God 
and  man  in  one  person,  should  be  worshipped  ? 

4.  "  Is  it  right  for  the  Evangelical  Lutheran  Church 
to  unite  with  any  religious  organization  that  seeks  to  deny 
the  doctrines  of  the  Augsburg  Confession  and  Luther's 
Catechism  ?  Or  is  it  right  for  Lutherans  to  goto  the  Holy 
Supper  with  such  ? 

5.  "Is  your  Synod  to  be  henceforth  ruled  by  a  major- 
ity of  the  voters  ? 

6.  "  Does  your  Synod  intend  still  to  adhere  to  the 
declaration,  that  Jesus  Christ,  the  Great  Head  of  his  Church, 
has  given  no  special  direction  or  order  for  the  establishment 
of  Church  Government,  as  it  is  declared  in  the  Constitution 
of  the  General  Synod  ? 

"  Your  answers  to  these  questions  in  writing,  addressed 
to  our  Secretary,  Rev.  David  Henkel,  Lincolnton,  Lincoln 
County,  North  Carolina,  will  be  duly  appreciated."  * 

The  name  of  the  German  agitator,  who  influenced  the 
members  of  the  Pennsylvania  Ministerium  against  the  Gen- 
eral Synod  appears  to  have  been  Carl  Gock.  In  1823,  he 
wrote  a  letter  to  the  Tennessee  Synod,  in  which  he  ex- 

*  We  do  not  find,  that  the  Ministerium  ever  made  a  reply,  or  paid 
any  attention  to  these  questions. — Ed, 

156  RUPTURE   IN   THE   N.    C.   SYNOD. 

pressed  himself  dissatisfied  with  the  General  Synod,  and 
stated,  that  he  had  reprinted  the  report  of  their  committee, 
appointed  to  compile  objections  to  the  constitution  of  the 
General  Synod,  and  circulated  1,200  copies. — Hist.  Tenn. 

Several  letters  from  Pennsylvania  were  sent,  requesting 
Rev.  David  Henkel  to  visit  that  state,  and  preach  and  vin- 
dicate the  distinctive  doctrines  of  the  Lutheran  Church. 
He  was  advised  to  go,  and  he  finally  agreed  to  do  so. — 
Hist.  Tenn.  Synod. 

Some  time  before  the  organization  of  the  General 
Synod,  a  disruption  of  the  North  Carolina  Synod  occurred; 
differences  of  opinion  had  arisen  among  the  members  on 
the  subject  of  denominational  union,  revivals  of  religion,  and 
subscription  to  the  Symbolical  Books.  We  quote  from  the 
History  of  the  Tennessee  Synod,  pages  13,  14  : 

"  There  were  conflicts  in  the  pulpit,  in  the  congrega- 
tion, and  in  the  family.  One  of  the  leading  ministers 
charged  Rev.  David  Henkel  with  teaching  doctrines  con- 
trary to  the  position  of  the  Church.  To  defend  himself 
against  such  unfounded  charges,  the  latter  appealed  to  a 
Latin  copy  of  the  Book  of  Concord,  which  he  had  in  pos- 
session. That  gave  him  a  decided  advantage,  in  some  re- 
spects, in  the  estimation  of  many  of  the  people,  who  were 
not  willing  to  acquiesce  in  the  extreme,  latitudinarian  views 
inculcated  by  the  former.  To  counteract  this  increasing 
advantage,  that  minister  called  into  question  the  correct- 
ness of  these  translations  from  the  Latin.  This  proved  dis- 
paraging for  a  while,  but  soon  afterwards  Rev.  David  Hen- 
kel happened  to  come  across  a  German  copy  of  the  Book  of 
Concord,  at  the  residence  of  a  German  in  South  Carolina, 
with  whom  he  spent  a  night  or  two.  After  much  persua- 
sion the  German  let  him  have  the  book.  This  he  brought 
with  him,  rejoicing  in  his  good  fortune  to  get  it,  to  North 

STRIFE  IN   N.    C.    SYNOD  1 57 

Carolina.  This  he  presented,  to  sustain  the  correctness  of 
his  translation  made  from  the  Latin  copy  of  the  Book  of 
Concord.  For,  this  the  people  could  now  understand  for 
themselves,  and  finding  that  the  translations  from  the  Latin 
copy  referred  to,  were  correct,  many  members  of  the 
Church  took  a  decided  stand  in  lavor  of  him  and  his  posi- 
tions, and  faithfully  defended  him  and  his  doctrines  against 
the  innovation  and  false  doctrines  of  his  opponents. 

"  The  council  of  the  congregation  met,  and  after  con- 
sidering the  matter,  one  of  the  elders,  Captain  John  Stire- 
walt,  father  of  the  late  Rev.  Jacob  Stirewalt,  presented  the 
Book  of  Concord  to  the  minister,  saying, '  We  want  to  know 
whether  you  intend  to  preach  according  to  this  book  in  the 
future  ? '  The  minister  hesitated  and  evaded,  but  being 
pressed,  he  raised  the  book  up  and  brought  it  down  on  the 
table,  saying,  ''From  this  day  henceforth,  I  will  not;  it 'is 
nothing  but  a  controversial  book.*  Mr.  Stirewalt  then 
raised  the  book  up,  and  brought  it  down  on  the  table,  say- 
ing, '  From  this  day  henceforth,  you  won't  be  our  preacher.' " 

This  was  certainly  a  very  summary,  arbitrary  and  un- 
justifiable proceeding.  It  required  the  minister  to  conform 
his  preaching  of  the  gospel  to  the  teachings  of  a  book, 
which  he  had  never  read,  perhaps  never  seen  before. 

The  following  extract  from  an  Historical  Address,  by 
Rev.  Geo.  H.  Cox,  will  give  the  reader  an  idea  of  the  vio- 
lence of  feeling  which  agitated  the  church  in  the  South, 
about  the  time  of  the  organization  of  the  General  Synod- 
The  address  was  delivered  in  St.  John's  congregation' 
Cabarras  Co.,  N.  C: 

"  The  third  regular  pastor  was  Rev.  C.  A.  G.  Storch, 
who  served  the  congregation  twenty-one  years,  from  1800 
to  1 82 1.  During  his  administration  were  those  terrible 
times  when,  in  the  church,  father  was  pitted  against  son, 
mother  against  daughter,  brother  against  brother,  and  friend 

158  REV.  storch's  conchiatory  offer. 

against  friend  ;  when  anger  and  malice  and  hatred,  and  all 
the  evil  passions,  seem  to  have  run  rampant,  and  which 
culminated  in  the  organization  of  what  is  now  known  as 
the'Tennessee  Synod.  But  amid  it  all  Pastor  Storch  stood 
untouched  and  unstained.  I  have  yet  to  learn  of  one  un- 
kind criticism  of  him,  though  he  was  the  most  prominent 
and  conspicuous  man  in  the  North  Carolina  Synod." — 
Liith.  Visitor. 

The  Synod  of  North  Carolina  also  changed  the  time  of 
their  meeting,  and  made  it  on  August  26,  18 19,  in  order 
that  their  delegates  might  be  present  in  Baltimore  at  the 
initiatory  steps  for  the  organization  of  the  General  Synod 
on  Trinity  Sunday. 

In  the  minutes  of  the  North  Carolina  Synod,  on  May 
28,  1820,  we  find  the  following:  "Revs.  Paul  and  Philip 
Henkel,  together  with  candidate  Bell  and  David  Henkel,  a 
former  catechist,  took  possession  of  the  church. 

"As  it  was  known,  that  the  last  two  had  separated  them- 
selves from  us,  and  Paul  Henkel  no  longer  belonged  to  us, 
Philip  Henkel  was  asked  if  he  would  unite  with  us,  and 
submit  to  be  governed  by  a  majority  of  votes.  He  an- 
swered nothing. 

"  The  Rev.  Storch  offered  up  a  fervent  prayer  to  the 
God  of  love,  to  again  establish  peace  and  harmony  among 

"  Rev.  Storch's  offer,  that  we  were  inclined  to  forget 
everything,  because  mistakes  have  been  made  on  both 
sides,  and  on  the  question,  whether  we  would  unite  again, 
being  put,  they  answered  No  !  Because  we  did  not  preach 
Baptismal  Regeneration,  did  not  in  the  Holy  Communion 
receive  the  elements  as  the  true  body  and  blood  of  the 
Lord,  and  that  the  plan  for  a  General  Synod  was  against 
the  Augsburg  Confession,  that  therefore  they  would  not 
submit  to  a  majority  of  votes.     To  put  an  end  to  David's 

A   SINGUIvAR   REUC.  159 

coarseness,  it  was  resolved  that  Synod  meet  in  the  after- 

In  1 8 19,  some  charges  having  been  made  against 
David  Henkel,  who  was  at  that  time  (18 19)  a  licentiate  in 
the  North  Carolina  Synod,  he  with  a  few  others  separated 
themselves  from  the  Synod.  The  Secretary  remarks, 
"  Here  Satan  began  his  division  among  us  ....  he  and 
others  of  his  adherents  came  with  Philip  Henkel  on  Trinity 
Sunday  to  the  church,  where  the  convention  of  Synod  was 
being  held,  and  as  the  door  was  locked  against  them,  Philip 
ordained  his  brother  David  and  J.  E.  Bell  under  an  oak 
tree  !  In  this  manner  did  they  separate  themselves  from 

At  the  next  meeting  of  the  Synod,  this  ordination 
under  the  oak  tree  was  declared  invalid.* 

Subsequei;jtly  Joseph  Bell,  who  had  also  been  ordained 
under  the  oak  tree  by  Philip  Henkel,  reported  himself  as 
willing  to  unite  with  the  Synod.  He  acknowledged,  that 
he  had  been  led  astray  contrary  to  his  own  conviction. 

"  On  the  question,  whether  the  administered  ordina- 
tion was  proper,  it  was  considered  invalid,  according  to  the 
rules  of  all  Christian  denominations." — Minutes  of  the  N.  C. 
Synod.     Pages  ^o,  ^/,  ^2,  4.J. 

At  the  same  meeting  of  the   North   Carolina  Synod, 

*  It  is  reported  that  the  above  named  oak  tree  died  the  next  year 
after  the  ordination  had  been  performed.  Some  superstitious  people 
then  attributed  its  death  to  some  baneful  influence  which  proceeded 
from  this  irregular  performance  The  tree  was  then  cut  down  and 
sawed  up  into  small  pieces,  which  were  widely  distributed  as  relics. 
The  writer  saw  one  of  these  relics  in  the  Historical  Library  at  Gettys- 
burg. It  is  a  small  block  of  wood  about  four  inches  long  and  two 
inches  wide,  smoothly  planed,  having  a  label  pasted  on  one  side.  On 
this  label  is  written,  said  to  be  in  the  handwriting  of  Prof.  H.  E. 
Jacobs,  the  following  statement:  "  From  the  tree  near  Concord,  N.  C, 
benea-ih  which  David  Henkel  was  ordained  in  18 19  (Trinity  Sunday), 
and  the  rupture  with  the  North  Carolina  Sjnod  effected,  leading  I0 
the  formation  of  the  Tennessee  Synod.  From  Rev.  S.  L.  Keller, 
Concord,  N.  C." 


Rev.  G.  Shober  presented  his  report  as  representative  to  the 
Pennsylvania  Synod,  which  met  in  1 8 19  (in  Baltimore). 
He  reported  that  a  plan  had  been  agreed  upon,  which  had 
been  printed,  setting  forth  how  all  Synods  could  join  in  one 
General  Synod.  The  plan  was  considered,  item  by  item, 
and  the  necessity  of  having  a  central  union  was  admitted, 
even  by  those  who  were  against  this  plan  itself,  and  it  was 
adopted  by  more  than  two-thirds  majority. 

"  Hereupon  two  ministers  and  two  lay  delegates  were 
elected  according  to  the  provisions  of  the  plan,  to  meet 
with  other  representatives  of  other  Synods  this  year  in 
Hagerstown,  Md.,  to  unite  with  them  in  adopting  a  consti- 
tution, and  in  forming  the  General  Synod." 

Another  obstacle  to  the  formation  of  a  union  of  the 
Lutherans  in  this  country  at  that  time,  was  a  very  general 
desire  for  a  union  of  all  Protestant  denominations.  In  the 
Ministerium  of  Pennsylvania  this  project  had  been  very 
strongly  agitated.  A  book  had  been  written  by  Revs. 
Probst  and  Jaeger  in  advocacy  of  a  union  between  the 
Lutherans  and  Reformed.  Negotiations  had  been  carried 
on  between  the  respective  synods,  but  the  effort  failed. 
The  subject  of  a  union  with  other  Protestant  denominations 
was  also  proposed  in  Baltimore,  at  the  meeting  of  the  Min- 
isterium, in  1 8 19,  where  the  organization  of  the  General 
Synod  was  first  agreed  upon.  But  here  also  the  proposi- 
tion was  not  entertained. 

In  North  Carolina  and  Virginia  a  union  with  the  Epis- 
copalians was  proposed,  with  whom  the  Lutheran  Church 
at  that  time  stood  in  very  peculiar  relations.  A  remarkable 
illustration  of  this  is  given  in  the  case  of  Rev.  Johann  P.  G. 
Muhlenberg.  After  having  pursued  his  theological  studies 
under  the  tuition  of  Provost  C.  M.  Wrangel,  and  been 
ordained  in  1768,  he  received  a  call  in  1772  to  the  pastor- 
ship in  the  Lutheran  Church,  in  Woodstock,  Va.     In  order 


to  accept  this  call,  Muhlenberg  was  obliged  to  go  to  Eng- 
land and  receive  a  new  ordination,  as  the  law  of  Vinginia 
required  that  the  ministers  should  belong  to  the  Episcopal 
Church.  His  ordination  took  place  April  23,  1772,  at  the 
royal  chapel  of  St.  James,  the  bishop  of  London  offici- 
ating.* t 

The  most  active  advocate  of  the  General  Synod,  and 
one  of  its  founders  was  Rev.  Gottlieb  Shober.  He  was  the 
President  of  the  General  Synod  when  it  met  in  Frederick, 
in  1825,  and  was  on  this  account  also  very  obnoxious  to 
the  members  of  the  Tennessee  Synod.  He  was  born  in 
Bethlehem,  Pa.,  and  in  his  17th  year  became  a  member  of 
the  Moravian  Church.  He  removed  with  his  parents  to 
Salem,  N.  C,  a  new  settlement  of  Moravians,  where  he  en- 
gaged successively  in  school  teaching,  mechanical  and 
mercantile  trade,  built  a  paper  mill  (the  first  establishment 
of  that  kind  south  of  the  Potomac),  and  opened  a  book 

*  Anderson's  History,  American  Lutheran  Biographies,  page  540. 

]f  Muhlenberg  had  not  enlisted  in  the  army  of  the  Revolutionary 
War,  or  had  returned  to  his  charge  after  the  war,  instead  of  devoting 
himself  to  politics,  we  might  have  had  the  boasted  Apostolic  Succes- 
sion in  the  Lutheran  Church  of  America. — Ed. 

t  This  regulation  was  changed  after  the  Revolutionary  War,  and  the 
Independence  of  the  United  States,  when  ministers  of  the  Gospel  in 
Virginia  were  no  longer  required  to  secure  ordination  from  the  hands 
of  a  bishop  of  the  Church  of  England,  This  will  appear  from  the  fol- 
lowing certificate: 

"  This  shall  certify  to  all  whom  it  may  concern,  that  at  a  court, 
held  for  Shenandoah  Countv,  on  the  13th  day  of  February,  in  the  year 
one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  twenty-one,  Samuel  S.  Schmucker 
produced  credentials  of  his  ordination,  and  also  of  his  being  in  legular 
communion  with  the  Evangelical  Lutheran  Church,  took  the  oath  of 
allegiance  to  this  commonwealth,  and  entered  into  bonds,  as  required 
by  the  act,  reducing  into  one  the  several  acts,  to  regulate  the  solem- 
nization of  marriages,  prohibiting  such  as  are  incestuous,  or  otherwise 
unlawful;  to  prevent  forcible  and  stolen  marriages;  and  for  punish- 
ment of  the  crime  of  bigamy;  and  that  he  is  thereby  authorized  to 
celebrate  the  rights  of  matrimony  agreeable  to  the  forms  and  customs 
of  said  Church,  between  any  persons,  to  him  regularly  applj  ing  there- 
for, within  this  state.  Given  under  my  hand  and  seal  the  day  and 
year  above  written. 

Jacob  Lantz.     [Seal.]" 


Store,  serving  at  the  same  time  as  postmaster.  Subse- 
quently he  studied  law,  and  was  engaged  for  some  years  in 
the  practice — being  prompted  to  this  chiefly  by  the  desire 
to  assist  his  Moravian  brethren  in  the  law-suits  in  which 
they  were  involved  in  respect  to  a  portion  of  their  property. 
He  was  also  repeatedly  elected  to  the  state  legislature,  and 
was  a  prominent  member  of  that  body.  Daring  all  this 
time  Mr.  Shober  was  living  an  eminently  godly  life,  and 
endeavoring  to  make  every  employment  in  which  he 
engaged,  subservient  to  the  cause  of  Christ,  and  the  best 
interests  of  his  fellowmen.  At  length,  having  passed  his 
fiftieth  year,  and  lost  all  relish  for  secular  business,  he 
resolved  to  devote  what  remained  of  his  life  to  the  ministry 
of  the  Gospel.  Having  determined  to  enter  the  ministry  in 
connection  with  the  Lutheran  Church,  he  offered  himself, 
in  due  time,  to  the  North  Carolina  Synod,  and  was  received 
with  great  joy.  He  was  solemnly  set  apart  for  the  work  of 
the  ministry,  and  immediately  became  pastor  of  the  church 
in  Salem,  and  several  other  churches  in  the  neighborhood- 
Here  he  continued  laboring  with  great  zeal  till  a  few  years 
before  his  death,  which  occurred  at  Salem,  the  place  of  his 
residence,  June  27,  1838.  Just  before  his  last  illness,  he 
said,  with  great  cheerfulness,  to  one  of  his  brethren,  "  When 
you  hear  of  my  death,  you  may  be  sure  I  have  gone  to  my 

Mr.  Shober  also  took  a  deep  interest  in  the  establish- 
ment of  a  seminary  for  the  training  of  young  men  for  the 
ministry,  and  was  appointed  one  of  the  first  directors  of  the 
Theological  Seminary  at  Gettysburg.  In  his  last  will  and 
testament  he  left  three  thousand  acres  of  land  to  the  insti- 
tution ;  and  though  the  land  did  not  increase  in  value,  as 
the  doner  expected  when  the  bequest  was  made,  yet  his 
act  was  an  evidence  of  his  deep  interest  in  the  institution. 

Many    of    the   earlier   students    in   the    Seminary   at 


Gettysburg  will  remember  the  sign  in  large  letters  on  the 
door  of  the  Reading  Room,  "  Shober  Room*^  the  expense 
of  furnishing  which  was  contributed  by  Rev.  Shober. 

The  only  offense  charged  against  Rev.  Shober  was 
that  he  was  not  a  good  Lutheran.  Rev.  Dr.  Bernheim  gives 
the  following  description  of  him  in  his  History  of  the  Luth- 
eran Church  in  the  Carolinas  :  "  He  was  a  man  of  decided 
opinions,  unyielding  in  everything  which  he  considered 
right,  with  a  mind  that  knew  no  dissimulation,  an  ardent 
temper,  and  a  character  decidedly  affirmative.  .  .  .  The 
lineaments  of  his  countenance  gave  indication  of  a  strong 
and  active  mind.  He  was  one  of  the  most  active  defenders 
of  the  General 'Synod,  as  he  had  also  been  prominent  among 
its  early  founders.  But  Rev.  Shober  was  no  Lutheran,  he 
was  a  member  of  the  Moravian  Church,  and  never  discon- 
nected himself  from  communion  with  the  same,  but  lived 
and  died  as  a  member  of  that  church.  This  information 
the  writer  has  from  his  daughter,  the  widow  of  Bishop 
Herrman."  ' 

To  this  I  remark,  that  Mr.  Shober  did  not  need  to 
make  much  of  a  doctrinal  change  in  coming  from  the 
Moravian  to  the  Lutheran  Church,  for  both  denominations 
hold  to  the  Augsburg  Confession.  Further,  his  commun- 
ion with  the  Moravian  Church  could  not  have  been  of  a 
very  intimate  nature,  as  the  Moravians  undertook  to  eject 
him  from  their  colony  in  Salem,  because  he  had  joined  the 
Lutheran  Church,  but  he  appealed  to  the  highest  authority 
in  the  Moravian  Church,  in  Hernhut,  and  received  permis- 
sion by  letter,  that  he  might  remain  in  Salem  and  continue 
his  business,  although  he  had  joined  the  Lutheran  Church, 
by  which  he  had  been  ordained.  This  information  I  have 
from  a  verbal  statement  by  Dr.  D.  J.  Hauer,  who  was  at 
that  time  a  young  minister,  laboring  in   that  part  of  the 


country,  was  acquainted  with  the  facts,  and  can  vouch  for 
their  truth. 

The  best  fruits  of  a  Christian's  faith  are  his  works,  and 
the  best  evidences  of  a  man's  Lutheranism  are  his  love  for 
the  doctrines  and  usages  of  the  Lutheran  Church,  and  his 
labors  and  sacrifices  for  her  defence  and  upbuilding.  ^Ac- 
cording to  these  tests  no  man  has  a  better  claim  to  be  called 
a  Lutheran  than  Rev.  Gottlieb  Shober. 

The  following  extract  from  the  minutes  of  the  New 
York  Ministerium,  of  1823,  will  be  interesting  reading.  It 
shows  the  unsuccessful  attempt  of  the  Episcopalians  to 
annex  the  Lutheran  Church  in  the  South,  and  Mr.  Shober's 
manly  stand  and  courageous  defense  of  the  church  of  his 
choice  : 

"  The  beginning  of  Rev.  President  Shober's  letter  con- 
tains an  expression  of  regret,  at  the  propagation  of  false 
accounts  concerning  the  late  intercourse  between  the  Luth- 
eran Synod  and  the  Episcopal  Convention  of  North  Caro- 
lina. The  President  alludes  also  to  certain  articles  which 
have  appeared  in  several  religious  journals,  and  to  a  com- 
munication under  his  official  signature,  which  he  had  caused 
to  be  inserted  in  some  Southern  publications,  in  order  to 
counteract  the  painful  mis- statements  which  were  made  in 
various  places. 

"  The  'Family  Visitor  '  and  the  '  Theological  Repertory^, 
among  others,  had  published  to  the  world,  '  that  the  Epis- 
copal and  Lutheran  churches  had  effected  an  honorable  and 
Christian  union  ;  '  and  added  :  'which  places  the  Lutheran 
Church  under  the  care  and  superintendance  of  the  Episco- 
pal authority  of  that  diocese.' 

"  President  Shober  then  remarks  in  substance :  About 
seventeen  years  ago,  a  former  Episcopalian  layman  was 
desirous  to  enter  some  ministry,  and  no  Episcopal  church 
being    then    known    in   North    Carolina,   except    in    sea- 


ports,  he  applied  to  the  Evangelical  Lutheran  Ministry  for 
ordination  ;  and,  as  our  church  was  increasing,  though  the 
laborers  were  few,  the  ministers  were  glad  to  accept  his 
services.  He  was  born  in  Scotland,  and  cannot  speak  the 
German  language.  His  name  is  Robert  Johnson  Miller. 
He  was  ordained  by  the  Lutheran  Ministry ;  but  on  his 
part  he  reserved  at  that  time,  that  if  ever  the  Episcopal 
Church  should  arise  in  this  state,  his  ordination  should  be 
without  prejudice  to  the  membership  of  that  church.  Un- 
der this  ordination  he  formed  and  served  sundry  congrega- 
tions, and  was  at  sundry  times  employed  by  our  Synod  as 
an  itinerant  preacher — and  he  was  serviceable  to  our  church 
for  many  years. 

"  Sometime  ago  the  Episcopal  church  lifted  up  its 
head  in  this  state,  and  when  they  had  formed  a  convention 
under  Bishop  Moore,  of  Virginia,  they  called  upon  the  Rev. 
Mr.  Storch,  the  President  and  Senior  of  our  church,  to 
meet  them  in  convention  as  one  of  their  church.  President 
Storch  requested  me  to  answer  the  invitation,  which  I  did, 
and  explained  to  them  that  the  Evangelical  Lutheran 
Church  is  independent  of  the  Episcopal  Church,  and  stated 
to  them  how  our  church  was  governed,  etc..  but  invited 
them  to  preach  in  our  churches,  and  thereby  gather  in  their 
dispersed  members  in  the  western  parts,  which  would  be 
the  way  to  form  congregations  among  the  English,  for  we 
then  had  but  the  above  named  English  preacher  among  us! 

"  To  this  my  statement  and  invitation,  I  received  no 
answer.  Two  years  afterwards  I  received  a  letter  from  R. 
J.  Miller,  mentioning  that  as  he  was  invited  by  the  Bishop 
to  attend  their  convention,  he  had  determined  to  unite  with 
his  original  church,  which  he  did  ;  and  by  the  minutes  of 
their  convention,  the  information  is  held  forth,  that  Mr. 
Miller  had  appeared  as  deputy  from  the  Lutheran  Church, 
which,   however,   was   not   true,   though   he    might   have 


received  a  sanction  from  one  or  two  of  his  congregations. 
His  appearance,  as  a  deputy  from  the  Lutheran  Church,  was 
unknown  to  our  church  as  a  body.  Yet  he  was  received  as 
such,  for  purposes  which  afterwards  appeared,  and  suffered 
himself  to  be  ordained  by  the  Bishop  to  priest's  orders. 
Mr.  Miller  may  have  persuaded  that  Convention,  that  all 
the  Lutheran  ministers  would  come  under  their  Bishop  ; 
and  they  elected  and  sent  deputies  to  our  next  Synod,  to 
treat  of  a  union. 

"  We  could  not  but  exercise  common  politeness,  and 
granted  them  a  seat  with  us.  A  committee  was  appointed 
to  converse  with  them  about  a  union.  They  had  found  in 
private  conversation  that  our  Ministerium  spurned  the  idea 
of  accepting  re-ordination,  as  whereby  we  should  have  dis- 
graced our  Church  forever.  They  proposed  no  such  thing 
when  our  committee  met  them,  and  offered,  that  if  we  sent 
deputies  to  their  Convention,  they  should  have  seat  and 
vote  with  them  on  all  questions  not  relating  to  their 
church :  in  course  of  common  politeness,  we  offered  them 
the  privilege  to  meet  us  on  similar  terms.  Consequently 
this  '  union,'  concerning  which  they  make  much  noise,  is  no 
more  than  a  civil  intercourse. 

'*  Our  Synod  approved  of  this  ;  their  Convention  did 
the  same.  We  elected  deputies  to  meet  them  at  their  next 
convention,  but  none  attended.  I  made  my  excuse  in  writ- 
ing. I  could  not  perceive  that  a  true  Christian  union  was 
contemplated  by  the  Episcopalians  ;  for,  when  we  invited 
the  above  mentioned  Mr.  Miller  to  commune  with  us,  and 
thus  to  take  a  friendly  leave  of  us,  he  refused,  except  he  or 
some  Episcopalian  consecrated  the  elements !  Now, 
although  none  of  us  had  attended  their  succeeding  conven- 
tion, they  elected  deputies  to  meet  us  last  year,  and  these 
according  to  agreement,  took  seat  with  us,  but  when  we 
ordained,  or  administered   the  sacrament,  they  went  out ! 


But,  as  their  Convention  was  to  meet  this  year  in  our  cen- 
tre, we  elected  deputies  to  meet  them,  which  we  did  in  Sal- 
isbury, and  were  treated  genteelly,  according  to  contract. 
I  was  one  of  the  deputies.  I  was  determined  to  find  out 
how  far  their  love  extended,  and  motioned,  that  as  we  had 
given  them  the  privilege  of  our  churches,  they  should  give 
us  the  same  in  theirs.  This  motion,  although  seconded  by 
one  of  their  own  lay  deputies,  was  refused  to  be  minuted, 
and  in  friendly  debate  they  told  us  to  our  faces  that  it  could 
not  be  admitted,  as  our  ordination  was  not  valid  !  The 
conclusion  was,  that  I  withdrew  my  motion,  but  told  them 
that  we  should  retire  to  our  former  significancy.  We  on 
our  part  refused  to  commune  with  them  ;  and  on  being 
questioned  why  we  did  so,  I  told  them  that  as  they  had 
refused  to  commuive  with  us,  and  did  not  invite  us  to  preach 
as  they  had  done  in  our  Synod,  cordiality  was  wanting. 
After  this  Convention  our  Synod  met ;  when,  without  say- 
ing much,  in  order  not  to  irritate  their  deputy,  we  declined 
electing  deputies  to  their  next  Convention — of  course  the 
union  is  on  the  wahe. 

"  This  being  the  true  situation  of  cur  Connection,  I  am 
surprised  that  honest  Christian  Ministers  should  propagate 
to  the  world,  that  we  had  come  under  the  Episcopal  super- 
intendance  of  another  Church,  and  were  re  ordained  by  a 
Bishop  !  If  it  were  the  case,  we  should  deserve  to  be  dis- 
owned by  our  Church  throughout  the  United  States,  with 
whom  we  desire  to  remain  one  body  and  soul,  in  brotherly 
affection  and  indissoluble  union. 

"  Public  use  may  be  made  of  this  letter,  and  I  should 
wish  the  information  in  the  printed  communication  afore- 
mentioned, to  be  widely  diffused,  so  that  all  Christians  may 
see,  that  the  Evangelical  Lutheran  Church  had  not  surren- 
dered and  will  not  surrender  any  of  her  rights  and  senior 
privileges  ;  for,  all  Protestants  have  their  origin  in   Luther. 



^^'It "  The  Rev.  President  concludes  his  letter  with  the  follow- 
ing expressions  :  '  Be  pleased  to  salute  your  synod  from  me 
and  the  steadfast  brethren  in  North  Carolina.  Commend 
us  to  their  intercession  at  the  Throne  of  Grace,  that  we  may 
remain  united  in  love  and  principle ;  and,  may  the  Lord 
guide  us  all  to  his  heavenly  rest.  This  is  the  sincere 
prayer  of  your  fellow  laborer  in  a  rough  vineyard. 

[Signed)     G.  Shober,  President.'  " 




181 1— 1826. 

Efforts  made  to  establish  seminaries — in  north  caro^ 
lina,  181i-1817 — hartwick — prof.  hazelius — pro- 
seminary  by  schmucker — troubles  as  to  his  lifes 
work — first  students — dr.  morris'  account — pro- 
ceedings   in  general    synod — professor    chosen — 

LECTION  TOURS — Kurtz's   tour   to    europe — collec- 





The  first  ministers  of  the  Lutheran  Church  in  America 
came  from  Germany,  principally  from  Halle.  For  the  edu- 
cation of  pastors  in  this  country  little  private  theological 
seminaries  were  conducted  by  prominent  Lutheran  minis- 
ters, in  connection  with  their  pastorates.  Such  schools 
were  conducted  by  Drs.  Helmuth  and  Schmidt,  in  Philadel- 
phia, Dr.  Lochman,  Sr.,  in  Harrisburg,  and  D.  F.  Schaeffer 
in  Frederick. 

The  Swedish  Lutherans  formerly  received  their 
preachers  from  the  Consistorium  of  Upsala ;  the  king  of 
Sweeden  supported  them,  and  was,  therefore  the  first  patron 
of  the  Lutheran  Church  in  North  America. 

The  German  Lutherans  were  principally  supplied  with 


preachers  from  Halle  until  the  time  of  the  Revolution, 
which  was  very  expensive,  and  the  means  could  be  sup- 
plied only  by  contributions  from  Christian  friends.  This 
arrangement  gradually  ceased  entirely.  (In  the  years  1770- 
1786,  only  two  more  ministers  were  sent  from  Germany  to 
Pennsylvania.)  To  send  their  sons  to  Germany,  as  Muhlen- 
berg had  sent  his  eldest  son,  F.  A.  Muhlenberg,  was  impos- 
sible for  most  of  the  pastors.  There  was,  hence,  no  other 
way  left  than  that  some  of  the  prominent  ministers  should 
privately  instruct  young  candidates  for  the  gospel  ministry. 

But  toward  the  close  of  the  eighteenth  century  efforts 
had  already  been  made  to  establish  classical  schools  and 
theological  seminaries  for  the  preparation  of  ministers  in 
the  Lutheran  Church. 

In  the  year  1773,  Rev.  Dr.  Kunze,  pastor  of  the 
Lutheran  Church  in  Philadelphia,  attempted  to  organize  a 
German  and  Latin  school.  It  was  supported  by  voluntary 
contributions,  especially  from  the  Society  for  the  Promo- 
tion of  Christianity  and  useful  knowledge  among  the  Ger- 
mans in  America. 

But  it  could  not  be  sustained  by  private  contributions. 
Dr.  Kunze  accept,  d  a  call  to  a  professorship  in  Columbia 
College,  New  York,  and  the  war  of  the  revolution,  which 
followed  soon  afterwards,  put  an  end  to  it. 

A  more  auspicious  prospect  was  promised  the  Frank- 
lin College  in  1787,  in  Lancaster,  Pa.  A  considerable  sum 
of  money  had  been  subscribed;  the  state  legislature  had 
conferred  a  charter  and  donated  10.000  acres  of  land.  It 
was  to  be  jointly  owned  and  occupied  by  the  Lutherans,  Re- 
formed and  Moravians.  Besides  the  usual  college  studies, 
theology  was  also  to  be  taught ;  five  professors  were  ap- 
pointed with  a  salary  of  200  pounds  sterling  each.  But  the 
plan  failed,  because  there  was  no  income  from  the  land  and 
the  subscriptions    were    not   paid.     Many  years   later   the      j 


Reformed  bought  out  the  interest  of  the  Lutherans,  united 
their  Mercersburg  institutions  with  it,  and  have  now  a  flour- 
ishing college  and  theological  seminary  at  Lancaster. 

In  181 1,  the  North  Carolina  Synod  proposed  the 
establishment  of  a  seminary  for  the  education  of  young 
men  for  the  ministry,  and  this  was  a  subject  of  much  dis- 
cussion in  their  meetings;  but  in  1814  the  report  was 
made,  that  after  mature  deliberation  it  was  found  "  that  we 
are  not  in  a  position  to  form  such  an  institution,  and  will 
not  be,  until  our  congregations  be  aroused  to  do  everything 
possible  to  support  our  young  candidates,  to  accomplish 
which  our  ministers  are  earnestly  requested  to  do  all  they 
can." — Mhi.  N.  C.  Synod,  Page  21. 

In  18 17  Pastor  Philip  Henkel  reported,  that  a  small 
seminary  had  been  begun  by  himself  and  Joseph  E.  Bell,  in 
Green  County,  Tennessee,  in  which  Hebrew,  Greek,  Latin, 
and  the  German  and  English  languages  were  taught,  and 
that  Pastor  Bell  was  the  chief  professor  in  it. 

"  On  request,  this  seminary  was  accepted  and  adopted  as 
our  own  Seminary,  and  as  worthy  of  our  encouragement 
and  patronage  (support)  in  the  hope  that  under  the  bless- 
ing of  the  Lord,  this  small  one  may  grow  into  a  large  one, 
in  which  many  able  ministers  and  missionaries  may  be 
trained.  To  aid  the  Seminary,  money  shall  be  collected  in 
our  churches  next  May.  The  same  shall  be  turned  over  to 
the  treasurer,  who  shall  keep  an  account  of  all  the  benefac- 
tions."— Minutes  N.  C.  Synod. 

Some  mon^y  had  been  collected  for  the  support  of 
this  seminary,  but  it  had  not  a  successful  career.  Its  two 
professors,  Philip  Henkel  and  Jo.seph  E.  Bell,  had  separated 
themselves  from  the  North  Carolina  Synod  and  joined  their 
fortunes  with  the  Tennessee  Conference,  organized  at  that 
time.  Consequently  the  North  Carolina  Synod  refused  to 
pay  the    money  collected    in    their   congregations    for   the 


establishment  of  the  institution.  The  httle  seminary  there- 
fore had  to  be  abandoned,  and  candidates  for  the  ministry- 
continued  to  study  under  the  instruction  of  pastors,  which 
practice  continued  in  the  Tennessee  Synod  many  years, 
even  after  a  number  of  Lutheran  theological  seminaries 
had  been  established. 


A  pastor  long  associated  with  Muhlenberg,  although 
not  called  for  the  Pennsylvania  work,  or  by  the  authorities 
at  Halle,  was  John  Christopher  Hartwig.  He  was  a  Ihur- 
ingian,  born  in  17 14,  who  had  for  a  short  time  been  con- 
nected with  the  institute  of  Dr.  Callenberg  in  Hamburg, 
for  the  conversion  of  the  Jews.  He  was  called  in  1745  to 
the  pastorate  of  the  churches  along  the  Hudson,  with 
Rhinebeck  as  the  centre,  and  was  ordained  for  the  work  in 
London  by  the  two  pastors  of  the  Savoy  Church,  and  the 
pastor  of  the  Swedish  Church.  He  was  chaplain  of  a  Ger- 
man regiment  in  the  French  and  Indian  war. 

He  visited  Muhlenberg  in  1747,  acted  for  a  time  as  a 
substitute  for  Brunnholtz  during  the  latter's  illness,  and  par- 
ticipated in  the  arbitration  to  settle  the  difficulties  in  the 
Raritan  congregations,  as  well  as  in  the  organization  of  the 
Ministerium  of  Pennsylvania  in  1748.  He  was  a  Hfe  long 
bachelor  and  noted  for  his  eccentricities,  and  continued, 
until  the  close  of  his  life,  in  1796,  his  attachments  and  visits 
to  the  descendants  of  Muhlenberg,  as  he  had  previously 
done  to  their  father.  "  Tradition  tells,  that  the  domestics 
dreaded  his  appearance,  because  of  the  excessively  long 
prayers  which  he  made  at  family  worship." — Jacobs,  P.  22^. 

When  Hartwick  died,  July  16,  1796,  his  estate  was  left 
to  found  an  institution  for  the  education  of  pastors  and  mis- 
sionaries, he  having  been  especially  interested  in  the  neigh- 
boring   North  American   Indians.     Drs.  Kunze  and   Hel- 


muth  were  named  as  directors  of  the  institution ;  but 
when  the  latter,  on  account  of  the  distance,  declined  serv- 
ing, Dr.  Kunze,  with  the  sole  surviving  executor,  provided 
for  the  opening  of  the  seminary  in  1797.  But  the  plan  was 
a  novel  one.  Dr.  Kunze  was  constituted  theological  pro- 
fessor in  New  York,  Rev.  A.  T.  Braun  of  Albany  was  made 
the  classical  instructor  in  Albany,  and  Rev.  J.  F.  Ernst  was 
sent  to  Otsego  County  to  occupy  Hartwick's  lands  and  teach 
the  youngest  pupils.  Thus  were  established  an  embryo 
theological  seminary  in  New  York,  a  college  in  Albany, 
and  a  preparatory  department  where  Hartwick  Seminary 
now  stands.  .  .  .  Rev.  A.  T.  Braun  succeeded  to  the  place 
on  the  death  of  Dr.  Kunze.  The  location  was  finally  fixed 
in  18 1 2,  when  the  buildings  were  begun,  and  in  181 5  Dr. 
E.  L.  Hazelius  became  principal  and  professor  of  theology. 
— Jacobs'  Hist.,  pp.  J^2,  Jjj. 

"In  181 5  Hartwick  Seminary  was  opened  with  19 
students,  the  number  growing  within  a  few  years  to  44. 
Its  first  president  was  Dr  Ernst  Ludwig  Hazelius,  a  man 
who  brought  to  this  country  thorough  German  culture,  em- 
inently fitting  him  for  an  instructor.  He  was  an  earnest 
Christian  .  .  .  and  instrumental,  through  his  students,  in 
putting  an  end  to  the  sway  of  Rationalism  in  the  New 
York  Ministerium." — Wolf. 

This  institution  he  served  with  great  ability  for  fifteen 
years,  at  the  same  time  preaching  every  Sunday  and  acting 
as  pastor  of  the  village  congregation. 

"  Mr.  Hartwig  was  possessed  of  an  estate  consisting 
of  a  large  quantity  of  land,  which  he  left  by  will  for  the  en- 
dowment of  an  institution,  for  the  training  up  of  young  men 
to  become  missionaries  among  the  Indians.  The  bequest, 
owing  to  certain  circumstances,  became  the  occasion  of 
considerable  difficulty,  which  was  continued  through  quite 
a  number  of  years.     The  seminary  was  finally  located  at 


Hartwick,  in  Otsego  County,  N.  Y.,  under  a  special  charter 
obtained  from  the  legislature." — Sprague. 

In  1830  Hazelius  accepted  a  call  to  the  professorship 
of  Biblical  and  Oriental  Literature  and  the  German  Lan- 
guage, in  the  Theological  Seminary  at  Gettysburg.  His 
connection  with  this  institution,  however,  was  brief  He 
resigned  his  chair,  much  to  the  regret  of  the  directors,  in 
1833,  to  accept  a  professorship  in  the  Theological  Seminary 
of  the  Synod  of  South  Carolina,  the  vacancy  having  been 
occasioned  by  the  lamented  death  of  Professor  Schwartz. 

Dr.  Hazelius  continued  his  connection  with  the  South 
Carolina  Seminary  until  his  death,  February  20,  1853. 

But  Hartwick  Seminary  has  kept  on  in  its  useful 
career  and  is  now  in  a  fair  way  to  be  established  as  a  regu- 
lar college,  in  connection  with  its  theological  department. 
It  has  received  about  ^30,000  in  a  bequest,  and  the  New 
York  synods  are  making  efforts  to  endow  professorships. 

In  the  year  18 19  a  committee  of  delegates  from  the 
Lutheran  and  Reformed  churches  met  in  Lancaster,  Pa.,  in 
order  to  arrange  for  a  union  theological  seminary.  But 
this  attempt  also  met  with  insuperable  difficulties,  and  the 
plan  had  to  be  abandoned.  This  effort  was  made  in  the 
interest  of  an  organic  union  between  the  Lutheran  and  Re- 
formed churches  in  Pennsylvania. 

Dr.  Twesten  makes  the  following  comment  on  this 
subject  in  his  pamphlet,  published  in  Germany  in  the  inter- 
est of  Dr.  Kurtz's  agency  in  behalf  of  the  Gettysburg  Sem- 
inary :  "  When  we  consider  what  hindrances  the  union  of 
the  two  confessions  met  with  among  us,  where  the  govern- 
ment cast  the  weight  of  its  influence  in  the  scale,  we  can 
realize  that  in  America  these  hindrances  must  be  much 
greater.  On  the  doctrine  of  the  Lord's  Supper  they  could 
have  agreed.  But  the  Lutherans  objected  to  the  Calvinistic 
doctrine  of  election,  which  at  this   time    gained  currency 


among  some  of  the  Reformed  ministers  in  America ;  and 
the  Lutherans  were  reluctant  to  intrust  the  training  ol  their 
future  ministers  to  an  institution  where  this  dogma  might 
possibly  become  prevalent." — Twestens  Nachricht,  p.  i8. 

"  The  Reformed,"  says  Twesten,  "  manifested  more 
courage  than  the  Lutherans,  and  ventured  to  take  the 
establishment  of  a  theological  seminary  into  their  own 
hands."  In  addition  to  collections  among  their  own  con- 
gregations in  America,  they  also  sent  an  agent  to  Germany, 
in  the  person  of  Rev.  James  Reily.  Dr.  De  Wette  published 
a  pamphlet  in  advocacy  of  his  cause,  just  as  Twesten  after- 
wards published  and  circulated  one  in  Germany  in  advocacy 
of  Dr.  Kurtz's  mission.  It  appears,  from  De  Wette's  publi- 
cation, that  Mr.  Reily  canvassed,  not  only  in  Reformed 
countries,  such  as  Holland  and  Switzerland,  but  also  in 
countries  where  the  Lutheran  confession  prevails  ;  namely, 
in  the  kingdom  of  Wurtemberg,  "  where  he  found  the  most 
friendly  and  liberal  reception." — Tzvesten,  p.  i8. 

Doubtless  the  example  of  the  Reformed,  and  the  suc- 
cess of  Mr.  Reily  encouraged  the  Lutherans  to  send  Rev. 
Benjamin  Kurtz  on  a  similar  mission. 


Dr.  Schmucker  was  an  organizer  and  a  teacher.  After 
he  had  entered  into  the  ministry,  he  had  very  earnest 
thoughts,  as  to  what  particular  department  of  the  Lord's 
work  he  should  devote  his  life.  The  translation  of  Mos- 
heim's  Dogmatic,  the  translation  of  the  work  of  Storr  and 
Flatt,  the  founding  of  an  Orphans'  House  and  Publish- 
ing Establishment,  like  that  of  Francke  in  Halle,  Ger- 
many, or  the  founding  of  a  Theological  Seminary,  occupied 
his  mind.  He  finally  fixed  upon  the  last  of  these  institu- 
tions as  the  work  of  his  life.  His  son,  B.  M.,  writes  as  fol- 
lows : 

"  During  this  period  he  was  much   occupied   with  the 


general  interests  of  the  church.  He  writes :  '  When  I  left 
Princeton,  there  were  three  pia  desideria,  which  were  very 
near  to  my  heart,  for  the  welfare  of  our  church  :  A  Trans- 
lation of  some  one  eminent  system  of  Lutheran  Dogmatics, 
a  Theological  Seminary,  and  a  College  for  the  Lutheran 
Church.'  He  set  himself  to  work  to  do  what  in  him  lay  to 
meet  these  wants.  At  Princeton  already  he  selected  Mos- 
heim's  Elementa  Theologiae  Dogmatics,  which  selection 
was  warmly  commended  by  his  father,  and  by  his  intimate 
friend.  Rev.  F.  C.  Schaeffer,  of  New  York.  Dr.  Koethe,  of 
Allstaedt,  near  Jena,  urged  him  to  take  Storr  and  Flatt,  and 
Dr.  Moses  Stuart,  of  Andover,  also  strongly  urged  him  to 
do  so.  He  so  decided,  and  translated,  re-arranged,  enlarged 
and  published  Storr  and  Flatt's  '  Biblical  Theology.'" 

The  work  of  preparation  of  students  for  the  ministry 
he  began  in  1823,  and  during  those  years  had  six  students, 
among  whom  was  his  old  York  pupil,  John  G.  Morris. 

The  following  extract  from  his  diary  will  give  the 
reader  an  idea  of  his  state  of  mind  about  this  time : 

"  For  a  week  past  I  have  been  rather  dejected,  partly 
from  the  want  of  clear  spiritual  light  to  shine  upon  me,  and 
comfort  my  heart,  amid  its  sorrow,  and  partly  from  the  un- 
settled state  of  my  mind,  as  to  future  duty.  Sometimes  I 
think  it  is  the  will  of  God,  that  I  should  devote  myself 
entirely  to  the  education  of  youth,  principally  for  the  gos- 
pel ministry ;  then  I  desire  to  establish  a  P'ranckean  Sem- 
inary. On  these  subjects  I  sometimes  think  so  much,  as 
really  to  become  sick. 

"  Tuesday,  Dec.  gth,  182J.  This  day,  in  reliance  on  the 
gracious  aid  of  my  heavenly  Father,  I  commenced  a  course 
of  theological  instruction,  after  having  matriculated  the  fol- 
lowing young  gentlemen  as  students  : 

John  Morris,  of  York,  Pa.,  undergraduate  of  Dickin- 
son College  ; 


John  Reck,  of  Winchester,  Va.; 

Philip  Kline,  of  this  county,  near  Woodstock  ;  and 

George  Schmucker,  son  of  my  Uncle  Nicolas. 

"They  are  all  hopefully  pious  and  promising  young 
men.  O  that  God  would  enlighten  my  mind,  and  grant 
me  grace  to  lead  them  into  all  the  necessary  truths,  which 
shall  qualify  them  for  being  eminently  useful  in  the  church. 

"  I  prepared  a '  Plan  '  of  the  course  of  theological  study, 
and  Christian  deportment,  which  I  read  to  them,  explained, 
and  required  each  one  solemnly  to  promise,  in  reliance  on 
divine  aid,  faithtuUy  to  observe.  This  '  Plan  '  I  leave-  with 
them  in  their  recitation  room,  for  their  daily  perusal." 

Dr.  Morris  gives  an  account  of  this  little  school  of  the 
prophets  in  his  characteristic  style.  We  quote  it  in  his  own 
words  and  leave  the  readers  to  form  their  own  judgment : 

"  After  he  had  been  settled  there  several  years,  he  con- 
ceived the  idea  of  establishing  a  sort  of  Pro-Seminary, 
This  was  in  1823,  and  it  gradually  led  to  the  founding  of 
the  schools  we  now  have  at  Gettysburg.  Here,  the  second 
time,  I  became  the  pupil  of  S.  S.  Schmucker.  There  were 
five  other  young  men  who  constituted  the  class,  and  a  mis- 
cellaneous crowd  it  was.  I  mean  that  we  were  in  every 
stage  of  preparation  ;  one  was  a  college  graduate,  another 
could  spell  but  a  few  words  of  the  Greek  Testament,  and  a 
few  others  had  the  same  diflficulty  with  English.  But  they 
were  all  trained  to  be  useful  men.  This  mode  of  teaching 
was  not  very  systematic,  and  we  toddled  along  after  a  very 
remarkable  fashion. 

"  Our  teacher  was  at  that  time  engaged  in  translating 
the  Theology  of  Storr  and  Flatt,  which  was  published  at 
Andover,  and  which  reached  a  second  edition.  He  was  a 
most  untiring  worker,  and,  being  a  widower,  he  had  not  the 
cares  of  a  household,  not  even  taking  his  meals  in  the  par- 
sonage.    He  thus  devoted  Jiis  ivhole  time  to  his  books.     I 


never  knew  him  to  take  a  walk  or  do  anything  else  for 
mere  exercise.  He  did  not  seem  to  require  it ;  at  least  I 
never  knew  him  to  suffer  from  severe  confinement  to  head 
work.  He  had  no  visitors  to  annoy  him,  and  was  very  im- 
patient of  intruders.  His  study  was  in  a  remote  part  of  the 
house  from  ours,  and  I  do  not  think  one  of  us  darkened  the 
door  of  that  sacro-sanctum  once  in  a  month.  So  neither  did 
he  ever  enter  our  workshop,  except  once  a  day  at  recitation. 
He  had  no  time  for  social  intercourse,  and  we  had  none  to 
hear  a  lecture  on  propriety." — Fifty  Years  in  the  Ministry ^ 
pp.  127,  128. 

His  son,  B.  M.,  writes  in  the  College  Book : 

"  The  energies  of  his  whole  life  were  devoted  pre-em- 
inently to  the  preparation  of  candidates  for  the  ministry. 
This  was,  from  his  entrance  into  the  ministry,  the  work  to 
which  he  believed  himself  to  be  called.  He  began  with 
one  student  in  1822,  and  soon  others  gathered  around  him 
in  the  secluded  village  of  New  Market." 

In  the  convention  of  the  General  Synod  of  1825,  a 
committee  was  appointed  "  to  prepare  a  plan  for  the  estab- 
lishment of  a  theological  seminary,  who  shall  govern 
themselves  by  the  instructions  which  shall  be  given  by  the 

The  chairman  of  this  committee  was  Rev.  S.  S. 
Schmucker,  who  reported  the  next  morning.  The  first 
resolution  is  as  follows :  "  That  the  General  Synod  will 
forthwith  commence,  in  the  name  of  the  Triune  God,  and 
in  humble  reliance  on  his  aid,  the  establishment  of  a  theo- 
logical seminary,  which  shall  be  exclusively  devoted  to  the 
glory  of  our  divine  Redeemer,  Jesus  Christ,  who  is  God 
over  all,  blessed  forever.  And  in  this  seminary  shall  be 
taught,  in  the  German  and  English  languages,  the  funda- 
mental doctrines  of  the  sacred  Scriptures,  as  contained  in 
the  Augsburg  Confession." 

e:.ected  as  professor.  179 

In  the  afternoon  of  the  same  day,  the  Synod  proceeded 
to  ballot  for  a  professor,  when  Rev.  S.  S.  Schmucker  was 
elected — "  unanimously,  excepting  one  vote,  which  was 
given  as  a  compliment  to  Rev.  Dr.  Geisenhainer,  Sr.,by  his 
friend.  Dr.  Daniel  Kurtz." 

The  following  resolution  was  passed  : 

"  Resolved,  That  the  Professor  be  furnished  with  a 
dwelling  and  a  salary  of  five  hundred  dollars  for  a  current 
year,  and  that  the  Board  of  Directors  fix  his  salary  here- 

The  professor-elect  was  instructed  to  prepare  a  consti- 
tution for  the  proposed  seminary.  The  Constitution,  which, 
with  but  {^"^  changes,  is  in  force  still,  declares  in  Arti- 
cle I,  as  the  design  of  the  institution  : 

"  To  provide  our  churches  with  pastors,  who  sincerely 
believe  and  cordially  approve  of  the  doctrines  of  the  Holy 
Scriptures,  as  they  are  fundamentally  taught  in  the  Augs- 
burg Confession,  and  who  will  therefore  teach  them  in 
opposition  to  Deists,  Unitarians,  Arians,  Antinomians,  and 
all  other  fundamental  errorists." 

Dr.  Diehl  gives  the  following  account  of  its  establish- 

"  In  1820  there  was  no  Lutheran  Theological  Semin- 
ary, except  Hartwick,  and  it  was  far  off  and  poorly  organ- 
ized. Candidates  for  the  Lutheran  ministry  were  under  the 
necessity  of  repairing  to  the  theological  seminaries  of  other 
denominations,  or  putting  themselves  under  the  private 
instruction  of  eminent  pastors.  Very  few  went  to  foreign 
schools.  A  number  had  gone  to  Philadelphia,  Harrisburg 
and  PVederick. 

"  The  talents  and  learning  of  young  Schmucker,  soon 
pointed  him  out  as  the  man  to  teach  candidates.  At  the 
first  Synod  he  attended,  after  his  settlement,  182 1,  the  Synod 
placed   a  catechist  and  theological  student,  Mr.  Kibler,  of 


North  Carolina,  under  his  tuition.  Soon  afterwards  others 
sought  his  services.  J.  B.  Reck,  Samuel  K.  Hoshour,  J.  P 
Kline,  J.  G.  Morris  and  others,  found  their  way  to  New 
Market.  A  private  theological  school  of  higher  repute,  and 
promising  larger  dimensions,  than  any  hitherto,  was  grow- 
ing up  in  Shenandoah  county,  when  the  General  Synod 
determined  to  establish  a  Seminary. 

"  When  the  plan  had  been  adopted  and  the  time  had 
come  for  organizing  the  classes,  nobody  was  surprised  that 
upon  the  first  ballot  at  the  General  Synod,  1825,  for  a  pro- 
fessor of  theology,  Samuel  S.  Schmucker  received  every 
vote  except  one,  given  by  Dr.  Daniel  Kurtz,  for  Dr.  Geissen- 
hainer,  Sr.,  of  New  York  Ministerium.  Dr.  Kurtz  evidently 
intended  it  merely  as  a  compliment  to  an  old  friend.  So 
sensible  a  man  as  he  knew,  that  as  to  fitness  for  the  enter- 
prise of  founding  a  new  Theological  Seminary,  there  was 
no  comparison  between  the  accomplished  young  divine  of 
New  Market,  and  the  aged  German  preacher,  learned  a  man 
as  he  was.  He  could  afford  to  pay  his  venerable  friend 
this  compliment,  for  he  knew  Schmucker  would  receive 
every  vote  except  his  own. 

"  Having  attended  to  all  the  preliminary  measures  for 
the  establishment  of  a  Seminary,  including  the  election  of 
the  professor,  the  General  Synod  (1825)  proceeded  to  elect 
a  Board  of  Directors  ;  made  arrangements  to  collect  funds, 
and  appointed  a  meeting  for  the  Directors  to  decide  the 
question  of  the  location  of  the  institution.  Accordingly  the 
Directors  met  at  Hagerstown,  March,  1826.  Four  towns 
had  petitioned  for  the  Seminary.  While  the  claims  of 
Hagerstown,  Chambersburg  and  Frederick  were  duly  con- 
sidered, the  Directors  came  to  the  conclusion  that  Gettys- 
burg held  forth  the  strongest  inducements,  making  the 
largest  pecuniary  offers,  and  being  more  central  to  the 
whole  body  of  the  Lutheran  church. 


"  Mr.  Schmucker  now  resigned  his  pastoral  care  of  the 
Shenandoah  county  congregations,  and  removed,  during 
the  summer  of  this  year,  from  Virginia  to  Gettysburg.  On 
the  5th  of  September,  the  Directors  met  at  Gettysburg,  to 
attend  to  the  inaugural  ceremonies. 

"  It  was  a  great  day  for  Gettysburg,  that  5th  of  Septem- 
ber, 1826.  There  was  no  little  commotion  in  the  commun- 
ity. The  citizens  were  rejoicing,  that  their  hitherto  insig- 
nificant town  was  to  be  a  great  seat  of  learning,  which 
would  yet  make  their  place  famous.  On  the  preceding 
evening,  a  number  of  strangers — eminent  ministers  of  the 
gospel  and  others,  had  arrived,  some  by  private  conveyance 
and  some  by  the  stage  coach.  It  was  Tuesday,  at  9:30 
A.  M.,  that  a  large  number  of  persons  gathered  together  in 
the  Library  room  of  the  old  brick  building  which  had  been 
the  Gettysburg  Academy,  but  was  now  given  to  the  use  of 
the  Seminary  of  the  Lutheran  church.  There  were  Direc- 
tors of  the  Seminary.  There  was  a  number  of  Lutheran 
ministers,  and  a  few  of  other  names.  There  was  also  a 
crowd  of  citizens.  They  formed  into  line — Directors  first, 
then  ministers,  then  students,  then  citizens.  The  venerable 
Dr.  J.  G.  Schmucker,  of  York,  leaning  on  the  arm  of  the 
manly  form  of  David  F.  Schaeffer,  of  Frederick,  headed  the 
procession.  They  moved  in  slow,  solemn  march  to  the 
Lutheran  church,  near  the  eastern  end  of  the  town.  The 
house  was  filled  with  people  from  the  town  and  from  the 

"  In  the  church,  the  services  were  opened  with  an  anthem 
by  the  choir.  Rev.  J.  Grob  then  offered  a  prayer.  Dr.  J. 
G.  Schmucker,  President  of  the  Board  of  Directors,  preached 
an  impressive  sermon  in  the  German  language,  from  the 
text,  '  The  things  that  thou  hast  heard  of  me  among  many 
witnesses,  the  same  commit  thou  to  faithful  men  who  shall 
be  able  to  teach  others  also,'  (2  Tim.  ii.  2).     Then   Rev.  C. 


P.  Krauth  offered  a  prayer.  Rev.  D.  F.  Schaeffer  now 
requested  the  new  Professor  to  utter  and  subscribe  the  oath 
of  office,  which  had  been  written  by  the  Professor  himself. 


"  Then,  Mr.  Schmucker,  young  in  appearance,  less  than 
twenty-eight  years  of  age,  rose  and  spoke  in  solemn  tones 
these  words :  '  I  solemnly  declare  in  the  presence  of  God 
and  of  the  Directors  of  this  Seminary,  that  I  do  ex  anhno 
believe  the  Scriptures  of  the  Old  and  New  Testament  to  be 
the  inspired  word  of  God,  and  the  only  perfect  rule  of  faith 
and  practice.  I  believe  the  Augsburg  Confession,  and  the 
Catechisms  of  Luther  to  be  a  summary  and  just  exhibition 
of  the  fundamental  doctrines  of  the  word  of  God.  I  declare 
that  I  approve  of  the  general  principles  of  church  govern- 
ment, adopted  by  the  Lutheran  church  in  this  country,  and 
believe  them  to  be  consistent  with  the  word  of  God.  And 
I  do  solemnly  promise  not  to  teach  anything,  either  directly 
or  by  insinuation,  which  shall  appear  to  contradict,  or  to  be 
in  any  degree  more  or  less  remote,  inconsistent  with  the 
doctrines  or  principles  avowed  in  this  declaration.  On  the 
contrary  I  promise  by  the  aid  of  God  to  vindicate  and 
inculcate  these  doctrines  and  principles,  in  opposition  to 
the  views  of  Atheists,  Deists,  Jews,  Socinians,  Unitarians, 
Universalists,  and  all  other  errorists,  while  I  remain  Profes- 
sor of  this  Seminary.' 

"  Rev.  David  F.  Schaeffer  then  ascended  the  pulpit  and 
delivered  a  charge  to  the  Professor.  He  said  :  '  You  are 
entrusted  with  the  care  of  young  men  who  are  designed  for 
the  ministry — who  are  to  go  forth  as  heralds  of  the  Lord 
Jesus  Christ,  to  become  instruments  of  life  or  death  to 
many.  You  are  to  instruct  them  in  all  things  pertaining  to 
an  ambassador  of  the  King  of  kings.  Upon  you  it  will 
depend  largly  whether  they  will  become  burning  and  shin- 


ing  lights  or  not.  I  charge  you  to  remember  your  respon- 
sibility, and  be  faithful  to  God.  Establish  the  students  in 
the  faith  which  distinguishes  our  church  from  others. 
Unity  of  sentiments  on  important  matters  of  faith  and  dis- 
cipline, among  pastors  of  the  same  church,  is  indispensable. 
I  object  not  to  difference  on  subjects  of  minor  importance 
between  different  denominations.  The  Church  is  more 
beautiful  from  such  variety,  as  is  a  garden  on  account  of  its 
flowers  being  of  various  color.  But  every  flower  must  be 
like  all  others  of  the  same  genus  and  species.  Above  all, 
ground  our  students  well  in  the  doctrine  of  the  atonement. 
Dr.  Gray  says  :  '  Therefore  be  it  known  that  Martin  Luther, 
that  only  not  inspired  man,  whom  the  Lord  Jesus  raised 
up  with  semi-apostolic  unction  to  save  his  Church  from 
annihilation,  did  maintain  that  the  atonement  made  by  the 
Son  of  God  on  Calvary,  is  competent  to  effect  the  salvation 
of  mankind,  and  nothing  is  wanting  to  render  it  universally 
efficacious,  but  the  sinner's  faith.' ' 

"  Then,  at  Mr.  Schaeffer's  request,  the  students  rose. 
The  following  young  men  stood  up  :  Wm.  Artz,  Lewis 
Eichelberger,  David  Jacobs,  Wm.  Mcering,  and  Jonathan 
Oswald,  all  of  Maryland  ;  Daniel  Heilig,  J.  G.  Morris,  D. 
P.  Rosenmiller  and  N.  G.  Sharrets,  of  Pennsylvania ;  and 
Jacob  Kempfer,  of  North  Carolina.  After  an  address  of 
five  minutes  to  these  young  men,  Mr.  Schaeffer  closed,  and 
Professor  Schmucker  delivered  his  inaugural.  He  began 
by  saying  :  '  The  occasion  on  which  we  are  assembled,  is 
fraught  with  peculiar  solemnity  to  him  who  now  addresses 
you,  and  with  deepest  interest  to  the  friends  of  Zion.' 

"  He  announced  his  subject :  '  Theological  education 
with  special  reference  to  the  ministry.  Who  are  the  proper 
subjects  of  ministerial  education  ?  What  branches  of 
science  are  entitled  to  their  attention  ?  What  is  the  proper 
method  of  conducting  this  education  ? ' 


"Under  these  heads,  he  pointed  out  the  requisite  quali- 
fications for  the  study  of  theology  with  a  view  to  the  minis- 
try, the  extensive  range  of  learning  desirable,  and  the 
advantages  of  a  Theological  Seminary,  over  the  private 
instruction  of  pastors.  The  discourse  was  an  able  one  of 
an  hour's  length.  It  was  received  with  great  favor.  It 
was  published  and  widely  circulated. 

"  Such  was  the  beginning  of  Mr.  Schmucker's  career  as 
the  head  of  the  theological  education  of  the  church.  The 
first  year  opened  encouragingly.  The  catalogue  for  this 
year  contains  the  names  of  twenty-three  students,  three  sen- 
iors, eleven  middle  class,  and  nine  juniors." 


was  prepared  by  Mr.  Schmucker,  and  printed  in  the  Ger- 
man and  English  languages,  in  which  the  design  of  the 
institution  is  stated.  Several  things  in  this  constitution  are 
noteworthy,  such  as,  "  A  professor  may  be  impeached  for 
fundamental  errors  in  doctrine,  morality,  or  inattention  to 
duty,  by  a  vote  of  two-thirds  of  the  Directors." 

"  The  Directors  shall  inspect  the  fidelity  of  the  profes- 
sors, as  well  in  regard  to  doctrine,  as  the  manner  of  teach- 
ing, devotednejs  to  the  Lutheran  Church,"  etc. 

"  No  person  shall  be  elligible  as  Professor,  who  is  not 
an  ordained  pastor  of  the  Evangelical  Lutheran  Church,  of 
high  repute  for  piety  and  talents.  And  no  one  shall  be 
elligible  to  the  Professorship  of  Didactic  and  Polemic  The- 
ology, who  has  not  officiated  as  pastor  in  the  Church  for  at 
least  five  years." 

"  Every  Professor  must  also  publicly  pronounce  and 
take  the  oath  of  office." 

"The  Seminary  shall  be  open  to  students  of  all  Chris- 
tian denominations,  possessing  the  proper  qualifications." 

"  Every  student  shall  be  expected  to  treat  his  teachers 
with  the  greatest  deference   and  respect,  and   all   persons 


with  civility.  Cleanliness  in  dress  and  habits  shall  be 
observed  by  every  student." 

"  All  theological  students  shall  "board  in  commons, 
special  cases  excepted,  of  which  the  faculty  shall  take  cog- 
nizance." * 


The  establishment  of  a  theological  seminary  could  not 
be  accomplished  by  merely  selecting  the  location,  appoint- 
ing a  professor  and  adopting  a  Constitution,  Buildings 
must  be  purchased  or  erected  ;  the  professor's  salary  must 
be  provided  for,  a  theological  library  collected,  and  money 
raised  for  the  support  of  students.  Professor  Schmucker 
led  off  by  subscribing  ^1,000  for  the  support  of  students  in 
annual  payment  of  $ioo,  thus  reducing  his  meagre  salary 
of  ;^500,  to  ;^400  a  year.  Then  additional  subscriptions 
were  made  by  the  following  brethren  : 

Dr.  J.  G.  Schmucker,  York,  _             _             .  ;^ioo.oo 

Rev.  J.  Herbst,  Gettysburg,     -  -             -            loo.oo 

"     J.  G.  Morris,  Baltimore,  .             -             _     loo.oo 

Dr.  D.  Kurtz,  Baltimore,          -  -             -              50.00 

D.  F.  Schaeffer,  Frederick,  -             -             -       50.00 

D.  M'Conachy,  Gettysburg,  -             -              50.00 

A.  Reck,  Middletown,  Md.,  -             -             -       50.00 

B.  Keller,  Carlisle,              -  -             -              50.00 
J.  Sherer,  North  Carolina,  _             _             -       50.00 

and  a  number  of  others,  smaller  sums.  Rev.  G.  Shober, 
of  North  Carolina,  donated  2,433  acres  of  land  to  the  Sem- 
inary, but  it  seems,  that  very  little  benefit  was  ever  realized 
from  this  munificent  donation. 

*  Formerly  the  students  all  ate  at  a  large  table  in  the  basement  in 
a  large  dining-room.  The  basement  in  the  old  Seminary  building  also 
contained  a  kitchen  and  several  private  rooms  for  the  steward  and  his 
family. — Ed. 


The  following  manuscript  in  Dr.  Schmucker's  own 
hand  writing  explains  the  nature  and  condition  of  his 
donation.  It  may  justly  be  regarded  as  the  nucleus  of  the 
Parent  Educational  Society,  which  afterwards  assisted  so 
many  young  men  in  their  preparation  for  the  ministry,  and 
became  such  a  blessing  to  the  church  : 


"  I.  Feeling,  as  I  trust,  a  sincere  desire  of  promoting 
the  kingdom  of  my  divine  and  blessed  Redeemer,  not  only 
by  devoting  to  his  service  my  time  and  personal  efforts,  but 
also  by  appropriating  to  the  same  purpose  a  portion  of  that 
earthly  substance  which  God  has  entrusted  to  me ;  and 
believing  that  no  part  of  God's  church  stands  in  greater 
need  than  that  with  which  I  am  now  immediately  connected, 
and  believing  that  the  assisting  of  pious  young  men  of  good 
talents  in  becoming  qualified  for  the  holy  ministry  is  one  of 
the  most  direct  methods  of  promoting  the  kingdom  of  our 
blessed  Redeemer  :  I  hereby,  as.  a  private  offering  to  the 
Lord,  obligate  myself  to  pay  to  the  Directors  of  the  Theo- 
logical Seminary  at  Gettysburg  and  their  successors,  in 
annual  payments  of  lOO  dollars,  for  ten  years  (if  my  life  is 
thus  long  spared)  amounting  to  the  sum  of  ;^i,ooo,  the  first 
of  which  is  hereby  paid,  and  each  successive  installment 
due  at  the  spring  meeting  of  the  board,  to  be  applied  to  aid 
young  men  of  undoubted  piety  and  good  talents  in  prepar- 
ing for  the  gospel  ministry  in  this  institution,  and  with  a 
view  to  laboring  in  the  Lutheran  Church. 

"  II.  The  conditions  on  which  this  money  is  to  be 
advanced  to  young  men  by  the  Directors,  shall  be  as  fol- 
lows :  it  is  to  be  loaned  upon  the  individual's  giving  to  the 


treasurer  of  the  Board  his  note  with  security,  if  he  can  con- 
veniently obtain  it.  The  sums  loaned  to  any  one  individual 
shall  not  exceed  his  actual  necessities  and  in  no  case  exceed 
60  dollars  per  annum. 

"  III.  The  selection  of  beneficiaries  I  reserve  to  myself 
during  my  life,  after  which  it  shall  forever  be  vested  in  the 
Board  of  Directors. 

"  IV.  The  moneys  lent  to  any  individual  shall  not  bear 
interest  until  the  time  when  he  has  completed  the  regular 
course  of  theological  studies,  and  shall  be  payable  in  annual 
gales  of  100  dollars,  the  first  due  twelve  months  after  the 
completion  of  his  regular  course  of  study. 

"  V.  If  any  beneficiary  shall  be  unable  to  pay  the  whole 
of  each  gale  as  it  becomes  due,  the  Directors  shall  indulge 
him  so  long  as  they  believe  his  inability  to  be  unavoidable 
by  him,  and  his  conduct  is  that  of  a  faithful  minister  of 

"  VI.  If  any  individual,  who  has  received  aid  from  this 
fund,  shall  not  devote  himself  to  the  work,  of  the  Gospel 
ministry,  it  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  Directors  to  require 
him,  in  a  reasonable  time,  to  refund  all  the  money  advanced 
to  him  with  lawful  interest  from  the  time  when  it  was  lent. 

"  VII.  If  at  any  future  time  (which  may  God  in  mercy 
prevent)  this  institution  should  become  so  perverted,  that  a 
belief  that  the  doctrines  of  the  eternal  and  real  divinity  of 
the  Redeemer,  the  doctrine  that  the  atonement  is  general 
and  in  its  nature  equally  applicable  and  acceptable  to  all 
men,  the  universality  of  divine  aid  or  grace  sufficient  for 
salvation,  and  the  real  willingness  of  God  to  save  all  men, 
should  no  longer  be  required,  either  professedly  or  in  real- 
ity, of  the  Professor  of  this  institution,  I  hereby  authorize 
my  lawful  heirs  in  any  future  generation  to  recover  the 
amount  of  this  donation  and  all  its  increase  by  interest,  for 
their  own  proper,  private  use. 

i88  board's  resoi^ution  of  thanks. 

"  VIII.  I  reserve  the  right  of  making  any  additional 
regulation  or  of  changing  any  of  these  during  my  lifetime, 
but  not  of  revoking  the  grant  altogether  or  changing  the 
object  of  it." 

The  Board  passed  the  following  resolution: 

"  Resolved,  That  the  Board  express  their  thanks  to  Prof 
Schmucker  for  his  liberal  donation  in  founding  the  first 
scholarship  of  this  institution  for  the  purpose  ol  aiding 
pious  young  men  in  preparing  themselves  for  the  Gospel 
ministry  in  the  Seminary." 

At  an  early  period  an  association  was  formed  among 
the  students,  called,  "The  Mechanical  Society."  The 
object  of  this  society  was,  to  spend  two  or  three  hours 
every  day  in  mechanical  labor,  "which,  while  it  will  invig- 
orate the  body  b^^  healthful  exercise,  will  also  contribute  to 
the  financial  support  of  its  members." 

The  association  was  not  of  long  continuance.  The 
students  now  seek  recreation  by  walking  or  athletic  exer- 
cises. A  gymnasium  has  lately  been  opened- in  the  new 
Seminary  building. 

At  a  meeting  of  the  West  Pennsylvania  Synod  in  York, 
a  proposition  was  made,  to  raise  a  fund  of  ;^  10,000  for  the 
purpose  of  establishing  a  second  professorship,  by  subscrip- 
tions of  $100  each.  Ten  of  these  subscriptions  were  taken 
at  once,  and  Professor  Schmucker  undertook  a  voluntary 
agency  in  New  York  and  Philadelphia  and  obtained  about 

In  the  Pastoral  Address  the  Board  also  expresses  its 
thanks  for  the  continued  liberality  of  our  benefactos  in  Ger- 
many. Although  several  years  had  passed  since  Dr. 
Kurtz's  return,  the  stream  of  German  liberality  still  flowed. 
Several  boxes  of  books  were  received,  and  the  institution 
had  then  the  largest  theological  library  in  this  country — 
more  than  6,000  volumes. 

DR.    DIEHL'S   testimony.  189 

Says  Dr.  Diehl :  "  Dr.  Schmucker  rendered  important 
services  to  the  institution,  by  procuring  contributions.  His 
extensive  acquaintance  with  influential  ministers  of  other 
denominations  opened  the  door  to  large  and  wealthy  con- 
gregations. He  was  so  favorably  known  as  an  active  par- 
ticipant, and  warm  friend  of  the  great  national  religious 
societies,  that  he  obtained  funds  from  the  American  Educa- 
tion Society,  for  the  support  of  Gettysburg  beneficiary  stu- 
dents. He  visited  Philadelphia,  New  York,  and  new  Eng- 
land, and  laid  the  wants  of  the  Seminary  before  wealthy 
Presbyterian  and  Congregational  churches,  and  obtained 
contributions  amounting  to  ^15,000." 

In  canvassing  Philadelphia  he  wrote,  "  My  solicitations 
have  been  directed  chiefly  to  members  of  the  Lutheran 
Church,  whom  I  found  to  be  wealthy,  liberal  and  generous 

In  1826  Rev.  Benjamin  Kurtz  was  appointed  by  the 
Board  to  go  to  Germany  and  solicit  donations  and  books 
for  the  Theological  Seminary.  He  remained  absent  nearly 
two  years,  and  brought  home  about  ;^  10,000  in  money  and 
a  large  number  of  books.  While  in  Germany  he  received 
many  courtesies  from  all  classes  of  men,  and  secured 
extensive  popularity  as  a  plain  and  impressive  preacher. 
Immense  crowds  everywhere  attended  the  churches  in 
which  he  officiated. 

Two  German  pamphlets  were  printed  and  extensively 
circulated  in  Germany  in  advocacy  of  Kurtz's  agency.  The 
one  in  Hamburg  by  Dr.  Twesten,  (Professor  of  Theology 
and  Philosophy  in  the  University  of  Kiel)  of  72  pages,  and 
the  other  in  Berlin,  of  40  pages,  (author  not  given),  which 
attained  a  second  edition.  In  these  pamphlets  the  claims 
of  the  American  Lutheran  Church  and  her  Theological 
Seminary  were  most  eloquently  and  earnestly  pleaded. 

Dr.  Twesten   writes,  "  The  General    Synod  could  not 


have  selected  a  more  worthy  agent  than  Rev.  Benjamin 
Kurtz,  \vhen  true  evangelical  piety,  an  enlightened  spirit, 
ardent  enthusiasm  for  the  church  and  unassuming  humility 
characterize  him,  which  must  secure  for  him  the  kind 
reception,  which  we  already  owe  to  a  sister  church.  These 
characteristics  have  won  for  him  all- hearts,  and  no  doubt 
they  will  produce  the  same  effect  upon  every  one  who 
learns  to  know  him  on  his  travels." 

He  then  gives  a  brief  biographical  sketch  of  Dr.  Kurtz. 

The  two  principal  inducements  which  Twesten  held 
out  in  his  pamphlet  were,  that  the  Lutherans  who  had 
emigrated  to  America  might  be  retained  in  the  Lutheran 
Church,  and  he  argues  that  this  could  not  be  done,  if  the 
German  language  was  not  retained  among  them.  He  fur- 
ther argues,  that  the  German  language  could  not  be  per- 
manently retained  without  a  German  theological  seminary 
to  train  German  ministers  of  the  gospel.  "  Suppose  for 
a  moment, — which  God  forbid — that  the  Lutheran  Church 
in  America  should  die  out what  would  be  the  con- 
sequence ?  Would  our  Lutheran  people  go  over  to  one  of 
the  English  denominations,  such  as  the  Episcopalians,  the 
Presbyterians,  Unitarians  or  Methodists,  and  find  among 
them  a  strengthening,  wholesome  spiritual  food  ?  By  no 
means !  The  unavoidable  difference  in  the  languages 
would  make  this  impossible  with  the  most  of  them,  and  the 
others  would  lose  the  love  of  the  divine  word,  if  they  must 
hear  it  proclaimed  in  a  different  language  from  their  be- 
loved   German The    German   language   cannot   be 

maintained  (in  America),  without  higher  institutions  of 
learning.  Those,  therefore,  who  love  their  mother  tongue, 
and  take  an  interest  in  maintaining  and  extending  German 
art  and  culture,  we  hope  will  find  an  inducement  to  con- 
tribute liberally  towards  planting  such  a  school  in  that  dis- 
tant part  of  the  world." 


So  far  Twesten.  We  see  from  the  above,  what  mis- 
taken views  our  German  brethren  have  had,  and  to  a  great 
extent  still  have,  in  regard  to  the  necessity  of  the  German 
language  for  the  perpetuity  of  the  Lutheran  Church.  That 
which  Twesten  declared  impossible ;  namely,  that  the 
youth  of  the  church,  as  they  become  English,  should  go 
over  to  some  English  denomination,  if  they  do  not  have 
the  gospel  preached  in  the  language  which  they  under- 
stand, has  taken  place  in  hundreds  of  thousands  of  cases.  I 
have  heard  a  German  minister  declare,  "  that  in  his  opinion 
the  distinctive  doctrines  of  the  Lutheran  Church  can  be 
taught  in  their  purity,  only  in  the  German  language  ;  and 
yet  we  hear  so  much  in  our  day,  of  the  "  Poly-glot  Luth- 
eran Church." 

Dr.  Twesten  copied  the  entire  constitution  of  the 
Seminary  in  his  German  pamphlet,  and  makes  this  remark- 
able comment  upon  it.  "  Every  one  will  be  impressed 
with  the  genuine  religious  and  evangelical  spirit  that  per- 
vades these  statutes.  One  thing,  however,  might  appear 
strange  to  us  with  our  present  prevailing  views,  and  may 
even  be  objectionable  to  many ;  namely,  the  almost 
anxious  adhesion  to  the  doctrines  of  the  Augsburg  Confes- 
sion. *  It  would  not  be  the  proper  place  here  to  enter 
into  a  general  discussion  of  this  subject.  It  is  sufficient  to 
remark,  that  in  this  respect  also,  that  may  be  practicable 
and  necessary  in  America,  which  would  not  be  so  with 
us."  It  will  be  remembered  that  this  constitution  was  also 
composed  by  Dr.  Schmucker. 

Dr.  Kurtz  took  with  him  the  very  highest  kind  of 
credentials.  Besides  the  Officers  of  the  General  Synod, 
Revs.  Gottlieb  Schober,  and  D.  F.  Schaeffer,  the  following 
names    of   distinguished    officials  were   added :  John  Gill, 

*„T)k  fail  dngftltc^e  giirfor^e  fiir  bit  Sr&attun^  Ui  in  bcr  5(ufl^bur- 
gtfc^cn  Sonfeffion  nicbcrijelecjten  i*e()rbegrijfei." 


Notary  Public  of  Baltimore,  Judge  Jacob  Bucher,  Harris- 
burg,  John  Andrew  Schulze,  Governor  of  Pennsylvania, 
James  Trimble,  State  Secretary  of  Pennsylvania,  Honorable 
Henry  Clay,  Senator,  Washington,  D.  C.  Governor 
Schulze  writes,  that  it  affords  him  great  pleasure  to  recom- 
mend Rev.  Benjamin  Kurtz,  as  a  very  worthy  and  deserv- 
ing minister,  who  deserves  the  friendly  reception  of  all 
pious  people.  "  I  have  known  him,"  says  the  Governor, 
"  almost  from  childhood,  and  can  therefore  testify,  with  a 
clear  conscience,  of  his  good  character  and  conduct." 

In  London  he  was  kindly  received  by  Rev.  Dr.  Stein- 
kopf,  pastor  of  the  German  Lutheran  Congregation  in  that 
city.  This  congregation  donated  ^75.00  to  the  Seminary, 
and  from  other  persons  he  also  received  liberal  contribu- 
tions. Then  he  passed  by  ship  to  Hamburg,  where  his  ar- 
rival was  announced  in  the  newspapers.  He  then  visited 
Bremen  and  Luebeck.  The  ministers  of  Hamburg  and 
Luebeck  appealed  publicly  to  their  people  for  liberal  con- 
tributions. In  the  city  of  Kiel  the  students  of  the  university 
made  up  a  purse.  In  Kopenhagen,  their  Majesties,  the 
king  and  queen  of  Denmark  granted  him  an  audience,  gave 
a  royal  contribution,  and  permitted  collections  to  be  held 
in  the  churches.  In  Sweden  also  and  in  the  Russian  pro- 
vinces, as  also  in  the  cities  of  Petersburg,  Riga  and  Dorpat, 
he  received  encouragement  and  contributions. 

In  Berlin  he  remained  a  longer  time  and  received  the 
royal  permission  to  solicit  contributions,  and  also  preached 
before  the  king,  and  in  the  principal  churches  of  the  cities 
which  he  visited.  From  Berlin  he  went  to  Wittenberg, 
then  visited  Dresden,  Leipzig,  Halle,  Magdeburg. 
In  the  kingdom  of  Wurtemberg  he  was  cordially  received 
and  financially  encouraged. 

As  stated  above,  the  amount  collected  in  money  was 
;g  10,000,  and  about   6,000  books.     Considering  the  length 


of  time  required, — nearly  two  years, — the  extensive  adver- 
tising by  means  of  pamphlets  and  church  papers,  pastors, 
recommendations,  royal  patronage  and  general  collections 
over  the  greater  part  of  Germany  and  Scandinavia,  this 
seems  to  be  a  very  small  amount  for  so  worthy  an  object 
and  protracted  efforts  made.  The  church  in  this  country 
very  properly  expressed  its  gratitude  to  our  brethren  in  the 
Fatherland  for  their  sympathy  and  contributions.  We 
must  remember,  those  were  the  days  of  small  things,  both 
in  Europe  and  in  America.  The  books  were  the  most 
valuable  part  of  the  contribution  ;  the  most  lasting  also,  for 
they  occupy  the  larger  part  of  space  in  the  library  even  at 
the  present  time.  Yet  as  regards  money,  Dr.  Schmucker 
alone,  during  two  or  three  vacations,  collected  more  than 
two  times  as  much  from  Lutherans  in  York  and  Philadel- 
phia, and  from  Presbyterians  and  Congregationalists  in  New 
York  and  New  England.  From  this  small  beginning  the 
institution  has  been  progressing  in  endowments,  usefulness 
and  influence,  until  now  it  has  an  endowment  of  over  $ioo, 
ooo,  four  professors,  two  magnificent  buildings  and  four 
professor's  residences.  See  what  the  Lord  hath  done! 
Other  similar  institutions  have  sprung  up  in  different  parts 
of  the  country,  which  are  the  direct  offspring  of  the  semi- 
nary and  college  at  Gettysburg.  We  append  here  an  ex- 
tract from 


Prepared  by  Dr.  J.  G.  Morris,  by  request  of  the 
Semi  Centennial  Committee,  and  read  in  Gettysburg,  June 
28th,  1876. 

"Though  frequently  the  subject  of  conversation,  noth- 
ing further  was  attempted  towards  the  establishment  of  a 
Seminary  until  the  meeting  held  at  Hagerstown,  Sept.  22d, 
1820,  when  the  Constitution  of  the  General  Synod  was 
adopted,  at  which  time  a  Committee  was  appointed  to  draft 


a  plan  of  such  a  school.  This  Committee  was  composed 
of  Rev.  Drs.  Lochman,  of  Harrisburg,  Endress,  of  Lan- 
caster, Pastors  J.  G.  Schmucker,  of  York,  F.  W.  Geisen- 
hainer,  of  the  State  of  New  York,  and  Muhlenberg,  of 
Reading.  The  Committee  reported  at  the  session  of  the 
General  Synod  held  in  Frederick,  Md.,  on  the  2ist  of 
October,  1821,  that  they  could  not  devise  a  plan  according 
to  which  a  general  theological  seminary  could  be  estab- 
lished, and  recommended  that  the  further  consideration  of 
this  subject  be  postponed  to  an  indefinite  time.  They  were 
of  opinion,  however,  that  in  the  meantime  preparations 
should  be  made,  and  suggested  a  mode  of  operation  which 
was  altogether  impracticable,  and  which  was  adopted  by  no 
Synod  in  the  whole  church. 

"The  resolutions  offered  by  this  committee  amounted  to 
a  virtual  abandonment  of  the  enterprise.  Nothing  was  done 
at  the  General  Synod  of  1823,  held  at  Frederick,  relative  to 
the  subject ;  not  even  a  resolution  respecting  it  was  passed. 
During  this  period,  the  brethren  of  the  Synod  of  Maryland 
and  Virginia  held  monthly  conferences,  at  which  interest- 
ing seasons  the  expediency  of  erecting  an  institution  was 
frequently  discussed,  and  in  the  interim  a  very  extensive 
correspondence  on  the  subject  was  carried  on  by  the  breth- 
ren. Various  plans  were  suggested,  but  none  finally 
adopted.  It  was  within  the  bounds  of  this  synod  that  the 
subject  was  revived  after  it  had  been  virtually  abandoned 
by  the  General  Synod  of  1821.  From  that  time  until  1824, 
the  subject  was  the  topic  of  frequent  private  conference, 
but  the  fii'st  step  publicly  taken  to  revive  it  ivas  by  Rev.  S.  S. 
Schmucker,  of  New  Market,  Va.,  in  a  sermon  delivered  be- 
fore the  Synod  of  Maryland  and  Virginia,  held  at  Middle- 
town,  Md.,  Oct.  17th,  1824,  at  which  time  he  detailed  the 
regulations  of  a  private  theological  school  he  had  opened 
at  New  Market,  Va.,  and  recommended  the  enlargement  of 


that  school  into  a  general  institution  for  the  church.  Two 
months  afterwards,  under  date  of  January  5th,  1825,  Rev. 
Mr.  Kurtz,  of  Hagerstown,  wrote  to  Rev.  Mr.  Schmucker 
of  New  Market,  and  informed  him  that  Prof  McClelland,  of 
Dickinson  College,  had  been  in  Hagerstown  and  told  him 
that  the  trustees  of  that  institution  were  anxious  that  the 
Lutheran  Church  should  establish  a  Seminary  at  Carlisle, 
and  would  offer  the  same  privileges  which  they  had 
granted  to  the  Reformed  Church,  except  the  use  of  a  house 
for  the  professor.  This  plan  he  did  not  approve,  but  in  the 
same  letter  proposed  another,  which  had  been  laid  before 
the  monthly  conference  held  at  Martinsburg  by  the  breth- 
ren on  both  sides  of  the  Potomac,  on  Feb.  9th  and  lOth, 
1825.  *  The  plan  was  as  follows:  He  proposed  that  the 
Seminary  should  be  located  at  Hagerstown,- -that  he  would 
make  an  arrangement  with  his  congregations,  that  they 
should  furnish  their  school  house  for  a  lecture  room,  and 
that  the  professor  should  preach  for  them  occasionally  and 
have  charge  of  several  country  congregations.  The  Pastor 
loci  was  also  to  be  professor.  This  plan  was  objected  to  on 
the  ground  that  the  synod  alone  was  the  proper  body 
which  should  elect  the  professors,  but  that  by  this  plan 
they  would  elect  themselves.  At  this  conference  it  was 
resolved,  that  President  D.  F.  Schaeffer,  of  Frederick,  and 
Mr.  Schmucker,  Secretary  of  the  Synod,  should  be  re- 
quested to  call  a  special  meeting  of  the  Synod  of  Maryland 
and  Virginia  to  consider  this  subject.  Mr.  Schaeffer,  with 
great  wisdom,  as  the  sequel  proved,  refused  to  call  a  synod, 
and  advised  more  deliberation  in  the  matter.  At  the  re- 
gular meeting  in  the  fall,  held  at  Hagerstown,  Oct.  23, 
1825,  Messrs.  Schmucker,  Krauth,  of  Martinsburg,  and  B. 

*  This  conference  was  composed  of  Rev.  Messrs.  Kurtz,  Krauth,  F. 
RuthrauflF  and  Winter— a  collection  taken  up  which  amounted  to  six 
or  seven  dollars,  was  the  first  money  ever  contributed  to  this  object. 


Kurtz,  were  appointed  a  committee  to  draft  a  plan  for  the 
immediate  establishment  of  a  Theological  Seminary,  and 
reported  that  which,  with  the  additional  articles,  was  sub- 
sequently adopted  by  the  General  Synod,* 

"On  Nov.  7th,  1825,  the  General  Synod  convened  at 
Frederick,  Md.,  when  it  was  resolved  that  the  Revs.  B. 
Kurtz,  J.  Herbst,  S.  S.  Schmucker,  B.  Keller,  and  Messrs. 
Harry  and  Hauptman  be  a  committee  to  prepare  a  plan  for 
the  establishment  of  a  Theological  Seminary,  and  that  they 
govern  themselves  by  the  instructions  which  shall  be  given 
by  this  synod.  On  the  following  morning  (Tuesday,  Nov. 
8,)  the  committee  reported  a  plan,  which,  having  been  dis- 
cussed and  amended,  was  adopted.  It  was  at  the  same 
time  resolved  '  that  agents  be  sent  throughout  the  United 
States  by  the  officers  of  the  General  Synod,  to  solicit  con- 
tributions for  the  support  of  the  Seminary;  that  it  be 
earnestly  recommended  to  the  ministers  of  our  several 
synods  to  afford  said  agents  every  possible  aid,  and  that 
the  Board  of  Directors  pay  the  necessary  expenses  of  such 
agents.'  The  following  agents  were  appointed  by  the 
synod  :  Rev.  Dr.  Lochman,  Dr.  Endress,  Dr.  Muhlenberg, 
and  Rev.  C.  R.  Demme,  for  the  Synod  of  East  Pennsyl- 
vania ;  Rev.  Dr.  Schmucker,  Rev.  J.  Herbst,  and  B.  Keller, 
for  West  Pennsylvania ;  Rev.  Mr.  Stauch,  J.  Steck,  for 
Ohio  and  Indiana ;  Rev.  Dr.  P.  Mayer,  Rev.  Messrs. 
Geisenhainer,  F.  C.  Schaeffer  and  Lintner,  for  the  Synod  of 
New  York  ;  Rev.  S.  S.  Schmucker,  for  Philadelphia  and 
the  Eastern  States  ;  Rev.  Messrs.  A.  Reck,  Meyerhoefifer 
and  Krauth,  for  Virginia ;  Rev.  Messrs.  B.  Kurtz,  H. 
Graber,  Ruthrauff,  and  Little,  for  Maryland ;  Rev.  W. 
Jenkins,  for  Tennesse  ;  Rev.    Messrs.  Sherer  and  J.  Reck, 

*  This  plan,  as  also  the  additional  articles,   was  drawn  up  by  Rev. 
S.  S.  Schmucker. 


for  North   Carolina ;  Rev.   Messrs.   Bachman  and   Dreher, 
lor  South  Carolina. 

"  It  was  further  resolved,  'that  an  agent,  furnished  with 
ample  testimonials  by  the  President  and  Secretary  of  the 
General  Synod,  be  forthwith  sent  to  Europe,  to  solicit  con- 
tributions of  money  and  books  for  the  benefit  of  the  Semi- 
nary, and  that  our  beloved  and  reverend  brother,  Benjamin 
Kurtz,  be  this  agent.'  Mr.  Kurtz  accepted  the  appoint 
ment  of  agent  to  Europe,  and  the  happy  results  of  his 
operations  in  behalf  of  the  Seminary  among  our  transatlan- 
tic brethren,  will  be  experienced  as  long  as  the  institution 
exists.  He  was  at  the  same  time  instructed  to  assure  the 
brethren  abroad,  that  their  contributions  should  be  appro- 
priated to  the  support  of  a  German  professorship. 

"  The  first  Board  of  Directors  was  next  elected,  and  the 
following  persons  chosen :  From  Pennsylvania,  Dr.  J.  G. 
Schmucker,  Rev.  Messrs.  J.  Herbst  and  B.  Keller, — Philip 
Smyser,  of  York,  and  Jacob  Young,  of  Carlisle.  From 
North  Carolina,  Rev.  Messrs.  Shober,  Storch,  and  J. 
Walter, — Col.  Barringer  and  Wm.  Keck,  Esq.,  of  Guilford 
County.  From  Maryland,  Dr.  J.  D.  Kurtz,  Rev.  B.  Kurtz, 
Rev.  C.  P.  Krauth,— Mr.  J.  Harry  and  Mr.  C.  Mantz. 

"  According  to  Article  6  of  the  plan  which  was  adopted, 
the  first  professor  was  to  be  elected  by  the  General  Synod, 
after  which  the  Board  of  Directors  shall  forever  have  the 
exclusive  right  of  electing  additional  professors  and  filling 
up  vacancies.  Agreeably  to  this,  the  synod  went  into  an 
election,  when  the  Rev.  Samuel  S.  Schmucker,  of  New 
Market,  Va.,  was  chosen  Professor  of  Didactic  Theology. 
A  committee  appointed  to  wait  upon  the  professor  elect 
and  inform  him  of  his  election,  reported  that  he  had  de- 
clared his  acceptance  of  the  office  entrusted  to  him.  The 
low  salary  of;^50o  for  the  current  year  was  voted  the  pro- 
fessor, but  this  was  owing  to  the  fact  that  there  were  as  yet 


no  funds  in  the  treasury,  and  the  whole  scheme  was  only  a 
doubtful  experiment.  Before  the  funds  collectable  were 
available,  the  several  synods  in  connection  with  the  Gen- 
eral Synod,  contributed  out  of  their  own  treasuries  towards 
the  support  of  the  professor;  the  Synod  of  West  Pennsyl- 
vania contributing  $150,  and  the  Synod  of  Maryland  and 
Virginia  an  equal  sum.  So  small,  so  inauspicious  was  the 
commencement  of  our  Seminary.  But  the  hand  of  an  over- 
ruling and  merciful  Providence  has  conducted  us  hitherto, 
and  smiled  upon  the  efforts  of  his  servants  to  rear  a  theo- 
logical school  for  his  own  glory  and  the  welfare  of  men. 

"  The  wishes  of  the  brethren  had  now  been  accom- 
plished— their  ardent  expectations  were  realized, — they  had 
long  sighed,  and  lamented  and  prayed  and  hesitated — now 
in  the  Providence  of  God  an  institution  was  founded,  and 
every  one  rejoiced  in  the  glorious  prospect  which  the 
Church  had  before  her. 

"  On  the  2nd  of  March,  1826,  the  Board  of  Directors 
met  for  the  first  time  according  to  appointment,  at  Hagers- 
town,  at  which  were  present  Dr.  Schmucker,  J.  Herbst,  B. 
Keller,  B.  Kurtz,  C.  P.  Krauth,  clerical,  and  Philip  Smyser, 
Jacob  Young,  J.  Harry  and  Cyrus  Mantz,  lay  members. 
Dr.  J.  G.  Schmucker  was  elected  President,  and  C.  P. 
Krauth,  Secretary. 

"  The  attention  of  the  board  was  called  to  the  perfor- 
mance of  a  very  serious  and  delicate  duty,  that  of  the  loca- 
tion of  the  Seminary.  In  determining  this  difficult  subject, 
they  felt  their  high  responsibility,  well  knowing  that  its 
favorable  location  would  have  a  very  important  bearing 
upon  its  general  utility.  The  following  proposals  were 
made  : 

"i.  Hagerstown  offered  ^6,635  in  money, the  payment 
of  which  was  pledged. 

"2.  Carlisle   proposed    to    give   ^2,000    in    money,   a 


house  for  the  professor  to  reside  in  for  five  years,  and 
^3,000  towards  erecting  a  building  for  the  Seminary.  In 
addition  to  this  they  proposed  to  give  a  lot  to  the  Semi- 
nary,— if  a  proposition  of  the  Trustees  of  Dickinson  Col- 
lege be  not  accepted. 

"  The  Trustees  of  Dickinson  College  offered  the  use  of 
a  room  in  the  college  edifice  for  the  lectures  of  the  profes- 
sor— a  lot  of  ground  one  hundred  feet  square,  convenient 
and  eligible,  situated  in  the  college  square — the  use  of  the 
college  library  to  the  students — gratuitous  access  to  the 
lectures  of  the  Principal,  and  Professors  of  Moral  Philo- 
sophy, Natural  Theology,  Political  Economy  and  Neces- 
sity and  Evidence  of  Divine  Revelation — on  condition  that 
the  Professor  of  the  Theological  Seminary  should  act  as  a 
member  of  the  Faculty  and  as  Professor  of  Hebrew  and 
Oriental  Literature  in  the  college. 

"  3.  Gettysburg  offered  ^7,000  in  money,  and  the 
Trustees  of  the  Academy  guaranteed  the  use  of  that  build- 
ing, until  suitable  edifices  are  erected  for  the  Seminary. 

"  These  different  propositions  having  been  heard,  the 
board  proceeded  to  the  location  of  the  Seminary,  it  having 
been  determined  that  a  majority  of  the  whole  be  necessary 
to  a  choice. 

"  After  a  long  and  interesting  debate  on  the  relative  ad- 
vantages of  the  places  propsed,  Ge/(ysdtirg;  upon  the  second 
ballot  was  the  place  selected.  Thus  a  most  important 
question  was  decided.  It  had  excited  much  interest,  but 
the  final  decision  was  unanimous." 

"  One  consideration  in  locating  the  Seminary  was  its 
accessibility.  It  was  desirable  to  have  the  institution 
located  centrally  in  regard  to  the  whole  Lutheran  Church, 
in  a  place  that  could  be  reached  most  conveniently  by  pub- 
lic highways.  Gettysburg  at  that  time  exactly  answered 
these  conditions.     It   was    the    first   and    only  theological 


seminary  in  the  Lutheran  Church  in  America,  (Hartwick 
perhaps  excepted,)  and  it  was  designed  for  the  whole 
church  north  and  south,  east  and  west.  There  were  no 
railroads  in  the  country  at  that  time,  but  the  best  con- 
structed turnpikes  in  the  state  centred  in  and  passed 
through  Gettysburg.  These  were  the  public  thorough- 
fares from  Baltimore  and  Philadelphia  to  Pittsburg.  Daily 
stages  ran  on  these  roads  and  a  large  number  of  wagons 
transported  goods  and  country  produce  from  and  to  the 

After  the  railroads  had  been  built  through  different 
parts  of  the  state,  objections  were  raised  against  our  institu- 
tions on  account  of  their  inaccessibility,except  by  stagecoach. 
Efforts  were  therefore  made  and  loudly  advocated  at  differ- 
ent times  for  the  removal  of  the  College  and  Seminary  to 
Harrisburg,  Lebanon,  Baltimore  or  Washington.  But  these 
efforts  have  thus  far  failed.  At  this  time,  however,  Gettys- 
burg is  amply  accessible  by  railroad  from  every  direction. 
The  great  and  decisive  battle  between  the  Northern  and 
Southeran  Armies  in  Gettysburg  during  the  late  civil  war, 
has  given  the  place  a  world-wide  reputation,  and  thous- 
ands of  soldiers  and  citizens  come  every  year  to  view  the 
battlefield.  The  government  also  expends  vast  sums  of 
money  to  lay  out  and  beautify  the  grounds.  At  this  time 
the  general  impression  is,  that  the  institutions  are  perma- 
nently located  at  Gettysburg. 

"  It  was  resolved  that  the  Seminary  commence  its 
operations  on  the  first  Tuesday  in  September  1826,  and 
that  on  that  day  the  professor  elect  be  inaugurated.  Dr.  J. 
G.  Schmucker  was  appointed  to  deliver  a  sermon  on  the 
occasion,  and  Dr.  Daniel  Kurtz,  a  charge  in  the  German 
language.  Rev.  D.  F.  Schaefifer,  of  Frederick,  was  ap- 
pointed his  alternate. 

"  Agreeably  to  the  resolution  of  the  board,  a  meeting 

morris'  history  of  the  seminary.  201 

was  held  in  Gettysburg  on  the  first  Tuesday  of  September, 
1826.  In  the  meantime  the  collectors  appointed  had  been 
diligently  attending  to  the  duties  assigned  them,  Mr.  Kurtz 
had  sailed  for  Europe,  and  preparations  generally  were 
making  for  the  formal  opening  of  the  institution.  The  in- 
stallation of  Rev.  S.  S.  Schmucker  as  professor  of  Christian 
Theology,  took  place  according  to  appointment.  An  ap- 
propriate sermon  was  delivered  on  the  occasion  by  Dr. 
Schmucker,  Sen.;  Rev.  D.  F,  Schaeffer  delivered  the 
charge  to  the  Professor  after  his  solemn  installation,  which 
was  immediately  followed  by  the  inaugural  address  of  the 
Professor.  All  these  exercises  were  performed  in  the  pres- 
ence of  a  large  assembly,  much  impressed  with  the 
solemnity  of  the  occasion.  The  students  present  were  also 
addressed  by  Rev.  Mr.  Schaeffer.  This  was  an  important 
day  in  the  history  of  the  institution,  and  the  high  expecta- 
tions which  its  feeble  commencement  permitted  its  founders 
to  indulge,  have  never  been  disappointed. 

"This  was  a  period  of  painful  anxiety  and  apprehension. 
The  brethren  had  commenced  an  enterprise  in  which  they 
were  far  from  having  the  co-operation  of  the  whole  church. 
It  was  comparatively  a  few  who  undertook  it,  and  they 
almost  single-handed.  They  encountered  difficulties,  but 
they  were  surmounted;  they  were  opposed  by  prejudice, 
but  it  was  subdued  ;  they  had  ignorance  to  contend  against, 
but  it  was  overcome.  For  a  while  the  prospect  was 
gloomy, — dark  clouds,  portentous  of  a  direful  storm,  hung 
over  them,  but  they  were  dispelled,  and  the  sun  of  God's 
favor  shone  brilliantly  upon  them.  They  entered  upon 
their  labors,  and  pursued  them  with  an  untiring  energy, 
and,  at  the  end  of  eleven  months,  they  had  the  satisfaction 
of  seeing  their  first  professor  installed,  a  commencement 
made  towards  the  establishment  of  a  library,  and  the  insti- 
tution in  successful  operation.    They  recognized  the  benev- 


olent  hand  of  Providence  in  all  these  arrangements,  and 
said  with  the  Psalmist,  '  The  Lord  has  done  great  things 
for  us,  whereof  we  are  glad.' 

"The  institution  having  been  now  regularly  organized, 
the  Professor  immediately  commenced  his  lectures  with 
great  zeal  and  ability.  The  following  are  the  names  of  the 
first  students  who  connected  themselves  with  the  school 
the  first  session  :  Wm.  Artz,  David  Jacobs,  Jonathan 
Oswald,  David  P.  Rosenmiller,  J.  Kaempffer,  J.  S.  Galloway, 
Lewis  Eichelberger,  Henry  Haverstick,  Daniel  Heilig, 
Benjamin  Oehrle,  N.  R.  Sharretts,  George  Yeager,  S.  D. 
Finckel,  J.  G.  Morris.  This  number  gradually  increased, 
thus  brightening  the  hopes  of  the  directors.  The  exten- 
sive circulation  of  the  addresses  delivered  at  the  inaugura- 
tion of  the  professor  made  a  deep  and  favorable  impression 
upon  the  Lutheran  community, — public  confidence  was 
secured,  and  promises  of  support  and  encouragement  given 
from  various  quarters.  They  introduced  the  institution  to 
the  notice  of  other  respectable  denominations  of  our 
country,  who  rejoiced  at  its  establishment,  and  extended  to 
us  the  right  hand  of  Christian  fellowship,* 

"  It  must,  however,  not  be  withheld  that  the  Seminary 
did  not  find  a  friend  and  well-wisher  in  every  man,  and 
alas  !  not  in  every  one  who  called  himself  Lutheran.  Every 
benevolent  enterprise  has  its  opponents,  and  this  is  perhaps 
wisely  ordained,  that  its  friends  may  be  more  active  and 
kept  constantly  on  their  guard.  There  is  good  reason  to 
believe  that  some  of  the  clergy  in  the  North  Eastern 
section  of  Pennsylvania  secretly  opposed  the  Seminary, 
and  a  few  openly  avowed  their  enmity  to  it.  But  their  op- 
position did  not  materially  injure  it,  and  the  prophecy  was 

*  I  heard  Dr.  Alexander,  of  Princeton,  speak  very  favorably  of  it 
from  his  chair,  and  Dr.  Green  in  his  Review  of  Addresses,  etc.,  men- 
tions it  in  most  exalted  terms. 


fulfilled,  '  No  weapon  formed  against  Zion  shall  prosper, 
and  every  tongue  that  shall  rise  against  her  in  judgment, 
shall  be  condemned.'  Is,  liv.  17. 

"This  is  perhaps  the  most  proper  place  to  mention  the 
European  agency  of  the  Rev.  Benjamin  Kurtz.  It  was  ob- 
served above,  that  he  was  appointed  to  proceed  to  Europe 
to  solicit  subscriptions  in  money  and  books  in  behalf  of  the 
Seminary.  He  cheerfully  accepted  the  appointment,  and 
on  April  ist,  1826,  he  embarked  at  New  York  for  Liver- 
pool, where  he  arrived  after  a  voyage  of  twenty-one  days. 
He  received  some  contributions  in  England,  but  soon  after 
departed  for  the  continent,  which  was  to  be  the  principal 
field  of  his  labors.  He  was  generally  received  with  a 
cordial  welcome  by  our  transatlantic  brethren,  and  was  em- 
inently successful  in  the  prosecution  of  his  agency  as 
viewed  from  the  stand-point  of  that  day.  He  visited 
almost  every  considerable  Lutheran  city,  and  won  the 
esteem  and  gained  the  assistance  of  most  of  the  church  dig- 
nitaries, and  other  distinguished  men.  His  preaching  was 
attended  by  multitudes — he  every  where  excited  curiosity, 
and  was  treated  with  the  most  cordial  respect.  His  agency 
was  something  so  new  and  so  interesting — his  home  was 
so  distant,  as  it  was  then  considered — his  behavior  so 
humble  and  conciliating — and  his  preaching  so  scriptural, 
that  he  attracted  the  favorable  attention  of  thousands  and 
left  an  impression  which  that  generation  will  never  forget. 
His  representations  of  the  church  in  America  awakened  an 
earnest  zeal  in  the  bosoms  of  the  pious,  and  their  benefac- 
tions towards  her  will  be  remembered  as  long  as  she  exists. 
Too  much  cannot  be  said  in  praise  of  the  generosity  of  our 
transatlantic  brethren.  Our  mission  to  them  was  pro- 
ductive of  many  collateral  advantages.  The  churches  in 
America  and  Germany  became  acquainted  with  each  other 
— the  cords  of  fraternal  affection  were  more  tightly  drawn 


— an  extensive  correspondence  was  established,  and  many- 
other  advantages  resulted  from  it,  which  are  inestimable. 
Even  after  the  return  of  Mr.  Kurtz,  they  afforded  joyful 
proof  of  their  continued  liberality.  By  their  munificence 
the  library  was  increased  to  four  or  five  thousand  volumes, 
and  the  funds  received  an  addition  of  about  ;^8  ooo.  After 
an  absence  of  twenty-two  months,  Mr.  Kurtz  returned  to 
his  native  country. 

"  The  church  rejoiced  that  so  faithful  a  laborer  was  re- 
stored to  her  bosom  in  health,  after  having  endured  so 
many  privations  and  exercised  so  much  self-denial.  It  was 
not  expected  that  all  the  professed  friends  of  Zion  and 
Lutheranism,  either  in  America  or  Europe,  would  regard 
this  mission  in  a  favorable  light.  Several  clergymen  and 
laymen  in  this  country  openly  censured  the  measure,  but 
they  had  taken  no  part  in  the  establishment  and  support  of 
the  Seminary.  In  Europe  some  opposed  it,  and  the  result 
of  it  was  the  appearance  of  a  work,  which  was  received  in 
this  country  in  1829,  purporting  to  be  '  Directions  to  Emi- 
grants to  the  United  States.'  The  author  of  this  con- 
temptible publication  was  a  certain  Dr.  Braunschweig,  who 
had  been  in  the  United  States  and  was  admitted  into  the 
Synod  of  Pennsylvania.  His  unministerial  behavior  sub- 
jected him  to  the  public  censure  of  the  president  of  that 
body.  He  soon  after  returned  to  Germany,  and  vented  his 
spleen  against  the  men  upon  whose  hospitality  he  lived, 
but  of  whose  confidence  his  subsequent  immoral  conduct 
proved  him  unworthy.  In  his  book  he  labors  hard  to  pre- 
judice his  countrymen  against  the  Seminary  by  misrepre- 
sentations and  gross  calumny.  He  makes  certain  state- 
ments part  true,  part  false,  which  he  never  could  have 
ascertained,  but  from  the  correspondence  of  certain  oppon- 
ents of  the  institution  on  this  side  of  the  Atlantic.  Appre- 
hending mischievous   results  to    flow   from    this  tissue   of 


slanders,  the  board,  in  1830,  resolved  to  answer  it.  In 
April,  1 83 1,  the  reply,  written  by  Dr.  Hazelius,  was  sent  to 

"At  this  meeting  ot  the  board,  i.  e.,  September,  1826,  a 
committee.  Dr.  Schmucker,  Mr.  Herbst  and  C.  A.  Barnitz, 
Esq.,  was  appointed  to  petition  the  Legislature  of  Pennsyl- 
vania, to  incorporate  the  Seminary.  This  was  attended 
with  much  difficulty,  inasmuch  as  that  body  was  then  op- 
posed to  chartering  religious  institutions.  It  was,  however, 
accomplished  by  the  dexterity  and  influence  of  those 
representatives  who  felt  an  interest  in  the  subject,  and  at 
the  next  meeting  of  the  directors,  the  committee  had  the 
satisfaction  of  reporting  the  performance  of  their  duty  and 
of  delivering  the  charter. 

"  At  this  meeting  of  the  board,  which  was  the  first  held 
in  Gettysburg,  and  only  the  second  ever  held,  and  but 
seven  months  after  it  was  determined  to  locate  the  institu- 
tion at  Gettysburg,  a  committee  appointed  to  examine  into 
the  state  of  the  funds,  reported  that  ^17,513  had  already 
been  subscribed,  of  which  only  ^1,674  had  been  collected. 
Messrs.  Herbst  and  Benjamin  Keller  were  at  this  meeting 
appointed  as  general  solicitors  for  the  Seminary,  and  at  the 
next  meeting  a  vote  of  thanks  to  these  gentlemen  was 
passed  for  their  important  services  in  enlarging  the  funds 
of  the  Seminary." 

The  following  characterization  of  the  course  of  study 
in  the  Seminary  by  Prof  H.  Jacobs  in  his  history  of  the 
Lutheran  Church  in  America,  (page  370)  will  surprise 
many  of  our  readers  who  studied  in  the  College  and  Semi- 
nary at  Gettysburg: 

"  The  Seminary  course  was  very  brief,  and  the  teach- 
ing scarcely  rose  above,  if  it  equalled,  the  standard  of  the 
better  catechetical  instruction.  There  was  even  a  tendency 
to  depreciate  sacred  learning,  as  relatively  unimportant,  and 


to  throw  all  stress  upon  devotional  exercises.  The  teach- 
ing was  hortatory  instead  of  doctrinal,  and  no  longer 
covered  the  full  extent  of  revelation." — Jacobs,  p.  jyo. 

This  is  certainly  a  very  unjust  and  untruthful  char- 
acterization of  the  teaching  and  course  of  study  in  the  theo- 
logical Seminary  at  Gettysburg,  and  it  must  surprise  any 
one  acquainted  with  the  facts  to  read  such  statements  in  a 
book  that  claims  to  be  a  veracious  and  impartial  history. 
The  professors  in  the  seminary  are  acknowledged  to  have 
been  learned  and  able  teachers.  For  many  years 
Schmucker,  Hazelius,  Krauth,  Sr.,  and  Hay,  were  the  pro- 
fessors in  the  seminary,  devoting  their  whole  time  to  the 
duties  of  their  profession.  The  assertion,  therefore,  that 
the  combined  labors  of  those  three  distinguished  professors 
"  scarcely  rose  above,  if  it  equalled  the  standard  of  the  bet- 
ter catechetical  instruction,"  is  an  insult  to  those  worthy 
men,  and  a  slander  on  the  institution. 

True,  the  seminary  course  at  that  time  was  brief,  only 
two  years,  but  a  catechetical  course  for  young  and  mostly 
uneducated  people,  usually  lasts  only  about  three  months. 

That  some  of  the  instructions  were  hortatory  and  that 
stress  was  laid  upon  devotional  exercises,  is  admitted ;  Dr. 
Schmucker  desired,  above  all  things,  to  prepare  a  pious 
ministry  for  the  church,  but  it  is  not  true  that  he  depre- 
ciated sacred  learning. 

In  this  connection  it  may  be  in  place  to  state,  that 
there  was  a  difference  of  opinion  between  Dr.  Schmucker 
and  the  professors  in  college  in  regard  to  admitting  stu- 
dents into  the  seminary.  Dr.  Schmucker  favored  the  adrnis- 
sion  of  married  men,  and  unmarried  ones  advanced  in 
years,  and  whose  means  were  limited,  without  having  com- 
pleted their  full  course  of  college.  The  college  professors, 
insisted  on  a  full  course  in  college  without  exception.  This 
was  one  cause  of  antagonism  against  Dr.  Schmucker,  irom 


B.  M.  schmucker's  testimony.  207 

the  president  and  faculty  in  college.  I  distinctly  remember 
hearing  Professor  Jacobs,  Sen.,  vehemently  claiming,  that  if 
a  candidate  for  the  ministry  could  not  take  a  full  course  in 
both  institutions,  it  would  be  preferable  to  take  a  full 
course  in  college  and  omit  the  seminary  course  entirely. 

The  obstacles  in  the  way  of  married  men  entering  the 
seminary  was  one  of  the  principal  reasons,  assigned  by  Dr. 
B.  Kurtz,  for  the  establishment  of  the  Missionary  Institute 
at  Selin's  Grove. 

It  is  also  ungrateful  in  Dr.  Jacobs  to  write  thus  about 
his  Alma  Mater,  considering  the  intimate  relations  in  which 
both  he  and  his  father  have  stood  to  the  institutions  at 
Gettysburg.  Prof  Michael  Jacobs,  the  father,  was  a  pro- 
fessor in  Pennsylvania  College  from  its  very  beginning,  and 
when  on  account  of  infirmity  he  could  no  longer  give  in- 
structions, he  was  retained  as  Emeritus  Professor  until  the 
day  of  his  death.  Then  Dr.  H.  Jacobs,  the  son,  graduated 
in  both  institutions,  and  for  a  while  was  professor  of  Greek 
in  the  college,  until  he  accepted  a  call  to  a  professorship  in 
Mt.  Airy  Seminary. 

Dr.  B.  M.  Schmucker,  writes  in  quite  a  different  spirit 
on  this  subject  in  the  College  Book  : 

"  From  1826  to  1846,  when  he  went  for  a  few  months 
to  Europe,  he  had  never  rested.  One  generation  of  stu- 
dents after  another  had  come,  received  careful  instructions, 
been  objects  of  anxious  solicitude,  and  gone  out  into  the 
work  of  the  church.  Over  four  hundred  ministers  went 
out  from  the  seminary  in  his  time ;  and  a  very  large  pro- 
portion of  them  had  been  moulded  and  taken  shape  under 
his  training.  More  than  any  other  man,  he  determined  the 
position  and  influenced  the  activity  of  the  ministers  of  the 
Synods,  which  are  connected  with  Gettysburg.  After 
nearly  forty  years  of  labor  in  the  Seminary  he  resigned  his 
professorship  in  1864." 

20S  DR.    B.    KURTZ   IN   I^ONDON. 

As  a  fitting  conclusion  to  this  brief  history  of  the 
founding  of  the  Seminary,  we  append  Rev.  B.  Kurtz's  letter 
from  London.  It  reads  like  a  romance  and  we  know  our 
readers  will  appreciate  it.  During  his  stay  in  London  he 
was  painfully  embarrassed,  because  his  bill  of  exchange, 
owing  to  some  informal  item,  could  not  be  negotiated,  and 
for  some  days  he  was  without  funds  and  much  distressed. 
After  describing  his  forlorn  condition  and  deep  despon- 
dency, he  thus  proceeds  in  a  letter  to  the  Lutheran  Intelli- 
gencer, of  June,  1826: 

"  One  morning,  after  having  made  my  breakfast  on  a 
bowl  of  water  and  a  small  slice  of  dry  bread,  I  took  my  hat 
and  sallied  forth  into  the  street,  and,  without  having  any 
particular  object  in  view,  strolled  about  from  street  to  street 
until  I  lost  myself;  but  He  who  has  numbered  the  hairs  of 
our  head  directed  my  steps.  I  was  wandering  in  Bishops- 
gate  street  when  I  observed  crowds  of  people  issuing  from 
different  quarters  and  entering  a  large  building  called  the 
'  City  of  London  Tavern.'  Perceiving  a  young  gentleman 
and  lady  walking  arm  in-arm  towards  the  tavern,  I  was  em- 
boldened, by  the  mildness  and  sweetness  of  their  counte- 
nances, to  inquire  into  the  cause  of  the  meeting,  and  was 
told,  in  the  most  friendly  manner,  that  the  great  '  Sunday- 
School  Union  '  was  to  hold  its  anniversary,  and  that  there 
would  be  many  interesting  speeches  delivered.  My  mind 
was  for  a  moment  diverted  from  the  gloomy  subject  that 
had  been  harrassing  it,  and  I  immediately  resolved  to  attend 
the  meeting.  But  the  house  was  crowded  to  overflowing, 
and  I  could  get  no  farther  than  the  door.  After  many 
fruitless  attempts  to  gain  admission,  I  resolved  to  withdraw, 
when  that  moment  I  espied  a  gentleman  with  a  long  staff 
in  his  hand  and  wearing  a  mark  of  authority  upon  his  hat. 
I  beckoned  to  him,  and,  telling  him  I  was  a  minister  of  the 
gospel  just  arrived  from  North  America,  begged  him  to  try 


and  procure  a  seat  for  me.  He  kindly  interfered,  and 
obtained  a  place  for  me  on  the  platform  which  had  been 
prepared  for  the  accommodation  of  those  who  were  to 
address  the  assembly. 

"  Here  were  about  forty  or  fifty  clergymen,  a  number 
of  missionaries  from  different  parts  of  the  world,  as  well  as 
nobility  and  members  of  the  House  of  Parliament.  I  had 
not  been  here  long  before  I  was  solicited  to  offer  a  resolu- 
tion and  support  it  with  a  speech.  I  declined,  upon  the 
ground  of  being  entirely  unprepared,  and  having  come  only 
with  a  view  of  being  a  spectator,  etc.;  but  it  was  all  to  no 
purpose.  I  must  rise  and  say  something,  and  if  it  were 
only  a  few  words  on  the  state  of  the  church  and  of  Sunday- 
schools  in  the  United  States.  Finally,  after  much  persua- 
sion, I  consented,  and,  though  I  had  not  one  distinct  idea 
arranged  in  my  mind  when  I  rose  to  speak,  yet  my  tongue 
seemed  to  be  suddenly  loosed,  and  I  was  blessed  with  a 
train  of  thought  and  flow  of  feeling  and  freedom  of  language 
which  altogether  astonished  myself  I  had  not  spoken  five 
minutes  until  an  hundred  voices  exclaimed,  hear  him  !  hear 
him  !  hear  him!  and  then  again  there  was  such  a  clapping 
of  hands  and  stamping  of  feet  that  I  was  several  times 
obliged  to  be  silent  until  the  bursts  of  applause  had  sub- 
sided. It  is  in  this  way  that  the  British  teach  and  constrain 
their  citizens,  especially  those  who  are  young  and  timid,  to 
become  public  and  extemporaneous  speakers.  If  they  hear 
a  smgle  good  idea  they  will  give  the  speaker  credit  for  it 
the  moment  it  is  uttered  by  a  loud  expression  of  their  appro- 
bation. If  they  perceive  him  to  be  embarrassed  they  will 
immediately  come  to  his  aid,  and  kindly  relieve  him  by 
applauding  his  attempt.  If  he  acquits  himself  well  the  very 
welkin  re-echoes  their  shouts.  This,  indeed,  renders  their 
public  meetings  boisterous,  but  also  more  diversified  and 
less  tedious  than  ours.     And  hence  a  British  audience  will 


sit  from  6  o'clock  in  the  morning  till  3  p.  m.,  hearing  and 
applauding  public  orators,  without  once  manifesting  a  symp- 
tom of  fatigue.  And,  whilst  Americans  would  be  gaping 
and  yawning  and  sleeping,  they  will  be  acclaiming  and 
cheering  the  orator ;  so  that  if  he  have  one  solitary  latent 
spark  of  eloquence  in  his  soul  it  will  thus  be  called  into 
action.  When  the  gospel,  however,  is  preached,  they  do 
not  allow  themselves  such  liberties,  but  observe  the  most 
respectful  silence  and  solemnity.  But  I  must  return  to  my 
narrative.  After  the  meeting  was  over  a  gentleman  of 
respectable  appearance  approached  me,  and,  laying  his  hand 
on  my  shoulder,  said,  in  a  most  friendly  manner,  '  My 
brother,  will  you  have  the  goodness,  in  your  way  home,  to 
call  at  the  house  of  Mr.  S.,  in  Cheapside,  No.  2  ?  "  "I  pre- 
sume, sir,"  said  I,  "  you  are  under  a  mistake.  There  is  no 
acquaintance  whatever  between  Mr.  S.  and  myself  I  am  a 
stranger  and  know  nobody.  Probably  it  is  some  other  per- 
son whom  Mr.  S.  is  desirous  to  see."  "  Is  your  name  Mr. 
Kurtz,  and  are  you  from  the  United  States  ?  "  "  Yes,  sir, 
you  have  mentioned  my  name  and  my  country."  "  Then, 
sir,"  continued  he,  "  you  are  the  person  whom  Mr.  S.  is 
desirous  to  see."  I  immediately  repaired  to  Cheapside,  and 
entered  the  house  of  Mr.  S.  I  was  conducted  up  stairs  into 
a  splendid  drawing  room,  where  I  beheld  a  gentleman 
seated  on  a  magnificent  sofa,  and  engaged  in  reading  a  book. 
Here  the  following  dialogue  ensued  : 

"  Myself.  I  have  taken  the  liberty,  sir,  to  call  on  you  at 
the  request  of  a  gentleman  who  is  a  stranger  to  me.  I  am 
apprehensive  there  must  be  a  mistake  ;  I  beg  you  to  pardon 
me  if  I  am  an  intruder. 

"  Mr.  S.  I  am  extremely  happy  to  see  you,  sir ;  my 
name  is  S.     Will  you  do  me  the  favor  to  be  seated  ? 

"  Self.  With  pleasure,  sir.  It  appears  then  my  visit  is 
not  the  result  of  a  misunderstanding? 

INVITATION   FROM    MR.    S.  211 

"  Mr.  S.  By  no  means.  I  was  very  anxious  to  torm 
an  acquaintance  with  you  ;  I  beg  you  to  forgive  me  for  pre- 
suming so  much  on  your  goodness  as  to  ask  the  favor  of  a 
visit.  I  attended  the  anniversary  of  the  '  Sunday-School 
Union  '  to  day,  heard  you  deliver  a  speech  there,  and  was 
delighted  to  find  that  you  entertain  the  very  same  views 
on  the  subjects  that  I  do.  This  was  the  more  gratifying  as 
we  are  inhabitants  of  different  hemispheres,  and  live  at  least 
one  thousand  leagues  from  one  another.  If  you  had 
spoken  from  the  very  impressions  resting  on  my  mind  you 
could  not  have  more  entirely  given  utterance  to  my  ideas. 

"  Self.  Sir,  it  affords  me  much  pleasure  to  learn  that 
we  coincide  in  the  views  which  I  endeavored  to  express  at 
the  meeting  to-day. 

"  Mr.  S.  I  understood  with  the  sincerest  regret  that 
your  bill  of  exchange  has  been  protested,  and  I  can  well 
imagine  how  unpleasant  the  situation  of  a  gentleman  in  a 
strange  land,  and  in  an  expensive  city,  under  such  circum- 
stances, must  be.  I  beg  you  to  do  me  the  favor  of  accept- 
ing this  (holding  out  to  me  a  handful  of  gold)  as  a  small 
evidence  of  my  gratitude  for  the  delight  your  excellent 
speech  afforded  me. 

"  Se//.  My  dear  sir,  you  are  too  kind.  My  bill  has 
indeed  been  protested,  but  I  still  indulge  the  hope  that  it 
may  yet  be  redeemed ;  and,  in  such  an  event,  I  should  have 
to  reproach  myself  for  having  received  a  present  upon  the 
mere  supposition  that  my  money  had  been  lost. 

"  Mr.  S.  I  wish  most  ardently  you  may  not  be  disap- 
pointed in  your  hope ;  the  times,  however,  are  precarious, 
the  issue  is  doubtful,  and  I  entreat  you  to  accept  this  small 
sum  not  as  a  present,  but  as  a  well  merited  reward, 

"  Se/f.  Your  disinterested  benevolence  quite  over- 
comes me,  yet  it  would  not  consist  with  my  principles, 
under  existing  circumstances,  to  take  advantage  of  it.     But, 


as  I  am  almost  out  of  money,  I  would  thankfully  accept  of 
your  offer  as  a  loan,  and  will  pledge  you  my  word  as  a 
Christian  that  it  shall  be  honestly  refunded  to  you. 

"  Mr.  S.  I  cannot  lend  you  this  money  ;  but  as  I  have 
also  been  informed  that  the  object  of  your  tour  is  to  solicit 
donations  for  a  Theological  Seminary,  and  as  I  cordially 
approve  of  such  institutions,  and  consider  it  the  solemn 
duty  of  every  Christian  to  support  them  to  the  utmost  of 
his  ability,  you  surely  cannot  object  to  receiving  this  trifling 
sum  as  my  contribution. 

"  Self.  Sir,  I  receive  it  with  gratitude,  and  tender  you 
the  thanks  of  the  church,  whose  agent  I  am. 

"  In  the  mean  time  a  neatly  dressed  little  man  had 
made  his  appearance,  and  commenced  taking  my  measure 
for  a  suit  of  clothes.  Mr.  S.  hoped  I  would  not  object  to 
this  measure,  and  insisted  on  my  submitting  without  saying 
a  word.  Having  received  an  invitation  to  dine  with  Mr 
S.  next  day,  I  departed,  praising  God  and  rejoicing  on  my 

"  The  next  day  I  dined  with  him,  and  was  treated  by  his 
pious  and  amiable  family  with  every  mark  of  attention  and 
affection.  In  the  course  of  the  same  day  he  sent  me  a  fine 
and  full  suit  of  black  clothes,  which  at  that  time  my  ward- 
robe loudly  called  for.  During  the  residue  of  my  stay  in 
London  I  often  visited  and  dined  at  the  house  of  this  gen- 
tleman, and  spent  some  of  my  happiest  hours  with  his 

"  My  purse  being  now  replenished,  I  immediately  set- 
tled my  account  at  my  boarding  house  and  paid  off  several 
other  small  debts  I  had  contracted,  and  still  had  six  or 
seven  guineas  *  left.  I  now  bade  adieu  to  the  dismal  gar- 
ret, and  took  boarding  in  a  more  comfortable  house.     Not 

A  guinea  is  worth  about  five  dollars  of  our  currencj', 



long  afterwards  Dr.  Steinkopff  returned  rather  unexpectedly, 
and  from  this  time  forward  my  prospects  became  brighter 
from  day  to  day.  But  I  have  carried  out  my  letter  to  a 
tedious  length,  and  I  will,  therefore,  forbear  for  the  present. 
"  I  will  only  yet  add,  that  when  in  Kiel,  about  six 
weeks  afterwards,  I  received  a  letter  from  the  excellent  and 
amiable  Mr.  Jackson,  Secretary  of  the  British  and  Foreign 
Bible  Society,  communicating  the  agreeable  intelligence 
that  my  bill  of  exchange  had  been  honored,  and  that  the 
money  was  in  his  hands,  subject  to  my  order?." 

214  ORIGIN  OF   PA.    COI.I,EGE. 


pennsylvania  college. 

Origin  of  the  college — no  Lutheran  college  at  that 
time — lutheran  majority  in  the  board  of  trustees 
not  sectarian,  but  under  lutheran  control — ger- 
man   professorship — thaddeus   stevens — donations 


ER's      ACCOUNT — DR.      DIEHL's      EULOGY ARTICLES     OF 


The  origin  of  the  Pennsylvania  College  is  marked  by  a 
relation  very  peculiar.  Among  the  educational  institutions 
of  our  country,  there  are  numerous  instances  in  which  the 
work  of  a  college  has  led  to  the  organization  of  a  theologi- 
cal seminary.  But  the  cases  are  very  few,  if  this  does  not 
stand  absolutely  alone,  in  which  the  order  has  been  reversed, 
and  a  theological  school  has  led  to  the  founding  of  a  col- 
lege. However  distinctly  separate  they  became  in  their 
corporate  capacity,  the  two  institutions  sprang  up  on  the 
same  spot,  the  instruction  and  exercises  of  the  Seminary 
and  the  Gymnasium  being  conducted  in  the  same  building, 
till  the  lormer  moved  into  its  new  edifice  in  the  fall  of  1832. 
But  both  the  Preparatory  School  and  the  College  arose 
out  of  the  operations  of  the  Seminary,  and  the  leading  en- 
terprise and  purpose  of  those  who  were  working  in  it,  or 
with  it. 

At  the  time  of  the  organization  of  this  institution  there 
was  no  college  in   the  state  of  Pennsylvania, — nor  in  the 

.  College  Church.      2.     Astronomical  Observatory.      3.  Dormitory. 
4.  Gymnasium.  5.  Preparatory  Department. 

FOUNDING    OF    PA.   COI^tEGK.  215 

United  States  of  North  America — under  the  auspices  of  the 
Lutheran  Church.  There  was  a  wide  field  for  the  work 
of  an  institution  for  the  higher  education  in  this  connection, 
and  the  organization  of  Pennsylvania  College  was  called  for 
by  a  large  need,  and  the  most  inviting  prospect  of  success. 
The  prospect  seemed  at  that  time  so  encouraging  as  to 
induce  the  editor  of  the  Lutheran  Observer,  Dr.  B.  Kurtz,  to 
exclaim,  "  We  expect  in  a  very  short  time  to  see  Gettys- 
burg the  Cambridge  of  Pennsylvania,  with  its  academic 
halls  crowded  with  orderly  and  diligent  students."  As  was 
natural  under  the  circumstances,  and  included  in  its  design, 
the  control  or  management  of  it  was  given  to  a  Board  of 
Trustees,  a  majority  of  whom  were  Lutherans.  But  though 
the  institution  was  established  under  the  auspices  of  the 
Lutheran  Church,  no  religious  condition  is  connected  with 
the  position  of  Patron  or  Trustee,  the  charter  declaring, 
"  At  elections  for  patrons  or  trustees,  or  other  officers,  and 
in  the  reception  of  pupils,  no  person  shall  be  rejected  on 
account  of  his  conscientious  persuasion  in  matters  of  relig- 
ion, provided  he  shall  demean  himself  in  a  sober  manner, 
and  conform  to  the  rules  and  regulations  of  the  College." 
The  institution  is  therefore  non-sectarian,  as  are  most 
American  colleges,  established  under  church  auspices,  the 
denominational  relation  expressing  only  the  fact,  that  the  col- 
lege has  been  organized  and  is  carried  on  under  the  special 
patronage  of  the  Lutheran  Church,  and  for  the  purpose  of 
bearing  part  in  the  work  of  the  higher  Christian  education. 

No  restriction  is  imposed  by  the  charter  in  any  v/ay 
limiting  the  selection  of  Trustees  to  residents  of  the  State, 
and  from  the  first  a  considerable  number  have  been  from 
beyond  its  bounds.  No  control  of  the  institution  is  in  any 
way  exercised  by  the  State,  or  by  any  authority  outside  of 
the  Board  of  Trustees. 

As  to  instruction  in  particular  studies,  the  act  of  incor- 


poration  contains  but  a  single  special  requirement.  This  is,, 
that  in  addition  to  the  customary  professorships  in  other 
colleges,  "  there  shall  be  in  this  institution  a  German  Pro- 
fessorship, the  incumbent  of  which  shall,  in  addition  to  such 
other  duties  as  may  be  assigned  him  by  the  Board,  instruct 
such  young  men  as  may  resort  to  the  institution  for  the 
purpose  of  becoming  qualified  to  be  teachers  of  those 
schools  in  which  both  German  and  English  are  to  be 

Pennsylvania  College  was  founded  without  any  public 
grants  of  money,  lands,  or  other  property,  depending  on 
the  personal  contributions  of  its  patrons  and  friends,  and 
the  encouragement  and  aid  expected  from  the  Church 
under  whose  auspices  it  was  established.  Subsequently, 
however,  on  application  of  the  Board  of  Trustees,  and 
chiefly  through  the  disinterested  and  earnest  exertions  of 
Hon.  Thaddeus  Stevens,  then  a  representative  of  Adams 
County  in  the  State  legislature,  with  the  co  operation  of 
other  friends  of  education,  an  appropriation  of  ^18,000  was 
obtained  for  the  institution  from  the  State.  The  act  of 
appropriation,  bearing  the  signature  of  Governor  Wolfe, 
Feb.  6,  1834,  granted  the  College  ^$3,000  in  June,  1834,  and 
^3,000  annually  thereafter  for  five  years — on  several  condi- 
tions :  /7rj/,  that  the  first  ;^3,ooo  should  be  applied  exclu- 
sively to  the  purchase  of  a  site  and  the  erection  of  a  build- 
ing ;  Second,  that  the  Trustees  should  cause  gratuitous 
instruction  to  be  given  to  fifteen  young  men  annually,  (if  that 
number  should  apply  from  this  commonwealth,)  in  the  ele- 
mentary branches  of  an  English  education,  in  such  manner 
as  the  Trustees  should  deem  best  calculated  to  qualify  them 
for  teachers  of  common  schools  ;  and  Third,  that  the  Trus- 
tees should,  on  or  before  the  first  Monday  of  the  following 
June,  give  security  to  the  commonwealth,  to  the  satisfaction 
of  the  Governor,  to  raise  and  appropriate  a  like  sum  to  the 


same  object  from  other  sources.     The  conditions  were  com- 
plied with. 

By  this  aid  and  under  an  economical  and  vigorous 
management  by  the  Board,  as  well  as  through  the  careful 
and  thorough  educational  work  of  the  faculty,  the  institu- 
tion rapidly  attained  prosperity  and  honorable  standing 
among  the  colleges  of  the  State.  Later  additional  aid  was 
received  from  the  State  under  the  provisions  of  an  act  of  the 
legislature,  approved  April  12,  1838.  "  To  encourage  the 
arts  and  sciences,  promote  the  teaching  of  useful  knowl- 
edge, and  support  the  Colleges,  Academies  and  Female 
Seminaries  "  within  the  Commonwealth,  an  appropriation  of 
;^  1,000  annually,  for  ten  years,  was  made  to  each  of  the 
Colleges  and  Universities,  and  smaller  sums  to  institutions 
of  inferior  grade.  This  yearly  grant  was  enjoyed  by  the 
College,  in  common  with  others  of  the  State,  for  seven 
years,  the  last  annual  appropriation  being  reduced  one- 
half  by  the  act  which  repealed  the  law. 

The  following  account  of  the  founding  of  Pennsylvania 
College  was  recently  found  in  manuscript  in  the  Historical 
Library  of  the  Theological  Seminary.  It  appears  to  have 
been  composed  by  Dr.  Schmucker,  and  used  in  a  lecture  on 
the  History  of  Pennsylvania  College,  by  Leigh  Baugher, 
brother  of  Prof.  H.  L.  Baugher,  D.  D.,  and  Principal  of  a 
classical  school  in  Hanover,  Pa.  It  gives  the  most  detailed , 
and  yet  precise  history  of  the  College  and  will  be  interest- 
ing to  the  readers,  although  it  contains  some  repetitions  of 
what  has  already  been  written  above.  It  was  furnished  by 
Prof.  Richard  to  the  College  Mercury,  from  which  we  copy  : 


"  This  institution  grew  out  of  the  Gymnasium,  and 
that  out  of  the  Classical  Department  of  the  Theological 
Seminary  at    Gettysburg.     This    Seminary  was  established 


by  resolutions  of  the  General  Synod  of  the  Lutheran 
Church  in  the  United  States,  convened  at  Fredericktown, 
Md.,  Nov.  8,  1825,  at  which  time  Dr.  S.  S.  Schmucker  was 
elected  its  first  professor.  It  went  into  operation  Sept.  5, 
1826.  From  the  commencement  of  its  operations  the  pro- 
fessors found  the  classical  attainments  of  some  of  the  stu- 
dents inadequate,  as  a  necessary  preparation  for  an  elevated 
course  of  theological  study.  Accordingly,  at  the  close  of 
the  first  session,  May  15,  1827,  the  professor  called  the 
attention  of  the  Board  of  the  Seminary  to  this  fact,  and 
made  such  statements  as  induced  them  to  *  resolve  them- 
selves into  an  association  to  establish  a  classical  school,  as 
highly  conducive  to  the  welfare  of  the  Seminary,'  and  to 
provide  '  that  their  successors  in  the  Theological  Board 
should  be  their  successors  in  the  management  of  said  Clas- 
sical School.' 

"  They  also  '  appointed  Professor  Schmucker  and  Rev. 
Herbst,  as  a  committee  to  make  the  necessary  arrange- 
ments ;  and  if  it  shall  appear  that  the  income  of  such  a 
school  would  defray  the  attendant  expenses,  to  carry  these 
resolutions  into  effect.*  Accordingly  this  committee  ap- 
pointed Mr.  David  Jacobs,  A.  B.,  one  of  the  students  of  the 
Seminary,  as  teacher  of  the  Classical  School,  and  it  went 
into  operation  with  gradually  improving  prospects.  Soon 
after,  the  County  Academy,  in  which  the  instructions  of  the 
Seminary  and  Classical  School  were  conducted,  was  to  be 
sold  by  the  sheriff  for  debt.  Prof.  Schmucker,  regarding 
this  as  a  suitable  opportunity  of  procuring  at  a  cheap  rate  a 
permanent  building  for  the  Classical  School,  consulted  with 
the  principal  citizens  of  the  place,  and  proposed,  that  as  a 
good  classical  school  is  an  object  of  importance  to  the  liter- 
ary and  pecuniary  interests  of  the  town,  to  buy  the  Aca- 
demy at  the  amount  of  the  debt,  if  they  would  not  bid  it  up, 
and  obligated  himself  to  apply  it  only  to  literary  purposes, 


and  if  the  school  should  be  abandoned,  to  give  them  the 
offer  of  the  property  again.  To  this  they  assented,  and  the 
parties  entered  into  a  written  contract,  dated  Aug.  14,  1829. 
Accordingly,  Prof  Schmucker  bought  the  building  on  his 
own  responsibility,  at  ^1,100. 

"Desirous  of  enlisting  the  interest  of  Lutheran  minis- 
ters generally,  and  of  affording  them  some  advantages  in 
the  education  of  their  sons,  Prof  Schmucker  resolved  to 
form  a  distinct  association,  and  divide  the  price  of  the  build- 
ing, ^1,100,  into  stock  of  $50  per  share,  and  sell  it  to  his 
ministerial  brethren.  By  the  articles  of  association,  the 
election  of  teachers  and  regulation  of  the  plan  of  studies 
and  discipline  were  confided  to  the  professors  and  directors 
of  the  Theological  Seminary,  and  the  fiscal  concerns  of  the 
association,  the  price  of  tuition,  rent  of  rooms  to  the  Theo- 
logical Seminary  ;  declaring  dividends,  if  any,  on  the  stock, 
were  confided  to  a  Board  of  Trustees  elected  by  the  stock- 
holders from  among  their  own  number. 

"  After  the  adoption  of  this  plan,  Prof  Schmucker,  on 
behalf  of  the  trustees  of  this  association,  which  he  termed 
Gettysburg  Gymnasium,  prepared  and  published  a  circular, 
over  his  own  signature,  describing  and  recommending  the 
school,  and  stating,  '  It  is  under  the  immediate  care  of  sev- 
eral very  excellent  and  well  qualified  teachers,  and  under 
the  general  superintendence  of  Professor  Schmucker.'  The 
teachers  ar  this  time  were  Rev.  David  Jacobs,  A.  M.,  and 
Mr.  M.  Jacobs,  A.  B.,  who  was  appointed  in  April,  1829. 
The  stockholders,  who  were  all  Lutheran  ministers  from 
three  or  four  States,  had  the  privilege  of  gratuious  tuition 
for  their  sons.  The  results  of  this  arrangement  were  very 
favorable.  The  number  of  students  rapidly  increased.  In 
the  fall  of  1830,  Nov.  4,  the  older  teacher,  Rev.  D.  Jacobs, 
departed  this  life,  much  regretted  by  all  who  knew  him, 
and   especially   by  the    friends    of  the  school.     The  Rev, 


Henry  L.  Baugher,  A.  M.,  was  selected  to  supply  his  place 
in  April,  1831.  From  that  time  these  two  gentlemen,  Drs. 
Baugher  and  Jacobs,  have  devoted  themselves  to  the  inter- 
ests of  this  institution  with  the  most  gratifying  success. 

'■'  As  the  number  of  students  had  rapidly  increased,  and 
it  had  long  been  the  desire  of  Prof  Schmucker  and  of  many 
other  friends  of  the  Lutheran  Church,  to  have  not  only  a 
Theological  Seminary,  but  also  a  literary  institution  of  the 
highest  class,  he  resolved  on  making  the  effort  to  elevate 
the  Gymnasium  into  a  College  by  legislative  action.  Ac- 
cordingly, he  called  a  meeting  of  a  half-dozen  of  the  princi- 
pal citizens  of  different  denominations  at  the  Bank  in  town, 
and  invited  their  co-operation  in  the  effort  to  obtain  a  char- 
ter from  the  Legislature  for  a  college.  He  informed  them 
that  the  college  he  aimed  at  tvas  to  be  un-sectarian  in  its 
instructions,  but  at  the  same  time  to  be  prevailingly  under 
Lutheran  influence  and  control.  The  proposition  of  Dr. 
Schmucker  was  cordially  received,  and  General  T.  C.  Mil- 
ler was  appointed  to  accompany  him  to  Harrisburg  for  the 
proposed  purpose.  Here  Dr.  Schmucker  spent  several 
weeks,  on  his  own  expense,  in  bringing  the  merits  of  the 
case  before  the  individual  members  of  the  Legislature.  By 
the  aid  of  Gov.  Wolfe,  the  distinguished  friend  of  popular 
education,  he  also  obtained  permission  of  the  House  to 
address  them  in  the  Representative  Hall,  on  the  claims  of 
the  Germans  in  Pennsylvania  to  legislative  sanction  in  the 
establishment  of  a  college  for  the  education  of  their  Angli- 
cised descendants.  The  earlier  history  of  the  Germanic 
nations  in  Europe  was  briefly  sketched,  and  the  patriotism, 
the  integrity  and  industry  of  the  Germans  in  our  own  State 
was  presented  in  detail.  The  Hall  was  crowded  by  the 
members  of  Legislature,  the  Governor,  and  the  heads  of 
departments,  as  well  as  others  of  the  most  intelligent  citi- 
zens of  Harrisburg. 

FACUIvTY   completed.  221 

"  Dr.  Schmucker  also  had  petitions  in  behalf  of  his 
object  printed  at  his  own  expense  and  addressed  to  some 
influential  Lutheran  minister  or  other  friend,  in  about  thirty 
counties  of  the  State,  requesting  them  to  procure  signatures 
belonging  to  both  parties,  and  forward  the  petitions  to  the 
representatives  of  their  county  in  the  Legislature.  He  then 
drew  up  a  charter  for  the  new  college,  which  was  reported 
in  the  House,  and  in  due  time  enacted  into  a  law.  Accord- 
ingly a  charter  was  obtained  in  April.  1832,  erecting  Get- 
tysburg Gymnasium  into  a  College,  under  the  style  and 
title  of  "  Pennsylvania  College  at  Gettysburg,"  with  all  the 
powers  and  immunities  usually  conferred  on  similar  insti- 
tutions. As  the  funds  were  utterly  inadequate  to  support 
a  full  faculty,  being  nothing  more  than  the  proceeds  of  tui- 
tion, the  Trustees  requested  Drs.  Schmucker  and  Hazelius 
to  give  some  instruction  gratuitously  for  one  year  in  addi- 
tion to  their  duties  in  the  Theological  Seminary,  to  which 
they  consented.  The  Rev.  J.  H.  Marsden,  principal  of  the 
Female  Seminary  of  the  town,  was  engaged  to  devote  a  few 
hours  in  College  to  Mineralogy  and  Botany,  and  Professors 
Baugher  and  Jacobs  devoted  their  entire  time  to  the  Col- 
lege. Thus  organized,  the  Faculty  stood  thus :  Dr. 
Schmucker,  Intellectual  and  Moral  Science  ;  Dr.  Hazelius, 
Latin  Language  and  German  Literature ;  Prof  Baugher, 
A.  M.,  Greek  Language  and  Belles  Lettres ;  Prof  Jacobs, 
A.  M.,  Natural  Philosophy,  Chemistry  and  Mathematics  ; 
Prof  Marsden,  A.  M.,  Mineralogy  and  Botany. 

"The  prospects  of  our  College  were  now  decidedly 
encouraging.  What  was  most  needed  was  funds,  to  enable 
the  Trustees  to  erect  a  comfortable  edifice,  and  to  employ 
the  entire  time  of  additional  professors,  the  chief  burden  of 
instruction  having  rested  on  Professors  Baugher  and  Jacobs, 
both  well  quahfied  for  their  positions.  At  the  request  of  a 
number  of  the  friends  of  the  College,  Dr.  Schmucker  again 

OPPOSITION  overcome;. 

repaired  to  Harrisburg  in  1833-4  for  the  purpose  of  obtain- 
ing an  appropriation.  In  all  their  efforts  to  promote  the 
establishment  of  this  College,  the  friends  of  the  institution 
had  to  contend  against  a  strong  and  influential  party  at 
home,  whose  organ  was  the  Compiler,  one  of  the  county 
papers.  Even  one  of  our  own  Representatives  in  the  Leg- 
islature (Mr.  Patterson)  spoke  and  voted  against  our  appli- 
cation on  the  ground  of  opposition  to  all  legislative  aid  to 
Colleges.  Dr.  Schmucker  therefore  drew  up  an  '  Address 
to  the  Citizens  of  Adams  Co.,'  and  in  conjunction  with  the 
signatures  of  seven  other  resident  Trustees,  published  it  in 
the  other  papers  of  the  County,  Nov,  8,  1833.  Its  object  is 
to  demonstrate  that  the  College  is  not  only  a  literary  bene- 
fit to  the  County,  but  especially  a  source  of  large  pecuniary 
gain  to  the  citizens  of  all  professions  and  that  all  should 
therefore  favor  an  application  to  the  Legislature  for  pecun- 
iary aid.  In  the  Legislature  itself  our  cause  was  most  ably 
advocated  by  our  other  Representative,  Thaddeus  Stevens^ 
Esq.,  the  distinguished  champion  of  the  free  school  system 
of  Pennsylvania,  and  of  education  in  every  form. 

"  The  funds  for  the  Franklin  Professorship  were 
obtained  with  considerable  difificulty.  When  Dr.  Schmucker 
and  Rev.  B.  Keller  arrived  at  Lancaster  in  185 1  to  attend 
as  Lutheran  Trustees  the  meeting  of  the  Board,  it  was 
found  that  our  Reformed  brethren  had  been  actively 
engaged  through  their  agent.  Rev.  Bucher,  Sen.,  in  persuad- 
ing the  Lutheran  Trustees  of  Lancaster  City  to  assent  to  an- 
arrangement  by  which  the  entire  funds  of  Franklin  College 
should  be  united  with  those  of  Marshall  College  and  be 
controlled  by  that  corporation,  there  being  one  Lutheran 
Professorship  established  in  the  institution.  To  this  all  the 
Trustees  had  assented  except  Dr.  Baker.  And  it  was  only 
after  much  effort  that  Dr.  Schmucker  and  Rev.  Keller  per- 
suaded the  Lutheran  Trustees   to  abandon  that  plan  and 


agree  to  the  transfer  of  the  Lutheran  Professorship  to  Penn- 
sylvania College  in  Gettysburg,  by  giving  us  one-third  of 
the  funds  of  Franklin  College.  Dr.  Schmucker  drew  up 
the  articles  of  agreement  which,  being  sanctioned  by  legis- 
lative action,  effected  this  desirable  end." 

Rev.  B.  M.  Schmucker,  D.  D,,  concludes  a  short 
sketch  on  "  The  Beginning  of  the  College,"  from  which  we 
copy  the  following  :  "  Until  this  time  the  Institution  had 
depended  on  its  tuition  fees  for  support,  and  its  income  was 
very  limited.  The  salaries  in  the  time  of  the  Academy  and 
Gymnasium  were  but  ^400,  '  if  the  income  allowed.'  The 
increase  of  students  made  enlarged  buildings  necessary.  It 
was  decided  to  seek  aid  from  the  Legislature.  Prof. 
Schmucker  again  went  to  Harrisburg,  and  entered  with 
vigor  into  the  contest  before  the  Legislature,  Other  col- 
leges were  pressing  their  claims,  Dickinson,  which  had 
already  received  over  $60,000,  Washington,  which  had  got- 
ten ^16,500,  and  5000  acres  of  land,  Jefferson  with  $20,000 
before,  Allegheny  with  $9,000  before,  and  especially 
Lafayette,  which  had  receivad  nothing  as  yet,  were  urging 
their  claims.  It  was  a  stirring  contest,  and  the  representa- 
tives of  Pennsylvania  College  did  not  allow  its  interest  to 
suffer.  By  the  aid  of  many  friends,  prominently  Hon. 
Thaddeus  Stevens,  an  appropriation  of  $3,000  a  year  for 
five  years,  was  granted  to  begin  with  June  1834.  It  was 
decided,  with  the  encouragement  this  aid  afforded,  to  en- 
large the  faculty,  and  give  form  to  the  Institution  by  the 
election  of  a  president.  Professor  C.  P.  Krauth  was  chosen 
at  the  spring  meeting  of  the  trustees  in  1834.  Thus  ended 
the  unofficial,  but  real  presidency  of  Prof  S.  S.  Schmucker, 
and  Pennsylvania  College  entered  on  the  ever-widening 
sphere  of  honorable  and  useful  work,  for  which  he  had 
done  so  much  to  prepare  the  way." 



Wednesday,  Sept.  17,  1834. 

Music By  the  Euterpian  Band. 

Prayer By  President  Krauth, 

Latin  Salutatory  .  By  William  Smith  of  Georgetown,  D.  C. 
Oration  on  Greek  Language  and  Literature      ,     . 

By  J.  B.  Bacon,  of  York,  Pa. 


Oration  on  "  The  Spirit  of  the  Age  " 

By  E.  Keller,  of  Middletown,  Md. 

Oration,  "  Pleasures  of  Science  " 

By  Theophilus  Stork,  of  Salisbury,  N.  C. 


Oration,  "  Fictitious  Writings  " 

By  M.  G.  Dale,  of  Lancaster,  Pa. 

Valedictory By  D.  G.  Barnitz,  of  York,  Pa. 

Solo By  Mr.  Heerbrueger. 

Conferring  of  Degrees  and  Baccalaureate  Address 

By  The  President. 

Dr.  Diehl  writes  the  following  eulogy  on  Dr. 
Schmucker's  work  in  establishing  the  Seminary  and  Col- 

"  Thus  we  see  that  in  many  ways,  did  Dr.  Schmucker 
aid  in  establishing  and  building  up  the  institutions,  by  giving 
his  time,  talents,  money  and  counsel ;  by  teaching,  by  travel- 
ing, by  pleading  the  cause  before  legislative  bodies,  by  meeting 
another  board,  and  the  Synod  of  another  denomination  ;  by 
visiting  cities  and  delivering  persuasive  discourses  before 
rich    Presbyterians    and  Congregationalists ;    by   securing 

Keller,  Stork  and  Dale,  were  Juniors  at  this  time. 


students ;  by  organizing  various  projects;  using  all  his 
power  and  influence  to  secure  their  prosperity.  Forty 
years  of  his  active  life  were' given  to  the  Seminary.  And 
when  he  retired  from  the  chair  he  had  filled  so  long  and  so 
well,  his  heart  lost  none  of  its  devotion  to  her  welfare.  No 
truerfriend  to  the  Lutheran  Church, and  her  first  Seminary, 
than  Dr.  Schmucker,  will  ever  rise  up.  No  more  untiring 
and  self-sacrificing  labors  will  ever  be  given  to  them. 
Those  institutions  may  grow,  and  attain  the  highest  pros- 
perity. Noble  architectural  structures  may  rise  around  the 
substantial,  plain  buildings,  he,  more  than  any  others, 
helped  to  rear.  Opulent  friends  may  contribute  their 
hundreds  of  thousands.  Faculties  and  students,  ten  times 
in  number  of  what  he  saw,  may  fill  thoce  halls.  But  the 
name  of  Samuel  S.  Schmucker  will  ever  stand  first,  and 
bright  as  any  other,  on  the  roll  of  the  friends  of  those 

The  latter  part  of  the  above  paragraph  sounds  almost 
like  an  inspired  prophecy,  which  has  been  literally  fulfilled. 
Noble  structures  have  been  reared ;  opulent  friends  have 
contributed  hundreds  of  thousands,  faculties  and  students, 
tentimcsthenumberarefilHngthosehalls.  In  addition  to  the 
first  Seminary  building,  four  professors' dwelling  houses  have 
been  erected,  a  splendid  new  Seminary  building  has  been  con- 
structed and  the  old  building  renovated  and  reconstructed 
and  an  endowment  fund  of  over  ^100,000  secured.  The 
same  course  of  development  has  also  taken  place  in  the 
history  of  the  College.  In  addition  to  the  old  College  build- 
ing the  following  structures  have  been  erected,  Linean 
Hall,  preparatory  building,  a  gymnasium,  an  observatory, 
a  magnificent  new  college  building,  a  magnificent  chapel 
or  church  building,  a  president's  dwelling  and  two  profes- 
sors' houses,  with  an  endowment  fund  of  about  ^100,000. 
The  value  of  the  real  estate  and  endowments   which   the 

226  of  agreement. 

Lutheran  Church  of  the  General  Synod  controls  in  Gettys- 
burg cannot  be  short  of  half  a  million  dollars.  Truly  the 
Lord  hath  done  great  things  for  Zion.  To  him  be  all  the 
glory ! 

All  this  wonderful  work  was  inaugurated  and  organ- 
ized by  one  man.  Not  that  he  did  all  the  work  and 
achieved  the  success  single  handed  and  alone.  No,  he  had 
faithful  and  true  men  who  stood  by  him,  and  liberal  hearted 
and  wealthy  men  who  contributed  of  their  means  to  carry 
out  his  plans.  It  is  like  a  great  general,  who  has  organized 
his  army,  laid  out  the  plan  of  his  campaign,  and  leads  his 
soldiers  on  to  victory. 


Subservient  to  the  objects  of  the  Theological  Seminary 
at  Gettysburg,  and  for  the  establishment  of  a  fund  for  the 
purchase  of  the  Adams  County  Academy  : 

I.  The  original  stock  of  the  Association  is  to  be 

II.     Each  share  shall  be  $50.00. 

III.  The  stock  holders  shall  elect  at  their  first  meeting 
five  of  their  number  as  trustees,  who  shall  have  the  man- 
agement of  all  the  concerns  of  the  school,  with  the  build- 
ings hereafter  mentioned. 

IV.  Three  members  of  the  Board  of  Trustees  shall  con- 
stitute a  quorum. 

The  professor  and  directors  of  the  Theological  Semi- 
nary at  Gettysburg  shall  ex-ofifico,  constitute  a  committee 
to  be  styled  "  the  School  Committee." 

The  committee  shall  appoint  all  the  teachers  of  the 
institution  (including  also  the  English  teacher,  if  one  be 
employed.)  They  shall  prescribe  the  course  of  study,  dis- 
cipline and  examination  to  be  pursued. 


There  may  be  semi-annual  meetings  of  the  committee; 
viz.;  Immediately  after  the  time  appointed  for  the  Spring 
and  Fall  meetings  of  the  Board  of  Trustees. 

V.  If  at  any  time  in  the  interim  of  the  regular  meet- 
ings of  the  committee  any  measures  relating  to  the  instruc- 
tion or  discipline  of  the  institution  should  be  necessary,  the 
professors  of  the  Seminary  shall  have  power  to  act  alone  ; 
but  all  such  acts  shall  be  subject  to  revision  and  amend- 
ment at  a  regular  meeting  of  the  School  Committee. 

VI.  So  soon  as  the  salary  of  any  one  teacher  shall 
amount  to  more  than  ^400,  he  may  be  taxed  by  the  trus- 
tees for  the  use  of  the  room  occupied  by  him  to  such 
amount  as  they  may  deem  necessary,  and  consistent  with 
the  welfare  of  the  school,  not  exceeding  one  half  of  the 
surplus  of  ^400. 

VII.  The  edifice  purchased  by  the  Trustees  and  any 
others,  hereafter  acquired  by  them,  shall  in  no  instance  be 
used  for  any  purpose  not  subservient  to  the  interest  of  the 

VIII.  All  repairs  of  the  edifice  and  school  furniture  for 
the  rooms,  judged  necessary  by  the  Trustees,  shall  be  pro- 
vided by  them  at  their  expense. 

IX.  All  the  monies  received  by  the  Trustees,  shall, 
after  defraying  the  necessary  repairs  and  furniture,  be 
divided  equally  between  the  stockholders. 

X.  Yet  not  more  than  an  average  of  6  per  cent  per 
annum,  shall  at  any  time  be  divided,  and  if  the  proceeds 
exceed  that  amount,  they  shall  be  appropriated  by  the 
Trustees  to  the  enlargement  of  the  edifice  and  accommoda- 
tions or  operations  of  the  institution. 

XI.  The  children  of  original  stockholders  shall  be 
taught  gratuitously  by  the  teachers  of  the  classical  and 
scientific  department,  so  long  as  they  retain  the  stock ;  but 


should  the  Trustees  have  an  elementary  English  school  in 
its  building,  the  privilege  shall  not  extend  to  it. 

XII.  At  all  elections  each  stockholder  shall  be  entitled 
to  as  many  votes  as  he  holds  shares. 

XIII.  There  may  annually  be  two  general  meetings  of 
the  stockholders,  on  the  evening  after  the  close  of  the 
regular  seminarian  examination  of  the  students  of  the  theo- 
logical seminary.  At  these  meetings  seven  stockholders 
shall  constitute  a  quorum. 

XIV.  The  term  of  service  of  the  Trustees  shall  be  one 
year,  and  they  shall  be  always  re-eligible,  and  if  for  any 
reason  whatever,  there  is  no  election  held  at  the  expiration 
of  their  term,  they  shall  continue  in  office  until  successors 
are  elected.  And  if  at  any  time  the  seat  of  any  one  or 
more  Trustees  should  be  vacated  by  death,  or  voluntary 
resignation,  the  existing  members  of  the  Board  may  elect 
some  stockholder  as  a  successor,  who  shall  continue  in 
office  until  another  is  elected  in  his  place  at  a  general  meet- 
ing of  the  stockholders. 

XV.  The  Board  of  Trustees  shall  elect  a  President, 
Secretary  and  Treasurer,  who  shall  hold  their  offices  on  the 
conditions  mentioned  in  Section  XIV. 

XVI.  Every  stockholder  shall  have  a  right  to  transfer 
or  sell  his  stock  by  an  entry  made  on  the  book,  and  such 
transfer  shall  confer  on  the  purchaser  all  the  privileges  of 
the  regular  stockholder  ;  provided  always,  that  no  transfer 
shall  give  the  privilege  of  gratuitous  tuition  to  another 
person  in  less  than  six  years  from  the  time  ol  the  com- 
mencement of  this  association,  and  so  ever  after  no  trans- 
fer of  the  privilege  (gratuitous  tuition)  can  take  place 
oftener  than  once  in  six  years. 

XVII.  At  elections  for  Trustees  any  stockholder  may 
send  his  vote  or  votes  by  proxy ;  but  on  no  other  occasion, 
and  for  no  other  purpose  shall  votes  by  proxy  be  received. 





XVIII.  Any  alterations  in  these  articles  must  be  pro- 
posed at  our  general  meeting,  and  cannot  be  acted  on  until 
the  next  regular  general  meeting,  and  any  such  alteration 
shall  require  a  majority  of  three  fourths  of  the  votes  of  all 
the  existing  stockholders. 

XIX.  This  association  may  at  any  time  be  dissolved  by 
a  majority  of  three  fourths  of  all  the  votes  of  all  the  stock- 
holders, who  may  sell  the  property, and  divide  the  proceeds 
equally  according  to  the  number  of  shares  held  by  each 
stockholder.  Signed    by 

Samuel  S.  Schmucker, 
John  Herbst, 
Henry  G.  Stecker, 
J.  G.  Schmucker, 
J.  F.  Heyer, 
Jonathan  Ruthrauff, 
Jacob  Crigler, 
Emanuel  Keller, 
Jacob  Martin, 

J.  M.  Heim, 

Benjamin  Kurtz, 

David  F.  Schaffer, 

John  G.  Morris, 

John  Reck, 

Dr.  Schaeffer,  Philadelphia, 

C.  P.  Krauth, 

Henry  Stecker. 





Mother  synod  abandons  her  child — movement  for  reun- 
ion IN  1839  FAILED reunion  IN  1 85 3 — STRONG  OPPO- 







Dr.  Schmucker  had  been  associated  with  and  most 
deeply  interested  in  the  General  Synod  for  over  half  a  cen- 
tury. From  its  very  inception  at  Baltimore  in  1819,  until 
the  year  of  his  death  in  1874,  he  was  present  at  every 
one  of  its  meetings,  either  as  a  delegate  or  as  a  visitor. 
During  about  fifty  years  he  devoted  his  time,  his  talents, 
and  his  means  to  the  promotion  of  the  interests  of  the  Gen- 
eral Synod  and  the  theological  Seminary.  After  the 
Mother  Synod  had  abandoned  the  General  Synod — the 
child  which  she  had  brought  into  being,— and  it  was  generally 

re-un:on  of  pa.  synod  with  gen.  synod.  23 r 

supposed  it  must  inevitably  go  into  callapse,  he  by  almost 
superhuman  effort  rescued  it  from  destruction.  The  orig- 
inal design  of  the  General  Synod  was  the  union  of  all  the 
Lutheran  district  synods  in  North  America  into  one  organ- 
ized ecclesiastical  confederation  for  the  promotion  of  her 
common  interests  and  for  the  extension  of  missions  and  edu- 
cational work. 

After  the  recession  of  the  Pennsylvania  Ministerium 
the  hope  of  realizing  the  union  of  the  Lutheran  Church  in 
this  country  was  not  abandoned.  Continued  efforts  were 
made  to  induce  the  Ministerium  to  return,  and  other  synods 
to  connect  themselves  with  the  General  Synod. 

In  1839  a  movement  was  made  in  the  Pennsylvania 
Synod  for  a  reunion.  In  the  Lutheran  Church  at  Reading, 
Pa.,  the  pastor,  Rev.  Dr.  Miller,  was  opposed  to  a  reunion, 
and  the  vote  of  his  congregation  was  unanimously  against 
it.  At  a  subsequent  meeting  of  the  Ministerium  the  reso- 
lution for  a  reunion  was  not  adopted  by  a  vote  of  33  to  28, 
a  majority  of  only  5.  But  the  subject  continued  to  be 
agitated  until  the  year  1853.  In  that  year  the  Ministerium 
met  in  Reading,  and  after  a  prolonged  and  heated  discus- 
sion, resolved  to  re-enter  the  General  Synod.  The  vote 
was  not  unanimous  ;  it  stood  52  for  union  and  28  against 
— some  of  the  members  were  excused  from  voting.  It  was 
my  privilege  to  be  present  at  that  meeting  of  the  Minister- 
ium, Dr.  Schmucker  was  present  also,  and  I  distinctly  recall 
a  scene  which  was  exhibited  immediately  after  the  vote  was 
taken  and  the  result  announced.  The  Dr.  walked  over  to 
the  other  side  of  the  church  and  grasped  the  hand  of  the 
most  violent  opponent  of  the  reunion  ;  but  his  friendly  over- 
ture was  met  by  an  insult.  Peixoto,  that  was  his  name, 
told  him  in  effect  that  he  could  not  enter  into  union  with  a 
Rationalist !  The  Dr.  did  not  resent  the  insult,  nor  make 
any  reply,  but  he  must  have  been  amazed,  after  having  all 


his  lifetime  contended  against  Rationalism,  to  be  himself 
publicly  called  a  Rationalist !  Pastor  Peixoto  was  a  Ger- 
man immigrant,  if  I  remember  correctly,  a  proselyte  from 
the  Romish  Church.  He  was  a  very  excitable  man,  singu- 
lar in  his  personal  appearance,  tall  and  slender,  with  a  very 
long  neck. 

Accordingly,  when  the  General  Synod  met  that  year 
in  Winchester,  Va.,  the  Ministerium  was  represented  by  its 
delegates,  and  was  unanimously  received  into  membership. 
At  the  same  meeting  the  Synod  of  Northern  Illinois, 
the  Pittsburg  Synod,  and  the  Synod  of  Texas  applied  for 
admission,  and  were  also  received.  The  latter  three  synods 
presented  no  extra  conditions  on  which  they  wished  to  be 
received,  so  far  as  I  can  find,  but  the  Ministerium  presented 
a  series  of  resolutions,  stating  its  doctrinal  basis  and  special 
conditions  on  which  it  demanded  to  be  received.  The  most 
important  item  in  these  resolutions,  which  eleven  years 
later  became  very  troublesome,  is  the  following  : 


"  We  neither  intend  nor  ever  expect,  that  the  princi- 
ples which  have  hitherto  governed  our  synod  in  respect  to 
church  doctrine  and  church  life  shall  suffer  any  change 
whatever  by  our  connection  with  the  General  Synod  ;  but 
that,  should  the  General  Synod  violate  its  constitution,  and 
require  of  our  Synod,  as  a  condition  of  admission,  or  con- 
tinuance of  membership,  assent  to  anything  conflicting  with 
the  old  and  long  established  faith  of  the  Evangelical 
Lutheran  Church,  then  our  delegates  are  hereby  required 
to  protest  against  such  action,  to  withdraw  from  its  sessions, 
and  to  report  to  this  body." 

There  was  no  open  protest  against  this  extraordinary 
conditional  reunion  with  the  General  Synod,  because  there 
was  a  general  desire  for  union  in  the  Lutheran  Church,  and 


a  rejoicing  over  the  fact  that  the  Pennsylvania  Min- 
isterium  had  returned.  The  return  of  the  Ministerium, 
together  with  the  addition  of  three  other  smaller  synods, 
greatly  increased  the  numerical  strength  of  the  body.  Yet 
many  members  felt  that  this  was  not  the  proper  or 
courteous  way  of  renewing  the  union.  It  implied  a  want  of 
confidence,  held  out  a  threat,  and  manifested  a  domineering 
spirit  over  their  brethren,  and  was  uncalled  for  and  super- 
fluous. The  proper  way  would  have  been,  simply  to  sub- 
scribe the  constitution  of  the  General  Synod,  like  the  other 
district  synods  had  done,  and  if  at  any  future  time  they 
should  have  been  dissatisfied  with  its  constitution,  doc- 
trinal basis,  or  decision  of  the  majority  on  any  point  of  doc- 
trine or  usage,  they  could  have  withdrawn,  if  they  saw  fit  to 
do  so,  without  any  such  conditional  entrance.  Any  district 
synod  even  now  has  a  perfect  right  to  withdraw  whenever  it 
pleases  to  do  so. 

But  the  opposition  to  the  General  Synod  and  the  Sem- 
inary did  not  stop  with  the  reunion  of  the  Pennsylvania 
Ministerium.  The  leaders  of  the  minority  kept  up  a  con- 
stant tirade  against  the  General  Synod  and  the  Seminary  ; 
against  the  former  on  account  of  the  so-called  "  New  Meas- 
ures," and  "  revivals  of  religion,"  and  its  inadequate  confes- 
sional standpoint,  and  against  the  latter  on  account  of  its 
alleged  neglect  of  the  German  language.  The  opposition 
found  expression  in  the  columns  of  the  "  Jugend  Freund," 
Pastor  Brobst,  of  Allentown,  editor,  and  sometimes  in 
speeches  during  synodical  sessions. 

This  opposition  culminated  finally  in  the  meeting  of 
the  General  Synod  in  1864,  at  York,  Pa.  The  occasion 
was  the  admission  of  the  Franckean  Synod,  of  New  York. 
This  Synod  had  never  formally  adopted  the  Augsburg 
Confession,  just  as  the  Pennsylvania  Synod  had  for  many 
years  previously  never  adopted  it.     Objection  was 'made  to 


the  reception  of  the  Franckean  Synod  on  this  ground.  The 
delegates  declared,  that  in  adopting  the  constitution  of  the 
General  Synod,  the  Franckean  Synod  understood  that  they 
were  adopting  the  doctrinal  position  of  the  General  Synod, 
viz  :  "  That  the  fundamental  truths  of  the  Word  of  God  are 
taught  in  a  manner  substantially  correct  in  the  Augsburg 
Confession."  The  Synod  was  admitted  "  with  the  under- 
standing, that  at  its  next  meeting  it  declare  in  an  official 
manner,  its  adoption  of  the  doctrinal  articles  of  the  Augs- 
burg Confession  as  a  substantially  correct  exhibition  of  the 
fundamental  doctrines  of  the  Word  of  God."  Carried  by  a 
vote  of  97  to  40. 

The  Pennsylvania  delegation  of  the  Ministerium 
declared  this  action  unconstitutional.  But  it  was  answered, 
that  the  Franckean  Synod  "  has  really,  although  not  offi- 
cially, complied,  and  the  constitution  of  the  General 
Synod  is  indefinite  in  its  requirement  on  this  point." 

The  Franckean  Synod  did  at  its  next  meeting  officially 
adopt  the  doctrinal  platform  of  the  General  Synod,  as  its 
delegates  had  promised  to  do.  But  the  delegates  of  the 
Pennsylvania  Synod  were  not  satisfied  with  this,  but  with- 
drew, in  accordance,  as  they  said,  with  their  instructions. 
It  was  a  portentous  movement,  followed  by  momentous 

The  sessions  of  the  General  Synod  were  held  in  Christ 
Lutheran  Church,  previous  to  its  present  remodeled  state. 
I  can  yet  see  the  procession,  headed  by  the  tall  form  of  Dr. 
C.  W.  Schaeffer,  slowly  and  solemnly  marching  down  the 
long  aisle  in  single  file,  amid  profound  silence.  They 
entered  the  Oswald  book-store,  next  door  to  the  church, 
now  occupied  by  the  Drovers'  Bank,  to  consult,  and  then 
returned  to  their  homes.  Dr.  Schmucker  was  present  at 
the  sessions,  but  I  think  he  was  not  a  delegate,  and  was  not 
allowed  to  take  part  in  the  discussions. 


This  withdrawal  of  the  delegates  was  generally 
regarded  as  a  virtual  recession  of  the  Synod  itself,  especially 
as  their  action  was  endorsed  by  the  Synod.  Had  they 
contented  themselves  with  simply  protesting,  and  then 
retained  their  seats  and  participated  in  the  proceedings  of 
the  General  Synod  until  the  close,  no  one  would  have 
thought  of  disputing  their  right  to  membership.  But  when 
in  the  midst  of  the  session  they  withdrew  in  a  body,  without 
leave  or  license,  the  conclusion  was  inevitable,  that  they 
had  voluntarily  and  actually  severed  their  connection. 

But  it  seems  the  Pennsylvania  Ministerium  did  not 
regard  its  action  in  that  light ;  for  at  the  next  meeting  of 
the  General  Synod  in  Fort  Wayne,  1866,  the  Ministerium 
sent  its  full  number  of  delegates,  who  expected  to  occupy 
their  seats  and  take  part  in  the  elections  and  proceedings, 
as  though  nothing  had  happend  to  interfere  with  its  rela- 
tions to  that  body.  But  the  president  (Rev.  S.  Sprecher, 
D.  D.,)  decided,  that  the  Synod  "  was  out  of  practical  union 
with  the  General  Synod  up  to  the  time  of  the  adjournment 
of  the  last  convention,"  and  could  not  be  received  until  it 
applied  for  re-admission. 

The  General  Synod  sustained  the  president  in  this 
decision.  After  a  long  and  animated  discussion  the  Penn- 
sylvania delegation  withdrew  again.  A  few  weeks  after- 
wards the  Ministerium  of  Pennsylvania,  at  its  119th  conven- 
tion, in  Lancaster,  declared  its  connection  with  the  General 
Synod  dissolved,  on  account  of  the  "  unjust  deprival  of 
rights,  and  the  conviction,  that  the  task  of  uniting  the  con- 
flicting elements  in  the  General  Synod  has  become  hope- 

Thus  the  Ministerium  went  out  ostensibly  on  a  mere 
technicality  ;  but  it  has  been  denied  that  this  was  the  real 
cause  of  the  withdrawal.  Professor  Jacobs  acknowledges 
as  much,  when  he  says,  in  his  "  History  of  the   Lutheran 


Church  in  America,"  p.  468  :  "  Looking  back  at  the  con- 
test at  Fort  Wayne  ....  it  seems  at  first  sight  to  have 
been  one  mainly  of  parhamentary  fencing.  But  back  of  this 
there  were  certain  principles  at  stake." 

One  of  the  principles  objected  to  was  the  "  centraliza- 
tion of  power  in  the  General  Synod."  "  As  the  ultimate 
court  of  appeal,  its  decision  was  to  be  final,  and  to  this  the 
district  synods  were  to  submit."  "  The  lessons  of  the  war 
were  fresh.  The  increased  centralization  of  power  in  the 
national  government  gained  in  that  conflict,  and  the  weak- 
ening of  the  theory  of  states'  rights  seemed  to  give  encour- 
agement to  an  application  of  the  principles  within  the 
ecclesiastical  sphere.  The  Ministerium  of  Pennsylvania, 
always  jealous  of  its  rights,  would  have  speedily  reversed 
the  concessions  of  its  delegates  on  this  point.  The  life  of 
the  old  Synod  could  not  be  merged  or  lost  in  that  of  any 
general  organization." 

The  Southern  States  undertook  to  secede  from  the 
United  States  on  the  theory  of  States'  Rights,  and  accord- 
ing to  Dr.  Jacobs,  the  Ministerium  seceded  from  the  Gen- 
eral Synod  on  the  theory  of  the  rights  of  district  synods. 

Another  principle  to  which  the  Ministerium  objected 
was  the  inequality  of  representation.  It  was  by  far  the 
largest  district  synod  in  the  General  Synod,  and  yet 
according  to  the  constitution  it  could  never  have  more  than 
18  delegates, — 9  ministerial  and  9  lay, — while  the  smallest 
synod  had  two  delegates,  one  ministerial  and  one  lay, 
which  it  is  claimed  was  out  of  proportion  according  to  the 
number  of  communicants  and  ministers.  If  this  rule  had 
been  changed  in  accordance  with  the  demand,  then  of 
course  it  would  have  given  the  Ministerium  the  dominant 
power  in  the  General  Synod.  The  same  disproportion  in 
representation  prevails  also  in  the  Congress  of  the  United 
States ;  for  example,  Rhode    Island,  the  smallest  state  in 


the  Union,  is  entitled  to  two  senators,  and  New  York,  the 
largest  state,  is  entitled  by  the  constitution  to  only  two  sen- 
ators. I  do  not  remember  of  ever  having  heard  this  urged 
as  an  objection  to  the  constitution  of  the  United  States, 

It  was  also  understood  that  the  Ministerium  would  not 
be  received  again  with  the  condition  attached  to  its  applica- 
tion with  which  it  had  entered  in  1853;  namely,  that  its 
delegates  should  withdraw  and  report,  whenever  they 
thought  a  violation  of  the  constitution  had  been  committed. 
The  determination  seems  to  have  been  reached,  that  there 
must  be  no  more  distinction  in  the  admission  of  district 
synods,  and  if  the  Ministerium  would  apply  for  re-admis- 
sion, it  must  be  received  like  any  other  district  synod  that 

But  perhaps  the  principal  motive  for  withdrawing  was 
the  hope  of  forining  a  new  general  body  by  uniting  all  the 
other  Lutheran  Synods,  hitherto  outside  of  the  General 
Synod  into  another  general  organization.  In  the  resolu- 
tion of  withdrawal  the  Ministerium  expresses  its  "  convic- 
tion, that  the  task  of  uniting  the  conflicting  elements  in  the 
General  Synod  has  become  hopeless."  Individual  mem- 
bers gave  utterance  to  the  expression,  that,  as  the  General 
Synod  had  failed  to  effect  the  union  of  the  Lutheran 
Church  in  this  country,  they  would  undertake  the  work  of 
organizing  a  general  body,  in  which  all  the  other  synods 
could  be  united.  In  accordance  with  this  object,  therefore, 
the  General  Council  was  formed.  In  how  far  it  has  suc- 
ceeded in  uniting  the  church,  time  has  now  sufficiently 
shown.  Already  in  Fort  Wayne  the  delegates  courted  the 
favor  of  the  Missourians.  Instead  of  partaking  of  the 
Lord's  Supper  with  their  brethren  in  the  General  Synod 
during  its  sessions,  a  number  of  them  received  the  com- 
munion from  Dr.  Sihler  of  the  Missouri  Synod.  "  There 
was  doubtless,"  says  Dr.  Jacobs,  "  an  earnest,  but  at  the 


same  time  a  vague  desire  for  the  union  of  all  who  were 
clear  in  the  confession  of  the  distinctively  Lutheran  faith." 
— Jacobs'  History,  page  ^ji. 

Accordingly  a  correspondence  was  entered  into  by  the 
Ministerium  with  other  Lutheran  Synods  with  reference  to 
the  calling  of  a  convention  for  the  organization  of  a  general 
ecclesiastical  body,  "  on  a  truly  Lutheran  basis,"  and  an  in- 
vitation sent  "  to  all  Evangelical  Lutheran  Synods,  minis- 
ters and  congregations  of  the  United  States  and  Canada, 
which  confess  the  Unaltered  Augsburg  Confession." 

In  response  to  this  invitation  a  convention  assembled 
in  Trinity  Church,  Reading,  Pa.,  December  12-14,  1866. 
"Thirteen  synods  were  represented.  Parts  of  five  had  been 
in  the  General  Synod;  namely,  Pennsylvania,  English 
Ohio, New  York, Pittsburg  and  Minnesota;  the  Joint  Synod 
of  Ohio,  as  well  as  its  English  District  Synod,  the  Wiscon- 
sin, Michigan,  German  Iowa,  Canada,  Norwegian,  and  the 
Missouri  Synod, had  sent  delegates;  Drs.Walther  and  Sihler 
sent  friendly  communications."  The  first  meeting  of  the 
General  Council  took  place  in  Fort  Wayne,  on  November 
20th,  in  the  very  church  where  the  division  had  taken  place 
the  year  before.  But  the  Missouri  and  Ohio  Synods  and 
the  German  Iowa  Synod  never  connected  themselves 
formally  with  the  General  Council,  and  since  then  the 
Michigan  and  Texas  Synods  have  withdrawn. 

The  refusal  to  unite  with  the  Council  by  the  Missouri, 
Ohio,  and  German  Iowa  Synods,  and  the  subsequent  with- 
drawal of  other  synods,  was  caused  by  the  so-called  "  Four 
Points,"  Chiliasm,  Secret  Societies,  Exchange  of  Pulpits 
and  Close  Communion.  The  two  latter  points  found  ex- 
pression in  the  motto  ; 

"  Lutheran  Pulpits  for  Lutheran  Ministers  Only,  and 
Lutheran  Altars  for  Lutheran  Members  Only." 

For  the  last  thii  ty  years  from    1 866  to   1 896,  the  Gen- 

JACOBS'    EULOGY.  239 

eral  Synod  and  General  Council  have  existed  as  rival 
bodies,  occupying  the  same  territory  side  by  side,  often  in- 
terfering with  each  other's  congregational  and  missionary 
work.  During  all  this  time  efforts  have  been  made  to  bring 
about  a  reunion,  notably  by  colloquiums,  uniform  order  of 
worship  by  the  "  Common  Service,"  and  Luther  League. 
Last  year,  1895,  the  first  exchange  of  friendly  "  visitors," 
was  agreed  upon  by  both  bodies.  What  these  efforts  will 
result  in,  and  when  this  hoped  for  union  shall  be  con- 
sumated,  time  only  can  tell,  and  God  only  knows. 

In  the  conclusion  of  this  chapter  it  will  be  refreshing 
to  our  readers  to  see  what  Dr.  Jacobs  in  his  "  History  of 
the  Lutheran  Church  in  America,"  and  Dr.  Krauth,  Jr.,  in 
a  series  ot  articles  in  the  "  Missionary  "  paper,  have  written 
in  praise  of  the  General  Synod.  Dr.  Jacobs  says,  "  The 
General  Synod  must  be  regarded  as  a  very  important  for- 
ward movement.  .  .  .  The  General  Synod  was  a  protest 
against  the  socinianizing  tendency  in  New  York,  (and  in 
Pennsylvania  also — Ed}),  and  the  schemes  of  a  union  with 
the  Reformed  in  Pennsylvania,  and  the  Episcopalians  in 
North  Carolina.  It  stood  for  the  independent  existence  of 
the  Lutheran  Church  in  America,  and  a  clear  and  unequiv- 
ocal confession  of  a  positive  faith.  .  .  .  Lament  defects  as 
we  may,  the  General  Synod  saved  the  church,  as  it  became 
anglicised  from  the  calamity  of  the  type  of  doctrine  which 
within  the  New  York  Ministerium  had  been  introduced 
into  the  English  language.  It  had  an  outlook  that  in- 
cluded in  its  sweep  the  entire  church  in  all  its  interests,  as 
the  reports  on  the  state  of  the  Lutheran  Church  in  the 
various  synods  in  this  country  and  throughout  the  world, 
appended  to  its  minutes  show." 

Here  is  Dr.  Krauth's  eulogy.  "  Never,"  says  Dr. 
Jacobs,  "  was  the  cause  of  the  General  Synod  pleaded  with 
more  eloquence." 

240  krauth's  eulogy. 

DR.  C.  p.  krauth's  eulogy  OF  THE  GENERAL  SYNOD. 

In  1857,  Dr.  C.  P.  Krauth,  Jr.,  published  a  series  of 
articles  in  the  Missionary  paper,  in  which  he  asserted,  that 
the  General  Synod  was  the  "  hope  of  the  Lutheran  Church 
in  this  country,  *  the  offspring  of  a  reviving  Lutheranism, 
born  in  the  dawn  that  followed  the  night  which  fell  upon 
oiir  church  in  this  land,  when  the  patriarchal  luminaries  of 
her  early  history  had  set  on  earth  to  rise  in  heaven.'  Its 
formation  was  a  great  act  of  faith.  When  it  became  com- 
pletely organized,  '  it  was  the  only  voluntary  body  on 
earth  pretending  to  embrace  a  nation  as  its  territory,  and 
bearing  a  Lutheran  name,  in  which  the  fundamental 
doctrines  of  Lutheranism  were  the  basis  of  union.' 
*  Heaven  pity  the  fate  of  the  man  who  looks  upon  the  Gen 
eral  Synod  as  having  been  a  curse  to  the  Church,  or  an 
inefficient  worker  in  it,  who  imagines  that  the  Lutheran 
Church  would  be  stronger,  if  the  General  Synod  were 
weaker.'  " — Jacobs'  History,  pages  ^28 -g. 






OF]^  the        EUROPEAN        TOUR PLACES      VISITED DR. 






In  the  year  1846  Dr.  Schmucker,  in  company  with 
Drs.  Kurtz  and  Morris,  took  a  tour  to  Europe.  As  he 
expected  to  be  absent  about  six  months,  it  was  necessary 
that  he  should  have  the  consent  of  the  Board  of  Directors, 
and,  also,  that  provision  should  be  made  to  fill  his  chair  in 
the  Seminary  during  the  interim.  Considerable  corre- 
spondence was  kept  up  for  a  while  till  satisfactory  arrange- 
ments could  be  completed.  We  will  copy  two  of  the 
letters,  one  from  Dr.  J.  G.  Morris  and  the  other  from  his 
brother,  Mr.  C.  A.  Morris,  which  show  what  different  plans 
were  suggested.  So  far  as  we  can  find,  no  outsiders  were 
called  into  service,  but  Professors  Krauth  and  Hay  devoted 
extra  time  in  teaching  Dr.  Schmucker's  classes  during  his 


Baltimore, y<3;«.  75,  184.6. 
Rev.  Dr.  Schmucker, 

Dear  Sir : — Dr.  Baird  has  shown  me  your  letter 
in  which  you  express  an  inclination  to  attend  the  conven- 
tion in  London,  and  if  you  have  not  yet  determined  finally, 
allow  me  to  suggest  the  following  considerations  as  addi- 
tional inducements  : 

Our  Church  on  this  side  of  the  Atlantic  ought  to  be 
represented ;  indeed,  such  a  convention  would  be  incom- 
plete without  it.  You  are  the  proper  person  to  represent 
us,  because  you  have  taken  a  prominent,  I  might  say,  a 
leading  stand  in  the  great  measure  contemplated.  Your 
name  is  closely  associated  with  it  on  both  sides  of  the 
ocean  ;  you  have  written  one  of  the  best  books  on  the  sub- 
ject ;  your  familiar  acquaintance  with  all  the  kindred  sub- 
jects ;  all  these  and  some  others  which  need  not  be 
mentioned,  should  induce  you  to  determine  at  once.  I  am 
satisfied  that  the  universal  voice  of  the  brethren  would 
select  you  to  this  post,  if  it  were  left  to  their  election. 

The  Board  (of  the  Seminary)  would,  of  course,  con- 
tinue your  salary,  and  give  you  leave  of  absence  for  six 
months.  Provision  would  be  made  for  continuing  the 
instruction  of  your  classes,  and  every  other  arrangement 
necessary,  would  be  liberally  entered  into.  If  Drs  Krauth 
and  Hay  will  consent  to  give  extra  lessons,  they  could  not 
be  expected  to  labor  gratuitously,  and  the  next  question  is, 
whence  shall  the  compensation  be  derived  ?  I  have 
thought  of  several  plans  : 

1.  You  will,  of  course,  go  to  the  continent,  and 
might  apply  for  aid,  receive  some  donations  in  money — 
appropriate  ^400  to  their  remuneration. 

2.  Probably  the  General  Synod  might  be  prevailed  on, 
at  its  next  session,  to  appropriate  so  much.  But  this  is  the 
most  inexpedient  plan. 

3.  If  those  gentlemen  found  the  additional  labor  too 
severe,  might  not  an  arrangement  be  made  with  some  three 
or  four  ministers  to  spend  each  a  month  at  Gettysburg  and 
teach  such  branches  as  they  were  able  in  the  other  depart- 
ments, and  let  Krauth  and  Hay  divide  yours  between 
them  ? 

LETTER   OF  C.   A.    MORRIS.  "  243 

4.  An  extra  subscription  might  be  gotten  up  to  pay 
these  gentlemen — but  it  matters  not — yoii  should  go  to 

I  asked  Dr.  Kurtz  whether  he  would  like  to  go  ? 
After  a  few  moments  reflection,  he  stated,  that  if  he  could 
make  satisfactory  arrangements  about  his  paper  and  the 
establishment,  he  would  accompany  you.  He  would  be  a 
desirable  companion  dii  voyage,  for  he  has  been  there,  and 
knows  a  thing  or  two  about  it. — Go,  by  all  means,  go !  For 
the  glory  of  God — the  honor  of  our  church — the  welfare 
of  the  General  Synod — the  influence  of  your  own  name — 
go.  Yours,  etc., 

J.  G.  Morris. 

Here  is  a  letter  on  the  same  subject  from  C.  A.  Morris, 
brother  of  Dr.  J.  G.  Morris. 

YoRK,y««.  26,  1846. 

Dear  Sir  : — 

Your  letter  per  Mr.  Smyser  has  duly  come  to 
hand.  The  Protestant  Convention  to  be  held  in  London  is 
certainly  one  of  the  most  interesting  subjects  for  the  church, 
which  has  engaged  her  attention  for  centuries.  I  hope  that 
our  church,  which,  I  think,  has  been  the  first  to  move  in 
this  business,  will  be  represented  there.  As  a  member  of 
the  Union,  I  hereby  not  only  express  my  wish  that  you 
might  be  present,  but  request  you  to  do  so.  If  anything 
more  formal  would  be  deemed  necessary,  perhaps  it  would 
be  well  enough  to  draw  up  a  little  paper  and  have  all  the 
committee  to  sign  it. 

I  hope  Mr.  Kurtz  will  accompany  you,  and  my  brother 
John  has  always  said,  that  he  would  at  some  convenient 
season  visit  Europe.  I  would  be  glad  if  he  could  go  this 
time.  It  would  be  desirable  on  account  of  the  friends  he 
would  have  for  company.  I  hope  something  on  this  sub- 
ject will  appear  in  the  Obser%>er. 

Yours,  etc., 

C.  A.  Morris. 
Rev.  S.  S.  Schniucker,  D,  D. 

244  •    B.  M.  schmucker's  account. 

We  copy  the  following  account  of  Dr.  Schmucker's 
tour  to  Europe,  from  the  excellent  biographical  sketch  of 
Dr.  Diehl,  in  the  Evangelical  Revieiv  : 


"  The  writer  is  indebted  to  Dr.  B.  M.  Schmucker,  of 
Reading,  Pa.,  for  the  following  facts  and  extracts,  taken 
from  Dr.  S.  S.  Schmucker's  notes  of  his  travels  in  Europe. 
In  1846,  he,  in  company  with  Drs.  B.  Kurtz  and  J.  G.  Mor- 
ris, made  a  visit  to  Europe,  the  immediate  object  of  which 
was  the  meeting  of  the  Evangelical  Alliance,  in  London,  in 
the  summer  of  that  year,  to  which  they  were  accredited,  as 
representatives  of  the  Lutheran  Church,  in  the  United 
States.  They  started,  however,  some  months  earlier  than 
was  necessary  for  that  purpose,  in  order  to  make  an  ex- 
tended tour  through  Germany.  The  chief  object  proposed 
to  be  gained  was  to  establish  some  communication  between 
the  church  in  Germany,  and  the  Lutherans  in  this  country. 
A  circular  letter  was  prepared  and  sent  to  Germany,  in  ad- 
vance of  their  departure,  and  was  more  widely  distributed 
by  them  during  their  tour.  Conferences  were  held  by 
them,  with  groups  of  clergymen,  in  Berlin,  Frankfort,  Basel, 
and  divers  centres  of  influence  in  Europe,  and  much  sym- 
pathy and  interest  were  shown  toward  their  brethren  in 
America,  by  many  eminent  men,  especially  by  those  con- 
nected with  the  United  Church.  Dr.  Schmucker  proposed, 
also,  personally  to  apply  to  authors  and  publishers  for  con- 
tributions of  books  for  the  Library  of  the  Theological 
Seminary.  The  applications  were  eminently  successful, 
and  large,  valuable  additions  to  the  library,  resulted  from 
them.  Among  the  most  friendly  ot  the  publishers  were, 
Perthes,  Besser  and  Mauke,  of  Hamburg,  and  Gotha, 
Tauchnitz,  of  Leipzig,  Heyder  &  Zimmer,  of  Frankfort, 
Leisching,  of  Stuttgart,  and  the  Orphan   House,  at  Halle. 


The  Seminary  is  indebted  for  its  extensive  and  very  valu- 
able library  to  Rev.  Dr.  B.  Kurtz,  first  of  all,  and  after  him, 
to  Dr.  Schmucker. 

"  This  tour  afforded  Dr.  Schmucker  an  opportunity  of 
gratifying  the  desire,  which  almost  every  man  of  scholarly 
culture  feels,  of  viewing  the  scenes  of  their  action,  and  the 
memorials  of  the  great  men,  of  the  V/orld's  and  the 
church's  past  history.  It  gave  him  great  delight  at  the 
time,  and  pleasant  reminiscences  afterward.  He  made  ex- 
tended notes  throughout  the  whole  journey,  from  day  to 
day,  entering  matters  of  interest  in  general,  and  the  sub- 
stance of  conversations  with  eminent  men.  The  Universi- 
ties had  for  him  special  interest,  and  at  Leipzig,  Halle,  Ber- 
lin, Basel,  Tubingen  and  Heidelberg,  he  attended  the 
lectures  of  the  professors,  and  gives  an  account  of  them, 
and  his  intercourse  with  these  distinguished  men.  The 
Libraries  had  a  great  attraction  for  him.  At  Wolffenbuttel, 
he  first  met  a  collection,  rich  in  antiquities,  MSS.  relics  of 
Luther,  and  other  things  rare  and  curious.  At  Leipzig, 
the  librarian,  Gersdorf,  was  especially  kind  to  him,  and  pre- 
sented him  with  a  number  of  first  editions  of  treatises  of 
the  Reformation  times,  most  of  which  unfortunately  disap- 
peared from  his  library,  during  the  battle  of  Gettysburg. 

"The  route  pursued  by  the  party,  was  from  Baltimore, 
by  sailing  vessel  thirty-three  days  to  Bremen,  Hamburg, 
Marburg,  Brunswick,  Wolffenbuttel,  Magdeburg,  Halle, 
Leipzig,  Wittenberg,  Berlin,  Dresden,  Prague,  Vienna,  up 
the  Danube,  Munich,  Augsburg,  Constance,  Zurich,  Basel, 
Strasburg,  Baden,  Tubingen,  Stuttgart,  Darmstadt,  Frank- 
fort, Bonn,  Cologne,  Brussels,  Paris  to  London,  Liverpool 
by  steamer,  Great  Western  to  New  York.  During  the  re 
turn  voyage,  a  violent  storm  was  encountered,  in  which  the 
lives  of  all  were  imperilled,  and  indeed,  for  several  days, 
death    seemed   inevitable.     The   steamer   was  so  disabled 


that  she  reached  New  York,  making  only  four  knots  per 
hour,  and  never  crossed  the  ocean  again,  having  been  put 
in  the  West  India  route. 

"  Dr.  Schmucker's  notes  cover  a  great  variety  of  sub- 
jects, old  and  new  churches,  church  services,  rites  and 
ceremonies,  book  trade,  publishers,  intercourse  with 
pastors,  temperance,  wine  and  beer  drinking,  keeping  the 
Lord's  day,  missionary  societies,  etc.  It  is  difficult  to  de- 
cide what  to  select.     I  will  turn  to  Berlin. 

"  '  Berlin,  Rheinische  Hof.  May  15,  1846. 

"  'By  the  invitation  of  Dr.  Twesten  and  his  lady,  we 
accompanied  them  to  their  pew  in  the  church  in  which 
Rev.  Arndt  preaches.  The  house  was  very  crowded,  the 
seats  being  almost  entirely  occupied  by  the  ladies,  and  the 
broad  aisles  being  filled  with  gentlemen,  who  had  to  stand 
during  the  entire  service.  There  were  probably  six  thous- 
and persons  in  the  church.  Rev.  Arndt  is  the  most  popular 
evangelical  preacher  in  Berlin.  There  was  nothing  ex- 
traordinary, however,  in  his  performance.  His  style  was 
good,  abounding  in  antithesis.  His  matter  sound,  but 
rather  common  ;  and  his  delivery  and  general  abilities  as  an 
orator  not  above  mediocrity  in  our  country.  His  text  was, 
'  Come  unto  me  all  ye  that  labor,  etc'  which  he  said  was 
the  last  text  on  which  Luther  had  preached.  The  edifice 
bears  some  resemblance  to  the  Tabernacle  of  New  York, 
only  that  it  is  a  compound  oval,  instead  of  a  simple  one. 
There  are  four  galleries,  one  in  each  oval  projection.  A 
cross  and  two  candlesticks  were  on  the  altar. 

" '  After  sermon  we  went  to  the  Domkirche,  the  one  in 
which  the  King  usually  worshipped,  when  in  the  city.  We 
heard  a  good,  pious,  orthodox  sermon,  preached  in  a  good, 
yet  common  way,  by  Rev.  Heydenreich.  The  choir,  to 
which  the  King  pays  20,000  thaler  annually,  was  absent 
to-day.     The  Dome  church  is  a  very   large  and  elegant. 

DR.  neander's  i,ecture.  247 

though  rather  plain  one,  about  200x80  feet.  It  consists  of 
three  arches  running  along  the  length  of  the  church,  and 
sustained  by  twelve  columns  or  pillars  on  each  side,  and 
four  at  each  end.  There  is  no  canopy,  and  the  pulpit  is 
fixed  between  two  pillars.  The  pulpit  is  at  one  side  of  the 
church,  at  the  middle.  The  organ,  baptismal  vase  and 
altar,  are  at  one  end  of  the  building,  whilst  at  the  other  is  a 
music  gallery.  The  King  was  absent,  and  the  church 
about  one-fifth  filled,' 


"  '  Monday.  This  morning  I  attended  the  lecture  of 
this  truly  learned  and  celebrated  historian.  He  is  small  of 
stature,  of  a  dark  complexion,  black  bushy  hair,  and  ot  a 
Jewish  physiognomy.  He  entered  the  room,  as  is  usual 
with  a  majority  of  the  German  professors  whom  I  have 
heard,  in  rather  a  hurried  manner,  mounted  the  rostrum, 
and  instantly  without  ceremony  of  any  kind,  began  his 
lecture.  He  appears  to  be  very  near-sighted,  and  puts  his 
eyes  so  close  to  the  paper,  that  his  nose  almost  touches  it. 
Part  of  his  MS.  seemed  to  be  in  detached  pieces  ;  or  more 
probably  he  had  written  some  later  additions  on  small 
loose  papers,  which  he  occasionally  turned  over  and  over, 
as  if  he  had  lost  his  place.  He  lectured  standing,  or  rather 
leaning  on  the  desk,  which  was  loose,  and  which  he  moved 
to  and  fro,  to  the  manifest  danger  of  those  students  imme- 
diately before  it,  and  behind  which  he  almost  entirely  con- 
cealed his  face.  He  was  in  constant  motion,  and  as  awk- 
ward as  he  could  well  be.  At  one  moment,  he  would 
glance  at  his  MS,,  then  turn  about  almost  with  his  back  to 
his  hearers,  putting  his  hands  near  his  eyes,  picking  his 
hands  in  a  most  ungraceful  way.  Then  he  would  turn  to 
his  MS.  again,  putting  his  eyes  almost  on  it ;  afterward  he 
would  go  through  all  the  same  antique  operations  again. 

248  DR.    RANKE. 

The  most  homely  portrait  I  have  seen  of  him  is  still  flatter- 
ing. The  students  seem  to  be  amused  at  the  singularity  of 
his  movements,  and  occasionally  some  would  laugh,  cast- 
ing a  glance  at  the  professor  and  then  at  the  other  students. 
He  reads  slowly  and  does  not  repeat,  as  the  Halle  profes- 
sors do.  He  had  about  one  hundred  hearers,  and  stopped 
abruptly  when  the  clock  struck  the  hour.' 

DR.    RANKE. 

" '  From  5  to  6,  I  had  an  opportunity  of  hearing  the 
celebrated  author  of  the  history  of  the  Popes  and  of  the 
Reformation,  Dr.  Ranke.  This  gentleman,  who  meets  us 
at  a  dinner  party  at  Dr.  Twesten's,  is  much  more  polished 
and  interesting  in  his  manner  than  Dr.  Neander.  He  de- 
livered his  instructions  sitting.  He  lectures  very  much  in 
that  animated,  affable  manner  which  characterizes  him  in 
the  social  circle.  He  glances  at  his  MS.  for  an  instant ; 
then  looking  up  apparently  at  the  ceiling,  and  sometimes  at 
the  students,  he  talks  awhile ;  then  glances  at  his  MS. 
again,  and  again  raises  his  head  and  talks.  Sometimes  he 
talks  rapidly,  and  makes  some  grimaces  with  his  face.  His 
articulation  is  not  very  distinct ;  yet,  he,  also,  does  not  re- 
peat as  the  Halle  professors  do.  Nor  did  the  students  hiss, 
in  order  to  make  him  go  more  slowly.  His  head  is  in 
almost  constant  motion,  and  often  he  makes  gestures  with 
his  hands.  His  lecture  consisted  of  speculations  on  the 
origin  of  the  Mexicans  and  other  aborigenes.  He  gave  a 
brief  review  ot  the  principal  literary  helps,  and  then  a 
regular  history  of  Cortes  and  the  Mexicans. 

"'  Neither  of  these  professors  recommended  any  books, 
and  I  have  learned  that  the  plan  of  the  professors  of  the 
institution  is  to  make  their  lectures  answer  every  purpose 
to  the  student,  especially  to  the  poor  ones.  The  library  is 
thus  used  chiefly  by  the  professors,  and  by  students  in  Ber- 

DINNER   AT  DR.    TWESTEN'S.  249 

lin  in  after  life.  When  we  recollect  the  great  poverty  of 
many  students,  and  the  fact  that  books  on  all  subjects  of  the 
lectures  would  cost  much,  their  plan  seems  natural  and 
leaves  the  students  to  value  the  notes,  which  they  take,and 
to  take  them  as  full  as  possible.' 

DINNER    AT    DR.    TWESTEN's. 

" '  We  went  at  three  o'clock,  because  the  consecration 
of  the  new  church  had  delayed  Dr.  Twestens',  who  as  Con- 
sistorialrath  had  necessarily  to  be  present.  We  spent  a 
very  pleasant  afternoon,  indeed,  and  no  one  can  call  to  see 
the  excellent  and  pious  Twesten,  and  his  truly  polite  and 
accomplished  wife  and  daughter,  without  being  pleased. 
Dr.  Twesten  is  orthodox  in  his  dogmatic  views,  and  very 
highly  respected.  He  lectures  in  the  University  every  day 
from  9  to  ii,  i.  e.,  twice;  each  lecture,  according  to  the  Ger- 
man custom,  being  exactly  three  quarters  of  an  hour  long. 
His  works  stand  in  high  repute.  He  is  a  modest,  com- 
municative, and  able  man  in  conversation,  and  when  Dr. 
Ranke  remarked,  that  no  one  believes  the  doctrine  of 
original  sin,  as  taught  in  the  Augsburg  Confession,  Dr. 
Twesten  meekly,  but  firmly,  remarked :  '  Das  wiiste  ich 
dock  nicht.     Meine  Wenigkeit  glaubt  es  dock! 

" '  Dr.  Ranke  is  small  of  stature,  having  a  good,  yet  not 
extraordinary  head,  exceedingly  talkative,  fond  of  laughter, 
and  almost  boisterous.  Judging  from  his  judicious,  grave 
and  far-sighted  work,  on  Popery  and  the  Reformation,  I 
had  expected  to  find  him  grave  and  dignified,  and  there- 
fore found  myself  somewhat  mistaken.  Yet  there  is  a  great 
deal  of  benevolence,  sociability  and  intelligence  in  his  con- 
versation. Dr.  Ranke  expressed  the  opinion,  that  the 
Romish  church  is  gaining  ground  in  some  places,  and 
losing  in  others  ;  but  that  the  light  and  spirit  of  the  present 
age  are  making  steady  inroads  on  her  fastnesses,  and  that 


she  is  on  the  whole  losing  ground.  He  also  expressed  the 
opinion  that  the  German  Catholic  Church  would  not^con- 
tinue  to  grow  and  the  adherents  of  Ronge,  having  set-up 
no  positive  creed,  could  not  rttain  their  hold  on  the  popular 
feeling,  i.  e.,  the  confidence  of  their  laity.  He  thought  the 
Augsburg  Confession  as  near  to  the  doctrinal  views  of 
Romanism  as  any  system  could  be,  to  be  tenable ;  and  that 
it  will  be  very  difficult  for  the  German  Catholics  to  deVise 
a  system,  that  shall  hold  a  middle  ground  between  the 
Augsburg  Confession  and  Tridentine  Romanism,  which 
will  be  consequent  and  capable  of  successful  defense  ;  or 
which  will  commend  itself  to  the  understanding  of  intel- 
ligent Catholics. 

"•  There  was  also  present  Rev.  Krummacher,  of  Elber- 
feld.  This  is  the  gentleman  who  was  elected  by  the  Ger- 
man Reformed  Church,  as  their  professor.  He  is  here  at 
present  on  a  visit  as  applicant  for  the  station  of  pastor  in  a 
vacant  church.  His  merits  as  a  preacher  are  admitted  by 
all.  But  as  he  is  an  orthodox  and  evangelical  preacher, 
and  the  magistrates  have  the  appointment  of  the  pastor  to 
this  church,  his  success  is  doubtful,  as  the  magistracy  are 
decidedly  neological.  Mr.  Krummacher  very  soon  began 
to  speak  of  the  church  in  America,  in  which  he  felt  a  deep 
interest,  especially  were  his  inquiries  minute  in  regard  to 
the  disputes  in  the  Reformed  Church,  caused  by  the  work 
of  Dr.  Schaff.  *  *  ' 


'"  We  called  to  see  the  distinguished  Mr.  Gossner,  who 
about  twenty  years  ago,  was  the  most  popular  minister  in 
Berlin,  but  now  lives  in  a  small  house  outside  the 
Potsdamer  Thor,  and  has  charge  of  a  hospital.  His  time  is 
chiefly  devoted  to  Missionary  matters.  Gossner  was  once 
a    Romish   priest,   but    seeing    the    errors  of  Romanism, 

gossner's  missionaries.  251 

renounced  them  and  joined  the  Protestant  Church.  For 
many  years  he  was  a  popular  preacher.  His  Hauspostille 
afifords  evidence  of  his  homiletic  talent,  and  his  power  to 
influence  the  people.  He  told  me  that  he  stands  connected 
with  no  missionary  society.  His  missionaries,  (of  whom 
several  are  educated  men,  some  had  been  school  teachers 
here,  the  majority,  however,  are  ignorant  of  anything  more 
than  what  the  common  schools  teach),  number  about 
twenty-five  preachers,  and  about  three  times  that  number 
of  mechanics,  farmers,  etc.,  and  their  families  ;  amounting, 
in  all,  to  one  hundred  souls,  chiefly  located  in  India.  He 
gives  his  missionaries  no  salary  at  all.  They  receive  an 
outfit  of  clothing  and  get  to  the  place  of  destination,  he  did 
not  say  how,  but,  when  there,  support  themselves,  only 
receiving  occasional  supplies  of  clothing,  an  abundance  of 
which  is  presented  to  him  by  friends  of  the  cause.'  " 

"  The  notes  of  his  visit  to  Berlin  are  quite  extended.  In 
addition  to  the  portions  above  given,  they  record  his  visits 
to  the  Kunst  Cabinet,  the  New  Museum,  a  visit  to  Dr. 
Draeseke,  an  evening  spent  with  Revs.  Arndt,  Ziehe,  Drs. 
Krummacher  and  Strauss,  and  Candidat  Schroeder,  at  the 
house  of  Rev.  Mr.  Wise,  a  full  account  of  the  Cursefahrt, 
which  he  witnessed,  visits  to  Dr.  Eilert  and  Court  Preacher, 
Snethlage.  He  also  gives  an  account  of  a  pastoral  confer- 
ence, at  which  were  present  Revs.  Kober,  Bachman, 
Conard,  Arndt,  Pischon,  Buchsel,  each  of  whom  he 
describes.  Of  the  proceedings  of  the  Evangelical  Alliance, 
in  London,  no  account  is  found  in  his  notes."* 

The  circular  letter,  of  which   Dr.   B.   M.   Schmucker 
speaks,  and  which  was  prepared  and  sent  to  Germany  in 

*  We  made  earnest  efforts  to  obtain  the  whole  of  Dr.  Schmucker 's 
notes  of  his  journey  and  observations,  but  could  get  no  more  than 
what  Dr.  Diehl  has  furnished  in  his  biographical  sketch  in  the  Ev. 
Review. — Ed. 


advance  of  their  departure,  was  more  widely  distributed  by 
them  during  their  tour.  It  was  addressed  to  the  United 
Church  of  Prussia,  and  indicated  the  points  of  similarity 
between  our  General  Synod  and  the  Prussian  Union,  It 
was  signed  by  Drs.  Schmucker,  Kurtz,  Morris,  Pohlman 
and  Schmidt  as  follows  : 

Dr.  S.  S.  Schmucker,  Professor  of  Theology  in  the 
Seminary  of  the  General  Synod  of  the  Lutheran  Church  in 
America,  at  Gettysburg,  Pennsylvania. 

Dr.  B.  Kurtz,  Editor  of  the  "  Lutheran  Observer "  at 
Baltimore,  Md. 

Dr.  H.  N.  Pohlman,  Pastor  of  the  Lutheran  Church  in 
Albany,  New  York. 

Dr.  J.  G.  Morris,  Pastor  of  the  first  Lutheran  Church 
in  Baltimore,  Md. 

Rev.  H.  I.  Schmidt,  Professor  in  the  Seminary  at 
Hartwick,  in  the  state  of  New  York. 

Dr.  Morris  speaks  very  harshly  of  this  circular  letter, 
which  bears  his  own  signature  and  of  which  he  was  himself 
one  of  the  bearers.  He  says,  among  other  hard  things, 
"  Never  was  a  more  senseless  blunder  committed  ;  while 
the  appeal  may  have  been  in  conformity  to  the  theological 
opinions  of  some  in  the  United  Church  of  Prussia,  yet 
thousands  of  Lutherans  would  not  sanction  its  theology." 

To  which  it  may  be  replied,  There  are  even  now  thou- 
sands of  Lutherans  in  Germany  and  America,  who  do  not 
sanction  the  theology  of  the  General  Synod.  ■ 

"  The  result  was,  to  my  certain  knowledge,  that  when 
Drs.  Schmucker  and  Kurtz  went  to  Europe  in  1846,  not 
one  of  them  was  invited  to  preach  in  any  pulpit  on  the  con- 
tinent !  This  I  know  to  be  true,  for  I  was  with  them.  They 
were  treated  courteously  enough,  but  neither  Lutheran,  nor 
Reformed,  nor  United  invited  them  into  their  pulpits." 


To  this  I  remark :  The  Dr.  should  have  written,  Did 
not  invite  "  us  "  into  their  pulpits,  for  he  "  was  with  them," 
and  had  also  signed  the  letter ;  hence  the  slight  was  equally 
to  him  as  well  as  to  Drs.  Schmucker  and  Kurtz,  if  it  was  a 
slight  at  all.  But  really,  it  was  not  intended  as  a  slight. 
It  is  not  customary,  nor  even  lawful,  to  invite  strangers  to 
preach  in  the  pulpits  of  the  churches  in  Germany.  When 
Dr.  Kurtz  was  in  Germany,  twenty  years  before,  he  preached 
in  many  of  the  German  churches,  even  before  the  king  of 
Prussia,  but  it  was  by  special  appointment  of  the  authori- 
ties, and  he  had  come  on  an  ecclesiastical  mission.  But 
Schmucker,  Kurtz,  and  Morris  came  on  a  pleasure  or  sight- 
seeing excursion.  The  pastors  of  the  churches  in  Germany 
are  appointed  by  the  state,  the  same  as  civil  officers,  and 
their  duty  is  to  preach  at  the  appointed  times,  in  the  pul- 
pits assigned  them,  and  they  have  no  right  to  assign  this 
duty  to  any  one  else,  without  permission  from  higher 
authority.  Dr.  Enders  relates  his  experience  on  this  point 
as  follows  :  "  During  a  tour  to  Germany  I  visited  my 
mother's  birth  place.  I  called  on  the  pastor  of  the  church 
and  was  kindly  received  by  him.  My  relatives  requested 
him  to  invite  their  friend  from  America  to  preach  on  Sun- 
day ;  but  he  declined,  saying  it  was  against  the  rules.  The 
next  Sunday  I  spent  in  my  own  birth  place,  where  some 
more  of  my  relatives  lived.  They  also  told  the  pastor, 
they  would  like  to  hear  me  preach, and  he  consented.  When 
I  said  to  him,  '  But,  Mr.  Pastor,  is  it  not  against  the  rules  of 
order,  to  have  a  stranger  preach  in  your  pulpit?'  His 
reply  was,  '  IVo  kein  Klaeger  ist,  da  ist  aiich  kein  Richter' 
(Where  there  is  no  accuser  there  is  no  judge)." 

A  still  more  striking  case  of  this  kind  occurred  a  few 
years  ago.  There  is  an  institution  in  the  northern  part  of 
Germany  by  the  name  of  Kropp,  in  which  students  are 
trained  for  the  ministry,  to  be  sent  to  America.     The  Min- 


isterium  of  Pennsylvania  had  contributed  funds  to  the  sup- 
port of  this  institution,  and  a  number  of  ministers  had 
already  been  received  and  were  appointed  to  pastorates  in 
this  country.  Dr.  Spaeth,  a  prominent  minister  in  the  Min- 
isterium  of  Pennsylvania,  and  professor  of  theology  in  Mt. 
Airy  Seminary,  during  a  tour  to  Germany  paid  a  visit  to 
Kropp,  and  as  he  remained  there  over  Sunday,  he  expected 
to  preach  in  the  chapel  of  the  institution,  but  was  not 
invited  to  do  so. 

Hence  we  must  see,  that  it  was  not  because  Schmucker, 
Kurtz  and  Morris  had  signed  and  carried  a  circular  letter 
to  Germany,  that  they  were  not  invited  to  preach,  but 
because  such  a  practice  was  contrary  to  the  ecclesiastical 
rules  and  customs  of  Germany. 

The  Dr.  goes  on  further  to  say  :  "  This  appeal  had 
been  sent  before  them  (us),  and  had  been  extensively  pub- 
lished. Tholuck  and  I  had  a  conversation  about  it,  and  the 
worst  thing  he  said  of  it  was,  that  before  it  was  published 
in  Germany,  he  and  some  others  re-wrote  it  in  pure  and 
classic  German.  Dr.  Schmucker  was  aware  of  this,  and 
said  to  me,  *  that  he  never  in  his  life  tried  harder  to  write 
good  German  ; '  but  after  all,  it  sounded  very  much  like  a 
translation  from  English  into  German,  which  I  presume  it 
was,  and  it  abounded  in  American  Saxonisms." 

It  was  certainly  unkind,  if  not  cruel,  thus  to  expose 
the  deficiency  of  his  venerable  preceptor  and  pastor,  in  his 
German  style,  and  then  publish  it  to  the  world  in  his 
"  Fifty  Years  in  the  Ministry."  It  is  not  claimed  that  Dr. 
Schmucker  spoke  and  wrote  what  is  called  the  classic  Ger- 
man, with  its  involved  sentences  and  high  sounding  phrases^ 
but  his  German  will  compare  favorably  with  that  of  any 
American  born  Pennsylvanian  of  that  or  the  present  time. 
He  had  enjoyed  peculiar  advantages  for  acquiring  a  knowl- 
edge of  the  German  language.     His  father  was  an  eloquent 

DR.    THOLUCK.  255 

German  preacher,  and  also  published  a  number  of  German 
books,  written  in  a  correct,  though  plain  style.  He  studied 
theology  first  with  his  father,  and  afterwards  with  Drs.  Hel- 
muth  and  Schmidt  in  Philadelphia,  and,  no  doubt,  imitated 
their  style,  of  which  we  have  samples  in  the  Halle  Annals, 
written  by  Muhlenberg  and  his  co-laborers.  Ihen  he  read 
many  German  books  and  translated  some  of  them  into 
English.  In  the  early  part  of  his  ministry  he  also  fre- 
quently preached  in  the  German  language,  but  in  maturer 
age  his  preaching,  writing,  lectures,  conversations  in  the 
family,  and  intercourse  with  friends  was  principally  in  the 
English  language.  By  such  means  a  man's  thinking  will 
gradually  be  done  in  English,  and  his  German  writing  will 
become  simply  a  transferring  of  English  thoughts  and  con- 
struction into  German  words. 

Dr.  Tholuck  is  universally  acknowledged  to  have 
been  a  highly  learned  and  devotedly  pious  man.  We  have 
frequently  heard  Prof.  Charles  Hay  speak  of  him  in  the  very 
highest  terms  of  respect  and  admiration.  He  was  one  of 
his  students  at  Halle,  and  accompanied  him  one  summer  on 
a  pedestrian  tour  to  Switzerland.  His  commentary  on  the 
gospel  according  to  St.  John  is  one  of  the  very  best  ever 
published ;  Dr.  C.  P.  Krauth,  Jr.,  translated  it  into  English. 
Now,  Tholuck  "and  some  others"  must  have  highly 
approved  the  tenor  and  object  of  the  appeal,  or  they  would 
not  have  re-written  it,  to  form  it  into  "  pure  and  classic 
German,"  and  then  had  it  printed  and  sent  out  to  the  Ger- 
man pastors  and  people,  no  doubt  at  their  own  expense, 
even  before  the  noble  trio,  Schmucker,  Kurtz  and  Morris, 
had  set  foot  on  German  soil. 

As  stated  elsewhere,  the  three  friends  did  not  remain 
together  in  their  travels  on  the  continent  of  Europe. 
Schmucker  spent  most  of  his  time  in  the  universities  and 
Hbraries  and  pubhshing  houses,  and  in  the  society  of  dis- 


tinguishcd  professors  and  theologians ;  Kurtz,  we  presume, 
took  most  interest  in  the  religious  affairs  of  Germany  and 
in  church  papers  ;  and  Morris  searched  among  the  memori- 
als and  relics  of  Luther  and  his  times,  and  also  climbed 
some  of  the  Alpine  mountains.  On  his  return  to  America 
he  gave  some  very  interesting  and  amusing  lectures — 
"  Alpenstock  "  in  hand — of  his  observations  and  experience 
in  SA^itzerland.  We  give  herewith  an  interesting  letter 
from  Morris  and  Kurtz,  written  to  Schmucker,  while  they 
were  waiting  for  him  in  Paris  : 

Dear  Dr. — We  have  been  anxiously  looking  for  you 
every  day.  But  we  hope  that  your  long  absence  is  owing 
to  your  success  in  receiving  donations  for  the  Seminary. 
Dr.  Kurtz,  has  been  here  twelve  days,  and  waited  three  or 
four  for  Morris.  The  latter  arrived  here  last  Saturday,  and 
we  have  both  been  on  the  go  ever  since.  We  have  resolved 
to  leave  for  London  to-morrow,  via  Ostende.  There  we 
shall,  of  course,  see  you,  D.  V.  We  advise  you  to  take  rooms  at 
Meurice's  Hotel,  where  they  speak  English,  you  may  dine 
at  Table-de-Hote,  if  you  please,  at  6  p.  m.,  but  we  dined 
every  day  at  the  corner  of  Rue  Rivole  and  Place  de  Rivole, 
where  they  speak  English  and  German,  for  2  Franks  per 
day,  but  you  can  suit  yourself  We  would  also  advise  you 
to  employ  as  a  valet,  an  Englishman  named  Barrett,  for 
whom  you  can  inquire  of  the  porter's  wife  at  the  office,  hire 
a  carriage,  also,  and  you  will  thus  save  time  and  money. 

Ebenezer  is  to  be  seen  at  the  Boulevard  de  la  Made- 
line, No.  13,  who  may  be  of  some  service  to  you. 

The  letter  from  Mr.  Crellenberg,  of  Bremen,  you  will 
percieve,  I  had  opened,  but  as  it  was  intended  for  you,  I,  of 
course,  did  not  read  it. 

We  also  received  letters  from  home,  containing  news 
both  pleasant  and  sad.     Dr.  K.  has  a  young  son. 

Dr.  Muller  of  Washington,  has  behaved  badly  and  has 
been  suspended  by  our  synod.  Yeager  of  Kentucky  has 
been  excommunicated  by  the  Synod  of  the  West.  You 
will  see  from  Hay's  letter  that  Seminary  affairs  look  rather 
squally,  while  the  College  seems  to  be  going  ahead.     Pohl- 



man  embarked  for  Europe  6  weeks  ago,  and  has  doubtless 
arrived.     M'Cron  embarked,  also,  and  Passavant  is  coming. 

We  are  told  that  the  British  ministers  intended  to  in- 
troduce a  resolution  about  slavery  into  the  convention, 
which  will  be  a  sort  of  test  of  membership ;  this  will  create 
confusion  at  once.  Mason  will  tell  you  all  about  this.  We 
fear  the  convention  will  not  accomplish  much. 

In  London  inquire  for  us  of  Dr.  Steinkop,  Little 
Savoy,  on  the  Strand,  if  he  lives  where  he  did  20  years  ago, 
which  is  very  probable ;  or  at  the  American  Consul's.  We 
shall  travel  in  England  before  the  Convention  and  shall  not 
remain  in  London  longer  than  next  Monday,  until  our  re- 
turn, so  you  will  not  meet  us  for  two  weeks  at  least. 

Kurtz  and  Morris. 



dr.  schmucker  as  an  author. 

Popular  theology  and  psychology  obtain  large  circu- 
lation—dr.  diehl's  estimate  of  him  as  an  author — 






In  addition  to  his  labors  as  Professor  in  the  Seminary, 
Dr.  Schmucker  was  also  a  prolific  author.  He  published 
many  books  and  pamphlets,  some  of  which,  especially  Slorr 
and  Flatt,  and  the  Popular  Theology,  had  an  extensive  cir- 
culation. The  latter  reached  eight,  and  his  Psychology 
three  editions.  Dr.  Diehl  gives  the  following  statement 
of  his  published  works  : 

"  Of  his  writings,  probably  the  ablest  and  most  valua- 
ble were  those  published  within  the  first  twenty  years  of  his 
ministry, — his  Formula,  his  Popular  Theology,  and  some  of 
the  occasional  addresses,  sermons  and  discourses.  Of  his 
new  system  of  mental  philosophy,  the  writer  is  not  pre- 
pared to  express  an  opinion,  not  having  heard  his  lectures 


on  the  subject  in  the  Seminary,  and  never  having  carefully 
examined  his  book.  With  his  other  works  he  has  consid- 
erable acquaintance.  Most  of  his  books  were  written  to 
meet  particular  wants,  for  particular  occasions;  or  to  accom- 
plish a  particular  purpose  at  the  time  of  their  publication. 
They  were  not  written  for  immortality.  They  had,  there- 
fore, a  greater  interest  when  first  issued,  than  they  can  ever 
have  afterward.  They  are  not  the  products  of  a  mind 
devoted  to  the  profound  and  protracted  study  of  one  sub- 
ject, or  one  branch  of  learning  exclusively.  They  cannot 
have,  therefore,  that  highest  excellence  which  is  reached 
only  in  this  way.  Dr.  Schmucker's  multifarious  labors 
during  the  first  twenty  years  after  his  ordination,  precluded 
the  possibility  of  exclusive  devotion  to  one  line  of  study. 
Probably  very  few  of  these  books  will  hereafter  appear  in 
new  editions.  Books  of  this  class  are  rarely  called  for  after 
the  death  of  their  author.  Yet  his  ability  as  a  writer  is 
conceded  by  all.  He  never  published  anything  that  was  a 
failure.  They  are  all  creditable  productions.  Some  of 
them  were  universally  regarded  as  works  of  decided  ability. 
He  had  less  talent  for  the  production  of  a  liturgy,  than  any- 
thing in  the  way  of  literary  labor  he  ever  attempted.  As  to 
his  general  merits  as  an  author,  the  best  evidence  of  his 
ability  is  found  in  the  extent  of  the  circulation  of  his  books. 
More  volumes  and  copies  of  Dr.  Schmucker's  works  have 
been  purchased  and  read,  than  of  the  productions  of  any 
Lutheran  writer  of  this  country.  Up  to  the  time  of  his 
retirement  from  active  labor,  he  was  more  widely  and  favor- 
ably known  as  an  author,  than  any  of  his  brethren.  Among 
other  denominations  he  was  regarded  as  the  great  repre- 
sentative of  the  Lutheran  Church  of  America." 

His  son.  Rev.  B.  M.  Schmucker,  D.  D.,  gives  the  fol- 
lowing statement  in  the  College  Book  : 

"He   displayed    much    activity  as   an   author,  having 

26o  schmucker's  views  on  uturgies. 

published  forty-four  works,  most  of  which  were  synodical 
and  occasional  discourses.  Many  of  them  are  controversial, 
in  maintenance  of  his  theological  position,  and  of  the  Gen 
eral  Synod  as  he  understood  it.  His  Popular  Theology, 
which  grew  out  of  his  work  in  the  Seminary,  must  have 
met  a  want,  as  it  passed  through  eight  editions.  His  Psy- 
chology reached  a  third  edition.  The  Definite  Platform, 
prepared  by  him  and  Dr.  B.  Kurtz,  was  the  most  unaccept- 
able of  his  publications.  His  attempts  to  produce  a  liturgy 
were  the  most  unsuccessful  of  his  literary  endeavors ;  the 
whole  cast  of  his  mind,  his  aversion  to  a  liturgical  service, 
his  rejection  of  all  right  of  past  usage  to  influence  the  pres- 
ent, especially  unfitted  him  for  such  work." 

It  will  be  noticed  that  both  Drs.  Diehl  and  B.  M. 
Schmucker  declare  that  he  was  less  successful  in  prepar- 
ing a  liturgy  than  he  was  in  any  other  of  his  literary  works. 
Both  these  men  were  advocates  of  extended  liturgical  ser- 
vices, but  Dr.  Schmucker  never  favored  lengthy  liturgical 
services,  and  laid  most  stress  on  the  preaching  of  the  Gos- 
pel as  the  principal  part  of  public  worship.  He  was  not 
averse  to  liturgical  services,  but  he  wanted  them  to  be  brief 
and  subservient  to  the  main  object,  the  preaching  of  the 
Word.  The  preparation  of  a  liturgy  was  one  of  the  first 
subjects  that  claimed  his  attention  after  his  entrance  into 
the  ministry,  and  he  prepared  the  first  English  liturgy  in 
the  Lutheran  Church  of  the  General  Synod,  founded  on  the 
German  liturgy  prepared  by  Muhlenberg.  But  these  litur- 
gical forms  were  brief  and  simple,  hence  Dr.  B.  M. 
Schmucker,  the  author  of  the  "  Common  Service,"  who  had 
devoted  a  great  part  of  his  life  to  liturgical  studies,  pro- 
nounced his  father's  attempt  to  produce  a  liturgy  "  the  most 
unsuccessful  of  his  literary  endeavors." 

His  Psychology,  or  Mental  Philosophy,  was  also 
regarded  a  successful  work  ;  it  reached  three  editions  and 


was  translated  into  German.  We  studied  it  in  the  Semi- 
nary, and  heard  additional  lectures  from  the  Dr.  on  the  sub- 
ject. He  told  us,  among  other  things,  that  after  he  had 
formed  the  intention  of  preparing  a  system  of  Mental  Phi- 
losophy, he  spent  much  time  in  studying  his  own  mental 
faculties,  and  for  ten  years  did  not  look  into  a  book  on  that 
subject,  in  order  that  he  might  prepare  his  work  from  prac- 
tical observation  and  study,  unbiased  by  the  opinions  or  the- 
ories of  other  authors.  A  certain  Dr.  Bronson,  editor  of  a 
literary  journal,  reviewed  this  book,  and  among  other  criti- 
cisms ridiculed  the  idea  of  Dr.  Schmucker  setting  himself 
up  as  "  The  Model  Man."  Dr.  Morris  relates  the  following 
interesting  anecdote  in  relation  to  this  book  : 

"  On  one  occasion,  during  a  visit  of  Dr.  S.  to  Balti- 
more, he  and  I  were  sitting  m  Dr.  Kurtz's  study,  when  the 
physician  of  our  State  Insane  Asylum  entered.  He  was 
introduced  to  Dr.  S.,  but  did  not  hear  his  name  distinctly, 
and  said  to  Dr.  K.,  '  I  have  come  to  inquire  about  a  book 
on  Psychology,  by  one  of  your  ministers  named  Schmucker. 
I  should  like  to  see  it,  and  I  presumed  you  had  it.'  I  im- 
mediately said,  '  Dr.  Fonerden,  you  have  just  been  intro- 
duced to  the  author  of  it.'  Of  course  there  was  surprise 
and  mutual  gratification.  Dr.  S.  was  naturally  much 
pleased,  and  from  that  time  these  two  students  of  Mental 
Philosophy  became  good  friends." 

The  translation  of  Storr  and  Flatt  reached  a  second 
edition  and  was  used  as  a  text  book  in  the  Seminary  as 
long  as  Dr.  Schmucker  was  Professor,  and  was  also  used  as 
a  text  book  for  some  time  in  a  New  England  seminary. 

The  Popular  Theology  obtained  the  largest  circula 
tion  of  any  of  his  publications  and  was  used  as  a  text  book 
in  Seminary  during   the    whole   of   his  professorship.     So 
great  was  the  demand  for  this  work  on  its  first  appearance, 
that  before  the  first  edition  was  finished,  the  printers  had  to 


begin  on  the  second  edition.  It  was  written  in  a  popular 
style  and  intended  not  only  for  the  use  of  theological 
students  and  ministers  of  the  gospel,  but  also  for  intelligent 
laymen,  many  of  whom  have  studied  it  with  deep  interest 
and  profit. 

The  Popular  Theology  is  based  on  the  doctrinal 
articles  of  the  Augsburg  Confession.  But  as  the  Augustana 
was  not  designed  as  a  complete  system  of  Dogmatic 
Theology,  but  rather  to  indicate  wherein  the  Protestants 
agreed  with  or  differed  from  the  Roman  Catholics,  the 
book  could  not  well  be  arranged  as  a  complete  system  of 
Dogmatic  Theology.  This  want  was  however  supplied 
during  the  Seminary  course  by  Prof  Schmucker's  excellent 
dogmatic  lectures. 

Dr.  Schmucker  commenced  authorship  when  yet 
young.  His  first  literary  labor  was  probably  given  to  a 
translation  of  Storr  and  Flatt's  Theology,  as  he  may  have 
commenced  this  before  he  wrote  the  Formula,  although 
published  several  years  later.     We  give  herewith 


1.  Formula  of  Government  and  Discipline,  for  Con- 
gregations and  Synods.  Published  by  the  Synod  of  Mary- 
land and  Virginia,  in  1823,  and  by  the  General  Synod,  in 
1829.     Hagerstown  :  U.  G.  Bell.     1823.     8vo. 

2.  Intellectual  and  Moral  Glories  of  the  Christian 
Temple  Illustrated.  From  the  History  of  the  Evangelical 
Lutheran  Church.     Synodical  Discourse.     1824.     8vo. 

3.  Inaugural  Address,  at  his  Induction  into  the  Pro- 
fessorship of  Christian  Theology,  at  Gettysburg,  Carlisle  : 
1826.     8vo. 

4.  Biblical  Theology,  of  Storr  and  Flatt.  Translated 
from  the  German.  Andover :  Hagg  &  Gould.  1826.2 
vol.     8vo.     Second    Edition,    somewhat     abridged.     An- 


dover :  Gould    &  Neuman.     1836.     i  vol.  8vo.    Re-printed 
in  England,  1845. 

5.  Hymn  Book  of  the  General  Synod.    First  Edition. 


6.  Formula  of  Gov.  and  Dis.,  Ev.  Luth.  Church,  in 
West  Pennsylvania,  an  enlargement  of  the  General  Synod's. 
20  pages.     Gettysburg.      1828. 

7.  Constitution  of  the  Theological  Seminary  of  the 
General  Synod,  at  Gettysburg.  Philadelphia :  W.  Brown. 

8.  Evangelical  Magazine.     1830.     Gettysburg. 

9.  Plea  for  the  Sabbath- School  system.     Gettysburg. 

1830.     8vo. 

10.  Kurtz-gefasste  Geschichte  der  Chris.  Kirche  auf 
Grundlage  des  Busch  'schen  Werkes.  352  pages.  Gettys- 
burg.    1834.     8vo. 

11.  Elements  of  Popular  Theology.  First  Edition. 
Andover.     Eight  Editions,  with  numerous  additions.     512 

pages.     Philadelphia.      1845. 

12.  Discourse  in  Commemoration  of  the  Glorious 
Reformation.  Before  the  West  Pennsylvania  Synod,  142 
pages.     Gould  &  Newman.     1838. 

13.  Fraternal  Appeal  to.  the  American  Churches  on 
Christian  Union.     149  pages.     New  York.     1838.     8vo, 

14.  Wants  of  our  Country.  Delivered  at  the  Request 
of  the  Board  of  Managers,  of  the  Am.  Sunday-School 
Union.     Philadelphia.     1839. 

15.  Oration  on  the  Anniversary  of  Washington's 
Birthday.     Gettysburg.     1839.     8vo. 

16.  Portraiture  ol  American  Lutheranism.  Before 
the  Synod  of  West  Pa.      1840.     89  pages.     8vo. 

^    17.     Retrospect  of  Lutheranism.     Before  the  General 

Synod.     1841. 

18.     Preliminary  Discourse  to   Luther's  Commentary 

on  Galatians.     1840.     8vo. 


19.  Psychology,  or  Elements  of  New  System  of 
Mental  Philosophy.  329  pages.  New  York :  Harpers. 
1842.     8  vo.     Third  edition. 

20.  Appeal  on  behalf  of  the  Christian  Sabbath.  Am. 
Tract  Society. 

21.  Dissertation  on  Capital  Punishment.  Philadel- 
phia.    Third  edition.     1845. 

22.  Patriarchs  of  American  Lutheranism.  Before 
Lutheran  Historical  Society.     1845. 

23.  Papal  Hierarchy  Viewed  in  the  Light  of  Pro- 
phecy and  History.     39  pages.     Gettysburg.     1845,     8vo. 

24.  The  Christian  Pulpit,  the  Rightful  Guardian  of 
Morals  in  Political  and  Private  Life.  Gettysburg.  1846. 
8vo.      , 

25.  Church  Development  on  Apostolic  Principles. 
Gettysburg.     1850.     8vo. 

26.  Nature  of  the  Savior's  Presence  in  the  Eucharist, 
185 1.     8vo. 

27.  The  Am.  Lutheran  Church,  Historically,  Doc- 
trinally  and  Practically  Delineated.  286  pages.  Philadel- 
phia: Miller.     185 1.     i2mo. 

28.  Elemental  Contrast  between  the  Religion  of 
Forms  and  of  the  Spirit.  56  pages.  Gettysburg.  1852. 

29.  The  Peace  of  Zion.  Discourse  before  the  Gen- 
eral Synod.     1853.     ^^o. 

30.  Address  at  the  Laying  of  the  Corner  Stone  of 
the  Shamokin  Literary  Institute.     Pottsville.     1854. 

31.  The  Lutheran  Manual  on  Scriptural  Principles. 
Or  the  Augsburg  Confession,  Illustrated  and  Sustained  by 
Scripture,  and  Lutheran  Theologians.  Philadelphia:  Lind- 
say &  Blackiston.     1855.     12 mo. 

32.  The  Lutheran  Symbols,  or  Vindication  of  Am. 
Lutheranism.     192  pages.     Baltimore.     1856.     8vo. 


33.  Definite  Platform,  Doctrinal  and  Disciplinarian, 
for  Ev.  Luth.  Synods.  42  pages.  Philadelphia:  Miller  & 
Burlack.     1856.     i2mo. 

34.  Rev.  J,  A.  Brown's  New  Theology  Examined. 
16  pages.     Gettysburg.     1857.     8vo. 

35.  The  Baptism  of  Children  whose  Parents  are  not 
connected  with  the  Church.  Report  to  Synod  of  West 
Pennsylvania,     1 1  pages.     1859.     i6mo. 

36.  The  Spiritual  Worship  of  God.  Its  Nature, 
Auxiliaries  and  Impediments.  Before  the  Synod  of  West 
Pennsylvania.     Philadelphia,     i860. 

"ijj.  Evan.  Lutheran  Catechism.  170  pages.  Balti- 
more:  Kurtz.     1859.     1 6mo.  Tenth  Edition.     1871. 

38.  Sermon  on  the  Work  of  Grace,  or  Revival  of  Re- 
ligion, at  Antioch.  27  pages.  Preached  at  Hanover. 
York.     1862. 

39.  Proposed  Liturgy  of  the  General  Synod.  Pre- 
sented at  York.     1864.     12 mo. 

40.  Discourse  on  Human  Depravity.  Gettysburg. 
1865.     i2mo. 

41.  The  Church  of  the  Redeemer,  as  Developed 
within  the  General  Synod  of  the  Ev.  Luth.  Church.  Balti- 
more :  T.N.Kurtz.     1867.     i2mo. 

42.  True  Unity  of  Christ's  Church.  New  York  : 
Randolph.     1870.     i2mo. 



SCHMUCKER's    studious    habits MORRIS*    ACCOUNT — JACOBS' 
















Of  his  studious  habits  Dr.  Morris  has  the  following  to 
say,  which  is  probably  somewhat  overdrawn  : 

"  I  never  knew  a  man  who  needed  and  took  less  re- 
laxation from  severe  mental  toil  than  he.  He  never  laid 
aside  a  subject  he  was  working  at  because  he  had  grown 


weary  of  it.  He  seemed  not  to  require  that  variety  or 
change  of  subject  that  so  many  other  head-workers  find 
necessary  to  quicken  their  brain  or  give  it  a  pause.  It  is 
true  that  in  later  life  he  sometimes  went  to  *  the  Springs,' 
but  he  took  his  work  with  him  and  labored  as  hard  as 
ever.  One  of  our  divines  told  me  that  he  once  met  Dr. 
Schmucker  at  Bedford.  He  was  tinkering  at  the  '  inter- 
minable '  Liturgy  or  some  other  Synodical  machine,  and 
insisted  upon  my  friend  hearing  it  read  and  helping  him  to 
'  fix  the  thing  up.'  He  would  annoy  him  by  questions 
and  bother  him  with  difficulties,  all  the  while  as  calm  as  an 
August  morning  ;  upon  which  my  friend  lost  his  patience 
and  curtly  said,  '  Dr.  Schmucker,  I  have  come  here  for  re- 
laxation. I  want  to  lay  aside  all  perplexing  subjects,  and  I 
won't  listen  to  you  any  longer.'  Now  this  was  a  state  of 
mind  of  which  Dr.  Schmucker  had  no  conception,  because 
he  had  no  experience  of  it.  With  him  it  was  work,  work, 
all  the  time,  without  rest  or  cessation. 

"  I  once  crossed  the  Atlantic  with  him,  and  I  can 
safely  affirm  that  not  a  day  passed  on  which  the  everlasting 
theme  was  not  introduced.  Even  when  he  was  suffering 
from  sea-sickness,  it  seemed  to  be  a  relief  to  him  to  talk 
about  General  Synod,  Liturgy,  Constitution,  Seminary  and 
certain  men.  It  was  not  only  talk,  for  that  might  have 
been  endured,  but  it  was  discussion,  controversy,  scrutiny, 
which  required  tension  of  thought  to  follow,  and  being  at 
sea  is  not  the  place,  nor  time  for  prolonged  and  logical 
thinking.  I  used  to  get  rid  of  what  really  was  an  annoy- 
ance by  looking  out  of  the  cabin  window,  and  exclaiming, 
*  Whale ! '  '  Whale  !  '  and  rush  up  on  deck  to  find  my 
whale  was  nothing  but  a  dark  wave  or  a  floating  mast  of 
some  wrecked  vessel,  but  it  answered  my  purpose  for  the 

This  is  what  Dr.  Jacobs  testifies  :  "  He  threw  all  the 


energy  of  his  life  into  the  General  Synod  and  the  institu- 
tions at  Gettysburg,  withholding  from  them  no  amount  of 
personal  sacrifice  or  toil.  Perfectly  imperturbable,  he 
moved  forward  toward  the  end  in  view,  without  regard  to 
obstacles.     Never  have  higher  executive  abilities  been  at 

the  service  of  the  church The   effect   of  the  later 

Pietism  was,  however,  clearly  discernable  in  the  standard  of 
theological  education  presented  in  his  inaugural."  * 
On  the  same  subject  Dr.  Diehl  writes  as  follows : 
"  Arduous  as  his  labors  had  been  at  New  Market,  at 
Gettysburg  he  was  called  to  bear  a  yet  heavier  burden  of 
toil.  At  that  day,  at  least  two  professors  were  deemed 
necessary  in  a  Theogical  Seminary.  The  utmost  labors  of 
two  men  could  not  do  more  than  teach  three  classes,  in  the 
studies  laid  down  in  the  Seminary  course.  In  our  day,  no 
Seminary  is  thought  to  be  properly  manned  with  less  than 
three  or  four  professors.  Mr.  Schmucker  was  required  to 
do  the  work  of  at  least  two  men  in  the  way  of  instruction. 
Besides  this,  he  had  the  labor  of  raising  the  requisite  funds. 
He  visited  the  cities  to  collect  money.  He  traveled 
through  the  Church,  preaching,  and  soliciting  funds.  His 
vacations  were  spent  in  this  work.  During  the  sessions,  in 
addition  to  the  instruction  of  the  classes,  he  was  employed 
in  compiling  the  Hymn  Book  and  other  works. 

"  And  yet,  the  young  men  that  left  the  Seminary  and 
applied  for  license  at  the  Synods,  seemed  to  be  well  quali- 
fied for  the  gospel  ministry.  Calls  came  to  them  from 
vacant  churches.  In  their  pulpit  and  pastoral  work  they 
were  successful.  Within  a  few  years  the  graduates  of  the 
Seminary  were  in  demand.  Everywhere  they  were  received 
with  favor.  They  were  soon  found  occupying  important 
pulpits.     The  first  who  left  Prof  Schmucker's  lecture  room, 

*  Jacobs'  History,  page  366. 


at  Gettysburg,  was  called  to  the  first  English  Lutheran 
Church,  of  one  of  our  eastern  cities." 

"  The  best  standard  of  a  man's  workmanship  is  the 
character  and  quality  of  the  products  of  his  labor.  Judged 
by  this  rule,  the  Gettysburg  Professor  must  have  been  a 
skillful  teacher.  He  trained  men  well  for  the  sacred  work. 
The  Church  soon  endorsed  his  efficiency,  by  sending  pres- 
sing calls  to  his  pupils. 

"  When  one  man  was  required  to  teach  Greek  and 
Hebrew  Philology,  Sacred  Geography,  Sacred  Chronology, 
Biblical  and  Profane  History,  Biblical  Antiquities,  Mental 
Philosophy,  Natural  Theology,  Evidences  of  Christianity, 
Biblical  Criticism,  Exegetical  and  Biblical  Theology,  Syste- 
matic Divinity,  Ecclesiastical  History,  Pastoral  and  Polemic 
Theology,  Church  Government,  the  Composition  and  De- 
livery of  Sermons,  the  instruction  may  not  have  been  as 
thorough  in  any  one  branch  as  .  that  afforded  by  the  theo- 
logical chairs  of  our  best  schools  at  this  day.  Under  such 
circumstances,  a  man  must  be  judged  by  the  general  results 
and  character  of  his  work.  Did  he  send  forth  good  preach- 
ers and  pastors?  Did  he  inspire  them  with  the  right 
spirit  ?  Did  he  give  them  back  to  the  church,  intelligent, 
godly,  self-denying,  laborious  young  ministers  ?  Were 
they  adapted  to  the  wants  of  the  Lutheran  Church  ? 

"  In  all  these  particulars,  the  results  of  the  theological 
training,  at  Gettysburg,  when  Mr.  Schmucker  was  the  only 
teacher  in  the  Seminary  were  highly  satisfactory.  The 
best,  the  most  active  and  the  most  intelligent  ministers  ex- 
pressed themselves  highly  pleased  with  the  qualifications 
displayed  by  the  young  men,  who  were  trained  by  him. 
The  students  themselves,  had  an  exalted  opinion  of  his 
abilities,  his  attainments,  and  his  fidelity." — Diehl. 


Professor  Schmucker  was  one  of  the  best  teachers  and 
disciplinarians,  at  whose  feet  it  was  ever  my  privilege 
to  sit. 


He  dictated  his  lectures,  and  usually  gave  us  sufficient 
time  to  commit  them  to  paper.  At  the  beginning  of  the 
course,  he  also  gave  us  a  plain  and  simple  system  of  short- 
hand and  abbreviations  to  facilitate  rapidity  in  taking  down 
the  lectures.  His  enunciation  was  slow  and  clear,  so  that 
not  a  word  or  a  syllable  was  lost  or  misunderstood. 

I  do  not  remember  of  any  kind  of  levity  having  ever 
been  indulged  in  by  any  of  the  students  in  his  class,  much 
less  by  himself,  although  a  good  natured  smile  at  a  ludi- 
crous mistake  of  a  fellow  student,  a  striking  illustration,  or 
pleasant  anecdote  told  by  himself,  was  not  unusual. 

He  insisted  on  close  attention,  perfect  order,  faithful 
study  of  the  lessons,  and  close  observance  of  the  rules  of 
the  institution. 

On  certain  occasions  the  students  had  debates  on 
some  theological  subjects,  assigned  by  the  Professor ;  the 
debaters  were  appointed  on  opposite  sides  of  the  question 
in  dispute.  The  Doctor  himself  presided  and  at  the  end  of 
the  debate  he  would  compliment  or  criticise  the  respective 
speakers,  and  then  give  his  own  opinion  or  decision.  Dur- 
ing one  of  these  debates  we  had  considerable  excitement  in- 
side and  outside  of  the  class  room.  The  subject  was  that 
abstruse  question,  which  I  learn  has  since  been  debated  by 
the  students  in  the  Seminary  ;  namely,  whether  the  soul  is 
imparted  immediately  by  God,  or  inherited  from  the  par- 
ents. The  respective  intellectual  combatants  had  studied 
hard  and  made  ample  research  and  preparations  to  get 
down  to  the  bottom  of  this  deep  question.  The  rule  in 
these  debates  was,  that  no  manuscript  should  be  read,  the 
object  being  to  train  the  students  in  extemporaneous  speak- 
ing. The  sainted  W.  H.  H.  however,  came  in  with  a  long, 
elaborate  essay,  which  he  wished  to  read  in  support  of  his 
side  of  the  question,  and  plead  that  the  rule  might  be 
suspended  in  this  important  case.     But  the  Doctor  was  in- 


exorable,  the  rule  was  not  set  aside  and  poor  H.  had  to 
stumble  through  his  argument  the  best  way  he  could.  At 
the  end  of  the  debate,  the  Professor  gave  his  decision  which 
was  in  opposition  to  Brother  H.  This  increased  the  excite- 
ment and  the  disappointment  of  the  good  brother  ;  he  as- 
sembled a  number  of  the  students  outside  of  study  hours, 
read  his  essay  to  us,  boasted  that  he  had  totally  demolished 
the  Doctor's  argument,  and  offered  to  meet  him  in  public 
debate  before  all  the  students  and  the  faculty.  But  with 
all  his  bluster,  I  believe  the  students  all  agreed  with  the 
Doctor,  except  perhaps  the  sainted  Brother  C. 

His  criticisnis  of  our  essays,  abstracts,  and  sermons 
were  generally  faithful  and  correct,  in  pointing  out  errors 
in  the  logic,  rhetoric,  scriptural  proof-texts,  historical 
dates  or  facts. 

I  remember  also  that  he  criticised  the  expressions  of 
some  of  us  in  our  prayers.  For  example,  expressions  like 
these  were  sometimes  used  by  students  in  the  class-room  : 

"  Forgive  us  of  our  sins." 

"  Grant  to  give  us." 

The  too  frequent  and  inappropriate,  or  irreverent  repe- 
tition of  the  name  of  the  De'ty. 

Tautology  and  redundancy  of  expression,  etc.,  etc. 

These,  and  other  inaccuracies  in  grammar,  he  taught  us 
to  avoid  in  our  prayers.  How  far  his  instructions  were 
heeded  by  all  of  his  students  I  am  not  prepared  to  say,  but 
I  have  heard  the  above  and  similar  faulty  language  from 
pulpits  of  different  denominations  very  frequently  since. 

We  were  also  required  at  stated  times  to  read  essays 
on  given  subjects,  and  write  sermons  and  skeletons  on 
selected  texts.  These  were  read  in  the  presence  of  the 
class,  the  Professor  presiding.  The  students  would  first  be 
asked  to  express  their  criticism,  and  then  the  Professor 
would   commend,   correct,  or   censure,   according   to   his 


views.  An  incident  in  these  exercises  I  still  remember 
very  well.  It  was  made  my  duty  to  write  and  read  an 
essay  on  African  Slavery  in  the  South.  Remember  this 
was  long  before  the  war,  while  slavery  was  yet  in  full  force 
in  the  Southern  States.  I  gave  expression  to  some  very 
strong  anti-slavery  sentiments,  and  a  Southern  Brother 
took  offense.    But  the  Doctor  sustained  me  in  my  position. 

The  most  searching  criticisms  were  made  by  the 
Doctor  on  our  sermons  and  skeletons.  It  is  true,  he  would 
commend  everything  in  them  that  he  thought  commend- 
able, but  we  could  seldom  present  a  skeleton  in  which  he 
did  not  find  a  flaw  in  the  introduction,  divisions,  or  applica- 
tion. Especially  in  funeral  sermons  were  we  cautioned  to 
be  careful  in  the  selection  of  the  texts,  and  the  treatment  of 
the  subject  in  relation  to  the  dead.  He  also  pointed  out 
texts  which  were  not  appropriate,  one  of  which  I  will  relate 
from  memory,  an  anecdote  told  in  class.  At  the  funeral  of 
a  notably  wicked  man,  who  had  opposed  the  church,  and 
had  caused  the  minister  much  trouble,  the  preacher  took 
this  text,  "Bind  him  hand  and  foot, and  cast  him  into  outer 
darkness,  where  shall  be  weeping  and  gnashing  of  teeth." 

The  relatives,  of  course,  were  very  angry,  and  con- 
sulted a  lawyer,  with  a  view  of  prosecuting  the  preacher. 
They  were  told,  however,  that  if  the  preacher  had  taken  his 
text  out  of  the  Bible,  they  could  do  nothing  by  law  against 
him.  This  was  given  as  certainly  one  of  the  most  objec- 
tionable kind  of  funeral  texts. 

The  Doctor  frequently  admonished  us  to  be  always 
consistent,  as  christian  young  men,  in  our  deportment,  not 
only  m  our  intercourse  with  each  other  in  the  Seminary, 
but  also  before  other  professing  christians  and  before  the 

He  had  also  a  peculiar  faculty  of  quieting  any  disturb- 
ance or    dissatisfaction  among  the  students.      A  notable 


instance  occurred  during  my  student  years.  At  that  time 
we  boarded  in  common  in  the  basement  of  the  Seminary. 
The  steward  supplied  the  boarding  at  a  very  moderate  rate; 
and  all  the  students  were  seated  at  meals  around  a  large 
table.  On  one  occassion  there  was  a  general  complaint  as 
to  the  quality  of  the  boarding.  It  consisted  very  frequently 
of  what  was  called  "  Pot-pie."  Passavant  called  it  "  Death 
in  the  Pot."  A  general  rebellion  was  inaugurated.  A  state- 
ment of  our  grievances  was  written  out,  and  sent  to  the 
faculty  with  an  appeal  for  better  fare.  In  answer  to  our 
humble  petition  the  Doctor  called  a  meeting  of  the  students 
in  the  chapel.  There  he  very  solemnly  admonished  us  to 
the  exercise  of  christian  patience,  moderation  and  forbear- 
ance. He  reminded  us,  that  the  steward  could  not  afford 
to  give  us  many  luxuries  for  the  low  price  we  paid  him, 
but  that  he  would  speak  with  the  steward,  and  admonish 
him  to  give  us  wholesome  food,  which  he  hoped  would  be 
conducive  to  our  bodily  health  and  vigor  of  our  mental 
faculties.  This  was  good  advice,  and  satisfactory ;  the 
quality  and  variety  of  our  diet  was  also  visibly  improved, 
and  we  considered  the  strike  a  success. 

Muhlenberg's  and  schmucker's  pietism. 

In  a  previous  part  of  this  book  (page  47)  we  quoted 
an  extract  from  an  article  of  R.W., (Reuben  Weiser,)  declar- 
ing that  his  father,  Dr.  J.  G.  Schmucker,  was  a  "  Pietist  of 
the  Spenerian  school  ;  "  and  adding,  this  was,  perhaps  a 
misfortune  for  one  who  was  to  have  the  training  of  not  less 
than  five  hundred  ministers  in  his  hands." 

We  certainly  do  not  regard  Schmucker's  Pietism  as  a 
misfortune,  but  on  the  contrary  as  a  gracious  superintend- 
ing providence.  There  were  some  other  learned  and  good 
men  living  at  that  time,  but  we  can  think  of  no  one  among 
them,  who  was  in  every  respect  so  well  qualified  for  this 


work,  and  so  intensely  and  unselfishly  devoted  to  it  during 
half  a  century  as  Dr.  Schmucker.  We  are  not  alone  in  this 
opinion  of  his  usefulness  and  devotion  to  the  church.  Dr. 
Morris  gives  the  following  testimony  : 

"  It  cannot  be  doubted  that  to  Dr.  Schmucker  the 
church  is  much  indebted  for  the  respectable  position  it  as- 
sumed and  the  progress  it  made  during  the  early  part  of 
his  career.  He  had  a  noble  ambition  to  elevate  its  char- 
acter by  the  development  of  its  resources,  and  he  succeeded. 
He  was  indefatigable  in  his  labors  to  promote  what  he  con- 
sidered to  be  its  best  interests.  I  never  knew  a  man  more 
wholly  given  up  to  the  prosecution  of  his  plans.  He  read 
none  of  the  popular  books  on  science  or  literature,  which 
most  cultivated  clergymen  indulge  in  for  recreation  from 
more  severe  studies,  and  to  keep  abreast  of  the  progress  of 
mind ;  but  his  entire  time,  day  and  night,  at  home  and 
elsewhere,  was  devoted  to  his  favorite  pursuits  of  writing, 
planning,  begging  and  talking  for  the  church." 

Dr.  Schmucker  was  violently  opposed  by  certain  ultra 
confessionalists,  who  accused  him  of  heterodoxy  and  dis- 
loyalty to  the  Lutheran  Church,  for  whose  welfare  he  had 
labored  and  sacrificed  his  time  and  money.  But  Dr. 
Henry  Melchior  Muhlenberg,  the  patriarch  of  the  American 
Lutheran  Church,  passed  through  precisely  the  same  ex- 
perience. Dr.  Wolf  in  his  "  Lutherans  in  America,"  (pages 
252  3,)  writes  thus  of  Muhlenberg: 

"  They  assailed  him  with  poisoned  shafts  of  calumny 
and  malice  to  counteract  his  usefulness  and  prevent  the 

progress     of    Christ's     Kingdom Berkemeier    and 

Knoll  entertained  strong  prejudice  against  Muhlenberg's 
Pietism,  and  persistently  sought  to  undermine  his  influence 
by  impugning  his  orthodoxy  and  his  loyalty  to  the 
Lutheran  Church.  Berkemeier  claimed  for  himself  and  the 
men  from  Hamburg  a  more  positive  Lutheran  orthodoxy. 


than  he  conceded  to  Hartwig  and  Muhlenberg  and  others 
trained  in  Halle,  He  earnestly  warned  the  congregations 
against  them." 

Nothing  could  more  accurately  describe  the  treatment 
which  Dr.  Schmucker  received  from  his  opponents.  The 
same  violent  persecution  was  also  carried  on  against 
Spener,  the  father  of  Pietism,  as  also  against  those  godly 
men,  Francke,  the  founder  of  the  great  orphan  house  at 
Halle,  and  Arndt,  the  author  of  the  "  True  Christianity.** 
Prayer  meetings  were  introduced  by  Spener,  and  became 
the  salt  of  the  earth,  even  to  the  present  day.  Albert 
Bengel,  the  learned  Lutheran  Commentator,  was  especially 
the  hand  of  the  Lord  by  which  this  salt  was  cast  abroad. 
On  one  occasion  he  expressed  himself  as  follows  :  "  I  do 
not  understand  why  there  should  be  opposition  to  prayer- 
meetings.  Why  should  each  one  be  pious  and  remain  by 
himself?  It  is  just  as  if  people  were  going  on  a  journey^ 
and  I  should  advise  them,  *  Don't  go  together  in  company^ 
but  let  each  remain  about  a  gunshot  behind  the  other.' " 

The  accusation  is  often  made,  that  Pietism  was  the 
forerunner  of  Rationalism,  and  consequently  led  to  and  is 
responsible  for  Rationalism.  But  this  is  a  false  assumption^ 
as  Dr.  Sprecher  has  shown  in  his  learned  book,  the 
"  Groundwork."  Auberlen  put  the  matter  correctly,  when 
he  said,  that  "  there  was  a  two-fold  opposition,  side  by  side, 
to  the  dead  orthodoxy  of  the  seventeenth  century,  one  intel- 
lectual, the  other  spiritual,  or  in  other  words,  the  one 
rationalistic,  the  other  pietistic."  Auberlen  even  says, 
"  Humanism  was  older  than  the  Reformation,  and  Ration- 
alism was  older  than  Pietism." 

The  question  might  be  asked.  How  did  Rationalism 
get  into  the  other  universities  of  Germany,  where  the  so- 
called  "  dead  orthodoxy  "  prevailed  ?  Is  the  orthodoxy,, 
that  once  prevailed  in  those   schools,  responsible   for  the 



Rationalism  that  has  succeeded  and  abounded  in  them  for, 
lo,  these  many  years  ? 

From  all  accounts  Rationalism  predominates  at  the 
present  time,  not  only  in  Halle,  but  also  in  all  the  other 
German  universities.* 

As  the  "  dead  orthodoxy  "  was  also  the  forerunner  in 
these  institutions,  we  might  with  equal  propriety  hold  it 
responsible  for  the  Rationalism  now  taught  in  their  halls. 

The  truth  is,  there  can  be  no  perfect  security,  that  a 
theological  seminary  shall  for  all  time  maintain  the 
doctrinal  position  of  its  founders,  either  in  Germany  or  in 
America.  The  Seminary  at  Gettysburg  was  founded  by 
Dr.  S.  S.  Schmucker,  Wittenberg  College  and  Seminary 
were  founded  by  Drs.  Ezra  Keller  and  Samuel  Sprecher, 
and  the  Missionary  Institute  at  Selin's  Grove  was  founded 
by  Dr.  Benjamin  Kurtz ;  but  what  assurance  have  we,  that 
the  doctrinal  status  and  religious  tendency  of  their  founders 
shall  remain  unchanged  for  all  time  to  come?  In  Germany, 
where  the  church  and  her  institutions  are  under  the  control 
of  the  state,  where  the  professors  are  not  obligated  to  teach 
according  to  the  Augsburg  Confession,  the  change  from 
Orthodoxy  to  Heterodoxy  is  made  very  easy.f 

*  I  see  statements  in  the  German  papers  that  it  is  urgently  pro- 
posed to  found  a  new  University  from  which  Rationalism  shall  be  ex- 
cluded, only  orthodox  professors  be  appointed,  and  the  pure  Scrip- 
tural doctrines  only  shall  be  taught. 

t  This  reminds  of  a  striking  analogy  in  nature.  When  the  winter 
is  past,  and  the  spring  time  has  come,  the  voice  of  the  Cuckoo  is 
heard  in  the  land.  This  singular  bird  builds  no  nest  of  its  own,  but 
lays  its  eggsin  the  nests  of  some  other  bird?,  that  they  may  hatch  them 
along  with  their  own,  and  feed  the  young  both  alike.  But  the  young 
Cuckoos  are  larger  than  the  other  birdies,  and  have  bigger  mouths;  so 
they  get  most  of  the  food,  starve  out  the  original  heirs,  and  at  last 
crowd  them  out  of  the  nest  altogether. 



"  About  seventy-five  years  ago  Drs.  Schmucker  and 
Kurtz  were  regarded  as  the  two  ablest  English  Lutheran 
preachers  in  America.  They  differed  very  widely,  however, 
in  their  style  of  oratory.  When  Schmucker  entered  the 
ministry,  Kurtz  was  already  attracting  notice  as  a  rising 
young  man  in  the  church. 

"  Though  Mr.  S.  delivered  his  sermons  without  manu- 
script, he  was  not  an  extemporaneous  preacher.  He  made 
full  preparation,  writing  his  sermons  with  great  care.  Such, 
however,  was  his  facility  in  memorizing  his  own  composi- 
tions, that  three  readings  would  often  be  sufficient  to  trans- 
fer an  entire  sermon  from  the  manuscript  to  his  memory. 
His  sermons  were  framed  after  the  models  of  the  best 
authorities  of  that  time.  Going  to  the  root  of  his  subject, 
analyzing  it  carefully,  arranging  his  matter  systematically, 
clothing  his  thoughts  in  a  clear,  Addisonian  style,  instruct- 
ive and  practical  at  the  same  time,  an  occasional  flower  of 
rhetoric,  appeals  to  the  conscience,  as  well  as  to  reason, 
touching  at  times  the  fountain  of  emotions,  always  solemn 
in  aspect  and  dignified  in  manner,  distinct  in  his  enuncia- 
tion, clear  in  voice  and  loud  enough  to  be  easily  heard  by 
all,  he  was  such  a  preacher  in  1822,  as  all  classes  delighted 
to  hear." 

The  foregoing  eulogy  is  given  by  Dr.  Diehl ;  my  own 
estimate  corresponds  with  it  entirely.  Having  often  heard 
him  preach,  his  sermons  made  a  deep  impression  on  my 
mind,  and  many  important  truths  have  been  indelibly  fixed 
in  my  memory.  He  did  not  use  many  illustrations ;  if  he 
had,  it  would  have  made  his  sermons  more  popular ;  but 
when  he  did  use  one,  it  was  always  striking  and  appro- 

I  select  the  following  as  a  sample  from  his  sermon, 
preached  in  Middletown,  Md.,  before  the  Synod  of  Mary- 


land  in  the  year  1824.  It  is  said,  that  this  sermon  pro- 
duced the  final  determination  in  the  minds  of  the  members 
of  this  Synod  to  establish  a  theological  seminary  : 

"  An  American  Indian  gave  the  following  advice  to  a 
Moravian  missionary,  by  one  of  whom  he  was  led  to  Christ 
and  converted  : 

" '  Brethren,'  said  he,  '  I  have  grown  old  among  the 
heathen  ;  therefore  I  know  how  the  heathen  think.  Once 
a  preacher  came  and  began  to  explain  to  us  that  there  is  a 
God.  We  answered,  '  Dost  thou  think  us  so  ignorant  as 
not  to  know  that  ?  Go  back  to  the  place  whence  thou 

"  '  Then  again  another  preacher  came  and  began  to 
teach  us,  and  to  say,  '  You  must  not  steal,  nor  lie,  nor  get 
drunk.'  We  answered,  '  Thou  fool !  dost  thou  think  we 
don't  know  that  ?  Learn  first  thyself,  and  then  teach  the 
people  to  whom  thou  belongest,  to  leave  off  these  things  ; 
for  who  steals,  or  lies,  or  is  more  drunken  than  thine  own 
people  ?  *  And  thus  we  dismissed  him. 

"'After  some  time  Brother  Christian  Henry  Rauch 
came  into  my  hut  and  sat  down  by  me.  He  spoke  to  me 
nearly  as  follows :  '  I  come  to  you  in  the  name  of  the  God 
of  heaven  and  earth.  He  wants  to  let  you  know  that  he 
will  make  you  happy,  and  deliver  you  from  the  misery  in 
"which  you  lie  at  present.  To  this  end  he  became 
a  man,  gave  his  life  a  ransom  for  man,  and 
shed  his  blood  for  him  on  the  cross  ! '  When  he 
had  finished  his  discourse,  he  lay  down  upon  a  board, 
fatigued  by  the  journey,  and  fell  into  a  sound  sleep.  I  then 
thought :  *  See  how  he  lies  and  sleeps  !  I  might  kill  him 
and  throw  him  out  into  the  woods,  and  who  would  regard 
it  ?     But  this  gives  him  no  concern.' 

"  '  However,  I  could  not  forget  his  words.  They  con- 
stantly recurred  to  my  mind.     Even   when   I  was  asleep, 


I  dreamed  of  the  blood  of  Christ  shed  for  us.  I  found  this 
to  be  different  from  what  I  had  ever  heard,  and  I  inter- 
preted Christian  Henry's  words  to  the  other  Indians.  Thus, 
through  the  grace  of  God,  an  awakening  took  place 
among  us.' 

"  I  say,  therefore,  brethren,  preach  Christ,  our  Savior, 
and  his  sufferings  and  death,  if  you  would  have  your  words 
gain  entrance  among  the  heathen." 

schmucker's  views  on  revivals  of  religion. 

Dr.  Schmucker  advocated  genuine  revivals  of  religion. 
He  was  in  favor  of  protracted  efforts  for  the  conversion  of 
sinners  and  the  edification  of  believers.  He  was  not,  how- 
ever, in  favor  of  unnecessary  noise  and  confusion ;  he 
wanted  the  meetings  to  be  conducted  decently  and  in 
order.  I  never  knew  a  man  who  was  more  orderly  in  all 
his  conduct,  walk  and  conversation. 

His  views  may  be  gathered  from  his  account  of  the 
evangelistic  labors  of  Muhlenberg  and  his  co-laborers  and 
successors  in  the  early  history  of  the  American  Lutheran 
Church.  In  his  discourse  entitled,  "  Retrospect  of  Luther- 
anism,"  he  gives  the  following  account  of  the  work  of 
Muhlenberg  and  his  fellow-laborers  in  promoting  genuine 
revivals  of  religion : 

"  Muhlenberg  and  his  early  fellow-laborers  had  been 
trained  by  the  Spirit  of  God  as  worthy  disciples  of  the 
Frankean  School.  The  period  of  their  education  was  the 
age  of  revivals  in  Germany,  and  succeeded  the  era  of  pietis- 
tic  controversies,  which  grew  out  of  them,  and  enlisted  on 
the  one  side  or  the  other,  the  entire  theological  intellect  of 
the  country.  Their  own  views  were  decidedly  orthodox 
and  evangelical,  and  they  were  careful  to  require  evidences 
of  genuine  piety  from  applicants  for  the  ministerial  office. 
Among  the  questions  they  were  required  to  answer  were 


the  folio  iving  :  How  do  you  know  that  Christ  was  not 
only  a  teacher,  but  also  that  he  has  made  atonement  for  the 
sins  of  men  ?  What  is  meant  by  the  influence  and  bless- 
ings of  the  Holy  Spirit  ?  What  are  the  evidences  of  con- 
version ? 

"  Their  preaching  was  most  evangelical  and  edifying, 
and  their  journals  show  that  they  earnestly  looked  for  the 
divine  blessing.  Muhlenberg  states  that  he  sometimes, 
after  a  sermon,  added  a  brief  paraphrase  or  exhortation  on 
the  closing  hymn,  and  described  the  case  of  a  young  man 
who  attributed  his  conversion  to  this  practice.  All  that 
they  have  written  and  all  that  is  on  record  of  their  sermons 
prove  that  they  were  anxious  mainly  for  the  glory  of  their 
Savior  and  the  salvation  of  souls  committed  to  their  care. 
It  was  in  this  spirit  that  they  plainly  assailed  the  prevailing 
views  of  the  land,  and  often  incurred  the  displeasure  of  the 

"  Thus  for  his  faithfulness  toward  Sabbatli-breakers  in 
Philadelphia,  Dr.  Kunze,  in  1784,  was  attacked  in  the  news- 
papers of  the  day.  Soon  after  his  settlement  in  New  York, 
Dr.  Kunze  remarks:  'Several  individuals  have  come  to  me, 
and  with  tears  besought  me  to  teach  them  what  they  must 
do  to  be  saved.'  The  reports  which  they  statedly  sent  to 
Halle  abounded  in  individual  narratives  of  conversions,  and 
demonstrate  that  they  watched  for  souls  as  those  that  must 
give  account. 

"  They  encouraged  prayer-meetings  among  their 
church  members,  and  often  conducted  them  themselves. 
Nor  did  they  deem  it  necessary  to  forbid  these  meetings, 
although  formalists  within  the  church  opposed  them,  and 
the  ungodly  world  without  sometimes  disturbed  the  meet- 
ings, as  was  the  case  at  Lancaster  in  1773,  in  the  pastoral 
charge  of  Dr.  Helmuth.  Speaking  of  a  revival  of  religion 
then  in  progress,  he  says : 


"  '  Twice  or  thrice  a  week  meetings  were  held  in  the 
evening  at  different  places  by  the  subjects  of  this  work  of 
grace,  and  the  time  spent  in  singing,  praying  and  reading 
a  chapter  in  the  Word  of  God,  or  in  Arndt's  True  Chris- 
tianity, and  if  no  prayer-meeting  was  held  in  church  on 
Sabbath  evening,  the  substance  of  the  morning  sermon  was 
discussed.  In  some  houses  the  number  was  rather  large, 
there  being  sometimes  as  many  as  forty  persons  assembled 
at  one  place.  The  children  of  the  world  several  times  at- 
tempted to  disturb  their  worship  by  standing  at  the  win- 
dows listening,  and  by  throwing  stones  against  the  doors. 
But  by  grace  they  were  enabled  to  bear  it  without  any  re- 
sistance, and  even  when  on  their  way  home  they  were  as- 
sailed on  the  streets  with  various  nicknames,  and  stigma- 
tized as  hypocrites,  pietists,  etc.,  yet  they  answered  not  a 
word.  Some  of  these  persecutors  also,  when  they  heard 
these  men  sing  and  pray  with  fervor  and  sincerity,  not  only 
ceased  their  opposition,  but  induced  others  to  do  the 

"  The  labors  of  the  greater  number  of  these  men  were 
extensively  blessed.  Speaking  of  a  visit  to  Tulpehocken, 
Father  Muhlenberg  says  that  he  found  many  souls  who 
professed  the  Rev.  Mr.  M.  Kurtz  to  be  their  spiritual 
father;  and  his  own  labors  were  crowned  with  very  exten- 
sive success.  In  1782  there  was  also  a  season  of  revival  of 
great  interest  in  the  church  in  Philadelphia.  '  Particularly 
among  the  young,"  says  Dr.  Kunze,  "  there  has  been  a  fire 
kindled,  which  continued  to  burn,  to  our  great  joy,  about  a 
year.'  " 

schmucker's  view  of  the  christian  sabbath. 

Dr.  Schmucker  taught  the  divine  obligation  to  keep 

the  Christian  Sabbath  or  Lord's  Day,  as  a  day  of  sacred 

rest.     He   regarded   it   as  a  Christian's   bounden    duty   to 

abstain    from    all    unnecessary   secular  labor  on    the  first 

282  schmucker's  tract  on  the  sabbath. 

day  in  every  week,  and  devote  that  day  to  religious  duties 
in  the  family  or  the  public  worship  of  God. 

On  this  subject  he  wrote  a  tract  which  was  published 
in  English  by  the  American  Tract  Society,  and  was  also 
translated  into  the  German  language.  In  this  tract  he  very 
clearly  shows,  that  in  the  beginning  the  Sabbath  was  insti- 
tuted for  the  whole  human  race,  and  not  for  the  Jews  alone; 
that  in  the  Christian  dispensation  it  was  changed  from  the 
seventh  to  the  first  day  of  the  week,  which  day  has  con- 
tinued to  be  observed  from  the  earliest  time  of  the  christian 
church  to  the  present  day ;  that  it  is  also  regarded  neces- 
sary by  the  secular  governments  ;  that  the  Sabbath  is  one 
of  the  safeguards  against  crime ;  that  it  is  necessary  for  our 
physical,  intellectual,  moral  and  spiritual  welfare ;  that  the 
French  infidels  committed  a  fatal  error,  when  they  under- 
took to  make  the  tenth  instead  of  the  seventh  a  day  of  rest. 
He  laments  the  fact  that  so  many  people  in  this  favored 
land  desecrate  the  Christian  Sabbath,  and  our  railroads, 
canals  and  many  public  works  disregard  their  obligation  to 
keep  the  Lord's  Day  holy. 

There  are  now  some  theologians  who  maintain,  that 
the  Sabbath  was  only  a  ceremonial  regulation  for  the  Jews, 
and  was  abrogated  after  the  advent  of  Christ,  so  that  we 
are  under  no  moral  obligation  to  keep  it  holy,  and  that  it 
has  not  been  changed  from  the  seventh  to  the  first  day  of 
the  week,  but  that  we  keep  this  day  merely  as  a  human  regula- 
tion for  convenience  sake,  in  order  that  we  may  have  an 
appointed  time  for  public  worship.  We  copy  the  following 
selection  from  Schmucker's  tract,  in  which  he  proves,  that 
the  Sabbath  was  instituted  for  the  whole  human  race, 
proves  that  it  was  properly  changed  by  the  early  Christian 
Church  from  the  seventh  to  the  first  day  of  the  week : 

"  The  word  of  God,  we  believe,  inculcates  the  divine 
obligation  to  consecrate  one   day  in   seven  to    rest   from 


secular  toil,  and  to  exercises  of  religious  devotion.  This 
was  enacted  at  the  end  of  the  creative  week,  for  reasons 
equally  applicable  to  all  nations  and  all  generations  :  '  Be- 
cause in  six  days  the  Lord  created  the  heavens  and  the 
earth,  and  rested  on  the  seventh  from  all  the  works  which 
he  had  made.'  And  as  he  created  the  heavens  and  the 
earth,  not  for  the  Jews  only, -but  for  all  nations,  so  the  ex- 
ample of  his  resting  and  sanctifying  the  seventh  day,  must 
also  have  been  designed  for  all.  Here  we  find  the  original 
and  formal  institution  of  the  Sabbath.  In  Exod.  xx.  8-11, 
it  is  evidently  spoken  of  as  already  existing  and  known. 
The  language,  '  Remember  the  Sabbath  day,'  etc.,  implies  a 
previous  acquaintance  with  it.  The  same  is  true  of  Exod. 
xvi.  Moreover,  the  declaration  of  the  Savior,  that  the  Sab- 
bath was  made  for  man,  forbids  the  idea  of  its  restriction  to 
the  Israelites  alone,  and  implies  that  it  was  intended  for  all 
mankind,  and  therefore  appropriately  instituted  at  that 
early  day.  That  the  Sabbath  was  appointed  at  the  time 
just  stated,  is  moreover  sustained  by  the  fact,  that  the  divis- 
ion of  time  into  weeks  was  found  among  the  most  ancient 
nations,  as  far  back  as  history  and  tradition  extend.  It  was 
found  among  the  Egyptians,  Assyrians,  Phoenicians, 
Ancient  Chinese,  Indians,  Arabians,  and  others.  No  other 
rational  account  of  the  general  prevalence  of  the  hebdoma- 
dal division  of  time  in  the  earliest  ages  of  antiquity  can  be 
given,  than  that  it  was  spread  by  tradition  from  the  family 
of  Noah,  who  had  derived  it  from  our  first  parents. 

"  We  claim  not  that  the  identical  hours  must  be  ob- 
served over  the  whole  earth  ;  for,  unless  the  night  were 
employed,  this  would  be  physically  impossible.  Had  the 
popular  theory  of  antiquity  proved  true,  that  the  earth  is  an 
extended  plain,  the  same  twelve  hours  might  have  been 
observed  for  the  active  duties  of  the  Sabbath  by  all  men. 
But  how  can  the  inhabitants  of  a  revolving  sphere,  illumi- 


nated  from  one  fixed  point,  all  have  their  Sabbath  day,  or 
any  other  day,  at  the  same  time  ?  We  need  scarcely  remind 
any  of  you,  that  if  colonies  had  simultaneously  emigrated 
from  Eden,  and  proceeded  half  round  the  globe,  they 
would  have  been  involved  in  midnight,  whilst  the  meridian 
sun  illumined  their  starting  point :  and  if  they  continued 
their  progress  till  they  completed  the  circuit,  each  having 
faithfully  kept  the  seventh  day  as  Sabbath,  they  would  find 
themselves  observing  different  days.  But  though  the  simul- 
taneousness  of  sabbatic  observance  will  be  conceded  as  un- 
necessary, it  is  evident,  that  whilst  these  divergent  colonies 
might  both  regularly  observe  the  seventh  day,  counting 
from  the  time  they  started,  yet  when  they  met,  as  they 
would  be  observing  different  days,  they  must  either  have 
two  conflicting  Sabbaths,  or  one  of  them  must  change  its 
day  and  adopt  that  of  the  other.  Since  the  Creator  has 
made  it  physically  impossible  to  observe  the  same  hours, 
or  even,  in  some  cases,  the  same  day  ;  does  he  not  thus 
evidently  teach  us,  that  it  was  not  unalterably  the  seventh 
day  of  the  week,  but  the  religious  observance  of  the  seventh 
portiofi  oi  time  which  essentially  constitutes  his  Sabbath  ? 
while,  in  the  Old  Testament  dispensation,  the  seventh  day 
was  confessedly  appointed.  During  the  Mosaic  dispensa- 
tion, the  same  proportion  of  time  was  reiterated,  with  var- 
ious ceremonial  injunctions,  and  the  Sabbath,  like  the  rain- 
bow of  old,  employed  as  a  type  or  sign  to  the  Israelites, 
without  altering  its  primitive  relation  to  other  nations. 
This  ceremonial  character  and  its  appendages,  which  were 
peculiar  to  the  Mosaic  economy,  and  '  were  shadows  of 
things  to  come,  of  which  Christ  is  the  body,'  Paul  tells  the 
Colossians  (ii.  16)  were  abolished  in  the  New  testament, 
with  the  other  types  and  shadows  of  the  old ;  but  the 
primitive  design  and  obligation  remained  to  sanctify  the 
seventh  portion  of  time.     The  inspired  apostles,  doubtless 


for  wise  reasons,  selected  the  day  of  our  Lord's  resurrec- 
tion, the  first  day  of  the  week,  for  their  stated  seventh-day 
religious  services,  perhaps  to  connect  the  Savior's  triumph 
over  death  and  the  powers  of  hell,  with  the  perpetual  pub- 
lic devotions  of  Christians,  and  possibly  to  prevent  the 
ceremonial  aspects  of  the  Jewish  Sabbath  from  becoming 
connected  with  that  of  Christians,  to  which  there  would 
have  been  a  constant  tendency,  if  the  same  day  had  been 

"  That  the  inspired  apostles,  and  primitive  Christians 
under  their  guidance,  selected  the  first  day  for  their  regular 
weekly  public  exercises,  we  think,  needs  no  labored  argu- 
ment. Luke  the  evangelist,  not  only  tells  us,  that  the  dis- 
ciples came  together  on  the  first  day  to  break  bread,  that 
is,  to  celebrate  the  communion,  but  he  says,  on  the  first 
day  of  the  week,  zvhen  they  came  together  for  this  purpose, 
Paul  preached  to  them ;  implying  that  it  was  their  custom 
so  to  convene.  Paul  also  directs  the  Christians  of  Corinth 
and  Galatia  to  hold  their  charitable  collections  on  the  first, 
or,  as  St.  John  calls  it,  '  The  Lord's  Day,'  for  the  obvious 
reason,  that  then  they  were  assembled,  i  Cor.  xvi.  i,  2. 
Indeed,  the  resurrection  of  Christ  was  so  decidedly  the 
culminating  and  crowning  scene  in  the  work  of  redemption, 
it  was  so  obviously  the  day  of  triumph  for  Christ,  for  Chris- 
tianity, and  for  Christians,  that  the  disciples  from  the  begin- 
ning very  naturally  regarded  it  as  the  day  most  closely" 
connected  with  their  religion  and  worship,  and  observed  it 
as  such.  And  the  divine  Savior  himself  seems  to  have 
evinced  his  approbation  of  the  practice.  We  have  no  ac- 
count of  his  having  met  with  them  after  his  resurrection  on 
the  Jewish  Sabbath ;  but  every  instance  of  his  appearance 
to  them  was  on  the  first  day  of  the  week,  on  the  Lord's 
Day.  .  It  was  on  this  day  that  he  favored  their  assembly 
with  his  presence,  and  pronounced  his  benediction,  '  Peace 


be  with  you.'  It  was  on  this  day  that  he  poured  out  his 
Spirit  upon  them,  and  bestowed  the  gift  of  tongues  ;  and  it 
was  on  this  day,  also,  that  he  revealed  himself  and  the  pro- 
phetic history  of  his  church  to  St.  John  at  Patmos.  Luke 
xxiv.  36.     Levit.  xxiii.  15,  16.     Acts  ii.  i. 

"  That  this  day  was  religiously  observed  by  Christians, 
in  regular  succession  during  the  first  three  centuries,  is  evi- 
dent from  the  testimony  of  Ignatius,  Justin  Martyr,  Tertul- 
lian,  Clement  of  Alexandria,  and  Cyprian.  Eusebius,  of  the 
fourth  century,  tells  us  that  Christians  were  so  well  known 
by  the  fact  of  their  observing  the  Lord's  day,  that  the  hea- 
then, when  wishing  to  know  whether  any  person  was  a  dis- 
ciple ot  Christ,  decided  by  his  answer  to  the  inquiry.  Dost 
thou  observe  the  Lord's  day  ?  In  the  fourth  century,  Con- 
stantine,  the  first  Christian  emperor,  enacted  civil  laws,  re- 
quiring abstinence  from  secular  labor  on  the  Lord's  day ; 
and  from  that  time  to  the  present,  similar  prohibitions, 
more  or  less  stringent,  are  embodied  in  the  code  of  every 
Christian  nation." 

On  the  question  of  the  divine  obligation  of  the  Lord's 
Day,  Dr.  Schmucker  stood  squarely  on  the  basis  of  the 
General  Synod.  This  will  appear  evident  from  its  action  at 
York  in  May  1864.  A  number  of  preambles  and  a  resolu- 
tion, read  and  moved  by  Dr.  Passavant,  were  adopted.  We 
copy  the  resolution  which  reads  as  follows : 

"  Resolved,  That  while  this  Synod,  resting  on  the  word 
of  God  as  the  sole  authority  in  matters  of  faith  on  its  infal- 
lible warrant,  rejects  the  Romish  doctrine  of  the  real  pres- 
ence or  Transubstantiation,  and  with  it  the  doctrine  of  Con- 
substantiation  ;  rejects  the  Romish  mass,  and  all  the  cere- 
monies distinctive  of  the  mass ;  denies  any  power  in  the 
sacraments,  as  an  opus  operatum,  or  that  the  blessings  of 
Baptism  and  the  Lord's  Supper  can  be  received  without 
faith ;  rejects  auricular  confession  and  priestly  absolution  ; 
holds  that  there  is  no  priesthood  on  earth,  but  that  of  all 


believers,  and  that  God  only  can  forgive  sins ;  and  main- 
tains the  Divine  obligation  of  the  Sabbath!'  * 

Dr.  C.  P.  Krauth,  Sr.,  his  colleague  in  the  Seminary, 
published  a  treatise  on  the  Sabbath,  in  which  he  maintained 
the  Divine  obligation  of  the  Lord's  Day.     1856,  page  53. 

*  The  divine  appointment  of  the  Lord's  Day  is  also  taught  in  the 
Provisional  Catechism  adopted  by  the  General  Synod.  Under  ques- 
tion 58,  "  Why  do  we  now  keep  the  first  day  of  the  week,  or  Sun- 
day ?  "  the  fourth  reason  assigned  is,  "  Because  the  apostles  kept  this 
day  for  religious  worship  and  being  inspired,  they  must  have  known 
their  Lord's  will. " 

Under  question  sixty,  "What  is  meant  by  keeping  the  Sabbath 
holy?"  the  answer  is,  "  We  keep  the  Sabbath  holy,  when  we  give 
the  day  to  the  word  and  worship  of  God,  and  Christian  service  of  our 
fellow  men,  resting  from  worldly  labor." 

In  Luther's  Larger  Catechism  also  we  find  these  words :  "Since 
.  then  so  much  depends  upon  God's  Word,  that  without  it  no  Sabbath 
can  be  kept  holy,  we  ought  to  know,  that  God  will  insist  upon  a 
strict  observance  of  the  commandment,  and  will  punish  all  who  de- 
spise his  Word,  and  are  not  willing  to  hear  and  learn  it,  especially  at 
the  times  appointed  for  the  purpose. ' ' 

Dr.  Conrad's  Catechism  teaches  as  follows  on  the  Sabbath 
question : 

"62  When  was  the  Sabbath  instituted  ?  Immediately  after. the 
work  of  creation  was  finished. 

"  66    How  do  we  remember  the  Sabbath  day  ?    By  observing  it 

for  rest  and  worship. 

"  67  What  is  meant  by  God's  hallowing  the  Sabbath  ?  The  set- 
ting apart  of  the  seventh  day  from  common  to  sacred  purposes. 

"68  How  is  the  Sabbath  kept  holy?  By  abstaining  from  all 
worldly  pursuits,  and  regulating  our  thoughts,  words  and  actions 
according  to  its  sacred  character. 

"70  How  may  its  spiritual  blessings  be  secured?  By  prayer 
and  meditation  at  home,  by  worshiping  in  the  house  of  God,  and  by 

doing  good. 

"  71  How  is  the  Sabbath  profaned  ?  By  spending  it  in  secular 
pursuit?,  by  visiting  and  travel,  by  recreation  and  pleasure,  as  if  it 
were  an  ordinary,  and  not  a  holy  day. 

"78  By  whom  was  the  change  from  the  seventh  to  the  first  day 
of  the  week  made  ?  By  the  apostles,  with  the  approbation  of  Jesus 
Christ,  the  Lord  of  the  Sabbath." 

288  kbauth's  view. 

The  following  by  Dr.  C.  P.  Krauth,  Jr.,  late  Professor  of 
Theology  in  Mt.  Airy  Seminary,  and  author  of  the  "  Con- 
servative Reformation,"  is  taken  from  his  treatise  on  the 
Augsburg  Confession,  1868,  pages  81-83.  ^^  i^  very 
positive  on  the  Divine  obligation  of  the  Lord's  Day,  and 
sustains  Dr.  Schmucker's  position  very  decidedly  : 

"  The  Confessors  maintained  that  the  Jeivis/i   Sabbath 
is  abrogated,  but  that  so  far   as  its  ends  and  obligations 

Dr.  Morris  teaches  in  his  Catechism  as  follows: 

"  7  On  -what  day  do  Christians  keep  the  Sabbath  ?  On  the  first 
day  of  the  week,  because  on  that  day  the  Savior  rose  from  the  dead. 

"  8  Who  first  changed  the  day?  The  holy  apostles  who  knew 
the  Lord's  will,  and  were  directed  by  the  Holy  Ghost.  They  set  apart 
the  first  day  in  thankful  remembrance  of  Christ's  resurrection,  for  the 
out-pouring  of  the  Holy  Spirit,  and  for  the  time  of  public  worship 
among  Christians." 

Dr.  Ziegler  in  his  Catechetics  teaches  as  follows:  "94  Why  do 
we  now  keep  the  first  day  of  the  week,  or  Sunday  ?  Because  his  dis- 
ciples kept  it  by  frequently  meeting  on  it  for  religious  worship;  and 
being  inspired,  they  must  have  known  the  Lord's  will." 

He  also  recommendslhis  students  to  read  "  the  Sabbath  Manual  " 
by  Edwards,  published  by  the  American  Tract  Society,  Nos.  1-4. 

■  The  fathers  of  the  American  Luth.  Church  inculcated  the  strict 
observance  of  the  Lord's  Day,  as  may  be  seen  from  the  following  ex- 
tract from  the  Halle  Annals:  "  So  faithfully  did  Dr.  Kunze  direct  the 
artillery  of  the  pulpit  against  the  vice  of  Sabbath  breaking,  then  as 
now  prevalent  among  European  Germans,  that  they  became  greatly 
excited,  and  published  some  abusive  articles  against  him  in  the 
English  newspapers;  the  German  editor  wisely  declined  to  insert 
such  articles." 

Dr.  Mann,  member  of  the  Ministerium  of  Pennsylvania,  in  his 
"  Plea  for  the  Augsburg  Confession,"  writes  as  follows:  "  Luther  and 
Melancthon  had  received  from  the  older  church,  the  doctrine  and 
practice  of  the  Christian  Sabbath,  as  a  holy  day,  as  a  divine  institu- 
tion and  obligation,  and  they  had  not  a  word  to  say  against  this  view 
of  the  Sabbath.  But  they  had  a  great  deal  to  say  against  the  abuses, 
by  which  the  bishops  n^ade  the  Sabbath  a  day  of  sin  and  dishonor  to 
God  and  his  church,  instead  of  making  it  a  day  devoted  to  his  glory." 
—  Page  28. 

krauth's  statements.  289 

were  original  and  generic  they  are  unchangeable,  and  that 
to  meet  these  ends  and  obligations  the  Christian  Church, 
through  the  Apostles,  had  appointed  the  first  day  of  the 
week,  or  Lord's  Day,  In  what  they  here  say  they  mean  to 
confute  two  Romish  errors.  The  first  was  that  of  the  "  ob- 
servatioti "  of  days,  that  is,  of  suc/i  a  keeping  as  was  Judaiz- 
ing  in  its  spirit,  and  opposed  to  the  grace  of  the  Gospel, 
such  as  St.  Paul  expressly  condemned  when  he  says :  *  Ye 
observe  days.  ...  I  am  afraid  lest  I  have  bestowed  labor 
upon  you  in  vain.'  Galat.  iv.  10.  Secondly,  the  idea  that 
such  outward  observation  was  in  itself  meritoriously  neces- 
sary to  salvation.  This  the  Confession  denied,  and  shows 
that  there  is  a  necessity  for  the  Lord's  Day,  but  not  of  the 
kind  Romanism  had  invented. 

"  A  systematic  statement  of  the  predominant  doctrine 
of  the  Sabbath  involved  in  the  views  of  the  greatest  writers 
of  our  Church,  may  be  presented  in  the  following  pro- 
positions : 

"  I.  The  law  that  one  day  in  seven  shall  be  set  apart 
for  the  service  of  God,  has  existed  by  Divine  command, 
from  the  foundation  of  the  world,  and  its  obligation  is  a 
part  of  the  original  law  of  nature. 

"  2.  The  command  was  repeated  in  the  Decalogue 
and  in  the  Mosaic  law,  with  specific  ceremoftial  characteris- 
tics adapting  it  to  the  Jewish  nation. 

"  3.  The  law  itself,  generically  considered,  is  of  per- 
petual and  universal  obligation ;  its  specific  ceremonial 
characteristics  pertain  only  to  the  Jews. 

"  4.  The  law  itself  has  never  been  abrogated  ;  the 
specific  ceremonial  characteristics  have  been. 

"  5.  To  keep  one  day  in  seven  holy  to  God,  to  ab- 
stain from  all  that  may  conflict  with  its  sanctification,  is  ge- 
neric, not  specific  ;  moral,  not  ceremonial. 

290  krauth's  statements. 

"  6.  The  obligation  to  keep  holy  the  seventh  day,  or 
Saturday,  is  ceremonial,  and  not  binding  on  Christians. 

"  7.  The  resurrection  of  Christ,  his  successive  appear- 
ings,  the  Pentecostal  effusion  of  his  Spirit,  on  the  first  day 
of  the  week,  together  with  the  example  of  the  Apostles, 
and  of  the  Apostolic  Church,  have  shown  to  the  Church 
what  day  in  the  seven  may,  under  the  New  Dispensation, 
most  fitly  be  kept  holy,  and  have  led  to  the  substitution  of 
the  first  day  of  the  week  for  the  seventh,  as  the  Christian 

"  8.  To  keep  holy  the  first  day  of  the  week,  to  conse- 
crate it  to  God,  and  to  this  end  to  abstain  upon  it  from  all 
works  except  those  of  necessity,  mercy,  and  the  service  of 
God,  is  obligatory  on  all  men. 

"  No  Church  can  show  a  purer  record  than  the 
Lutheran  Church,  on  this  very  question  of  sound  doctrine 
in  regard  to  the  moral  and  Divine  obligation  to  consecrate 
one  day  in  every  seven  to  God,  and  to  repose  from  toil. 
The  greatest  leaders  of  theology  in  our  church,  considered 
a  denial  of  the  Divine  obligation  to  keep  one  day  in  seven 
as  Socinian.  The  Sabbatarians,  harmonizing  with  the  Jews, 
considered  even  the  determinative  part  of  the  fourth  com- 
mand as  perpetual,  and  contended  that  Saturday  should  be 
kept.  Our  fathers  rejected  this  error.  The  Anabaptists 
and  Socinians  contended  that  no  part  of  the  fourth  com- 
mand is  of  Divine  obligation — that  all  is  ceremonial.  Our 
fathers  rejected  this  error,  and  rested  on  this  point  as  in 
others,  on  the  truth  removed  from  each  extreme — that  the 
generic  Sabbath  is  primitive  and  has  never  been  abrogated 
— that  only  what  is  ceremonial  in  the  Jewish  Sabbath  is 
abrogated — that  the  Christian  Sabbath  is  a  glorious  bond 
of  the  sovereignty  of  God  in  the  law,  and  of  the  freedom  of 
the  church  under  the  gospel ;  Divine  in  its  generic  origin 
and  obligation y  and  apostolic  in  its  specific  determination y 



On  the  subject  of  Temperance,  Dr.  Schmucker  was 
half  a  century  in  advance  of  his  contemporaries.  He  was  a 
tee-total  abstainer  from  intoxicants  as  a  beverage,  while  the 
temperance  people  advocated  moderate  drinking  ;  he  advo- 
cated legislation  to  prevent  the  sale  of  alcoholic  liquors^ 
while  others  pleaded  only  for  moral  suasion;  he  was  a 
Prohibitionist,  long  before  Local  Option  was  thought  of,  or 
the  Prohibition  Party  had  an  existence.  I  shall  never  for- 
get a  speech  which  I  heard  him  make  while  I  was  a 
student  in  Pennsylvania  College  (1841-44).  A  public  meet- 
ing was  called  to  assemble  in  the  old  Gettysburg  court 
house,  which  stood  in  the  centre  of  the  square.  The  meet- 
ing was  addressed  by  Dr.  Schmucker.  He  then  and  there 
contended  that  temperance  could  never  become  prevalent  in 
this  country  by  means  of  moral  suasion,  but  that  the  whole 
liquor  traffic  should  be  suppressed  by  law.  "  For,"  said 
the  Doctor,  "  so  long  as  liquor  is  publicly  sold  in  taverns, 
(there  were  then  no  lager  beer  saloons)  there  will 
always  be  boys  and  men  unprincipled  enough  to  drink 
it,"  This  declaration  has  been  literally  verified,  as  the  ex- 
perience of  half  a  century  has  now  clearly  demonstrated. 

The  Doctor  took  occasion  frequently  to  speak  on  the 
subject  to  the  students  in  the  class  room,  exhorting  them 
to  total  abstinence  from  mtoxicating  liquors  as  a  beverage, 
and  to  advocate  temperance  principles  from  the  pulpit. 
Morris  says  of  him  ;  "  He  never  drank  a  glass  of  strong 
liquor  as  a  beverage  in  his  life."  The  drinking  of  wine  and 
whiskey  was  customary  and  even  fashionable  in  the  early 
period  of  his  ministry,  among  ministers  as  well  as  laymen. 
There  was,  it  is  said,  in  those  days  a  stillhouse  on  almost 
every  farm  in  York  County.  The  farmers  would  distill 
their  grain  into  whiskey,  which  they  would  send  by  wagon 
to   Baltimore,  being  far  less  bulky  and   weighty   in   that 


shape  than  corn  or  rye.  It  was  a  great  grief  to  him  to  see 
some  of  his  own  ministerial  brethren  fall  victims  to  the  vice 
of  intemperance.  Even  some  of  the  ministers  who  partici- 
pated in  the  organization  of  th  General  Synod,  and  the 
establishment  of  the  Seminary  became  inebriates.  He  told 
us  in  class  to  what  peculiar  temptations  the  ministers  of 
that  day  were  exposed.  It  was  at  that  time  regarded  as  a 
duty  required  by  hospitality  to  set  out  a  bottle  to  every 
visitor  as  soon  as  he  entered  the  house.  When  a  minister 
paid  a  pastoral  visit  in  one  of  the  families  of  his  congrega- 
tion the  inevitable  bottle  of  wine  or  whiskey  was  set  before 
him.  It  was  regarded  as  a  slight  if  he  declined  to  drink 
But  by  the  time  a  minister  had  made  half  a  dozen  or  more 
pastoral  visits  and  drank  more  or  less  at  every  house,  he 
would  hardly  get  home  a  sober  man.  Now,  if  this  course 
was  continued  for  any  length  of  time,  a  taste  for  ardent 
spirits  would  be  formed,  which  he  could  no  longer  resist, 
and  he  would  become  a  confirmed  drunkard,  disgrace  his 
calling  and  would  have  to  retire  from  the  ministry  or  be 
deposed  from  his  office. 


Dr.  Schm.ucker  was  an  avowed  enemy  of  the  slavery 
system.  He  made  no  secret  of  his  views,  but  expressed 
them  in  public  and  in  private.  Also  in  his  lectures  in  the 
seminary  he  frequently  expressed  his  aversion  to  the  Negro 
slavery  as  it  existed  in  the  Southern  States,  and  not  un- 
frequently  to  the  ill-suppressed  opposition  of  students  from 
the  South. 

The  following  statements  from  his  youngest  son, 
Samuel  D.  Schmucker,  Esq.,  will  give  some  insight  into 
the  Doctor's  relation  to  slavery  and  his  views  upon  the 

"  We  had  two  old  Negro  servants  in  my  early  life,  who 
had  been  slaves  in  my  mother's  family,  and  were  manumit- 


ted,  but  I  am  not  familiar  with  the  details  of  their  history. 
They  were  freed  before  I  was  born.  I  know  that  after  these 
servants  became  superannuated,  they  were  supported  by 
father,  as  long  as  they  lived.  A  modest  legacy,  left  by  my 
maternal  grandmother  for  that  purpose,  assisted,  in  part,  I 
believe,  to  support  them, 

"  Your  reference  to  the  manumitted  Negro  servants 
reminds  me  of  the  circumstance,  that  in  my  early  life  run- 
away slaves  would  occasionally  come  to  our  house.  Father 
would  allow  any  such  to  sleep  in  his  barn  by  day,  and  I 
am  sure,  assisted  them,  at  least  to  the  extent  of  supplying 
them  with  food.  After  the  decision  of  the  Dred  Scott 
case,  I  once  asked  him,  what  he  would  do,  if  a  fugitive 
slave  were  to  approach  him  personally  for  aid  ?  He  re- 
plied, that  he  would  never  assist  in  returning  a  fellow 
being  into  bondage,  and  would  succor  any  such  that  were 
in  distress,  and  that  if  he  was  prosecuted  for  it,  he  would 
admit  the  fact,  and  pay  the  penalty  for  which  the  law  might 
make  him  liable. 

"  He  always  iavored  the  gradual  abolition  of  slavery, 
and  insisted,  that  it  should  be  accomplished  by  law,  even 
if  the  slave  holder  had  such  a  standing  before  the  law,  as  to 
entitle  him  to  compensation  for  the  manumitted  slave  at  the 
public  expense." 

The  following  is  contributed  by  Dr.  Diehl  on  this  sub- 
ject in  the  Quarterly  Reviezv : 

"At  the  Synod  of  Maryland  and  Virginia,  1824,  he 
pleaded  earnestly  the  cause  of  African  Colonization.  Born 
in  Maryland,  and  settled  as  pastor  for  five  years  in  Virginia, 
he  was  familiar  with  slavery  in  all  its  phases  and  relations. 
He  understood  the  condition  and  moral  character  of  the 
colored  population  in  the  slave  states.  When  colonization 
iailed  to  accomplish  what  its  early  advocates  had  ardently 
hoped,   and   emancipation    societies    were    organized,  Dr 


Schmucker  gave  the  subject  much  attention.  He  adopted 
moderate  abolition  sentiments.  These  sentiments  he  did 
not  conceal,  but  stated  them  frankly  in  his  lecture  room  to 
the  students.  In  his  Popular  Theology,  1834,  he  gave  his 
views  to  the  public  advocating  still  African  Colonization  as 
the  means  of  evangelizing  Africa,  and  giving  freedom  to  a 
small  number,  but  urging  gradual  emancipation  as  the  only 
remedy  to  our  great  political  evil.  As  his  Theology  was 
extensively  circulated  in  the  Southern  States,  and  many  of 
his  pupils  were  scattered  all  over  the  South,  his  sentiments 
were  known.  Hence,  when  the  war  broke  out,  and  the 
southern  people  were  intensely  embittered  against  all  eman- 
cipationists, he  was  the  object  of  no  small  amount  of  bitter 
feeling.  And  when  Lee's  army  invaded  Maryland  on  their 
way  to  Pennsylvania,  1863,  they  declared  their  purpose  to 
arrest  Dr.  Schmucker.  A  week  before  the  battle  of  Gettys- 
burg, he  received  a  communication  from  a  Lutheran  minis- 
ter in  Maryland,  making  known  to  him  their  avowed  pur- 
pose to  arrest  him,  and  advising  him,  by  all  means,  to  leave 
Gettysburg,  should  the  confederates  move  in  that  direction. 
When  they  took  possession  of  Seminary  Hill,  they  oc- 
cupied his  house  for  three  days,  July,  i,  2,  3.  His  house 
was  pierced  by  thirteen  cannon  balls.  His  fine 
library  was  shamefully  abused,  and  some  of  his  furniture 

"  Having  noticed  the  poverty  and  wretchedness  of  the 
free  colored  population  of  Pennsylvania,  and  attributing 
their  sad  condition,  largely,  to  their  exclusion  from  me- 
chanical and  other  lucrative  employments,  he  went  to  Har- 
risburg,  1842,  and  laid  before  the  Legislature  of  the  State, 
a  petition  tor  the  passage  of  a  law  for  the  melioration  of  the 
colored  people.  He  drew  up  a  bill,  which  provided  that 
colored  girls  over  13  and  boys  over  14  years,  should  all  be 
registered  by  .the  assessors,  and  if  idle,  or  neglected  by  their 


parents,  should  be  brought  before  Justices  of  the  peace,  and 
by  them  bound,  while  minors,  to  respectable  white  people, 
to  be  brought  up  to  trades  or  other  industrial  pursuits. 
This  bill  was  moved  by  a  member  and  passed  the  first  and 
second  reading.  But  before  the  final  reading  and  vote, 
some  of  the  demagogues  determined  to  defeat  it,  by  stig- 
matizing it  as  an  abolition  measure.  They  gained  their 
point.  But  the  following  year,  Dr.  Schmucker  introduced 
the  same  bill  through  a  member.  It  was  received  with 
general  favor.  But  then  a  quarrel  sprang  up  about  the 
State  election.  So  violent  was  the  commotion  that  the 
m.ilitary  were  called  out.  In  the  turmoil  the  bill  was  lost 
sight  of.  Had  the  salutary  law  passed,  no  doubt  the 
colored  people  of  Pennsylvania  would  have  been  in  a 
better  moral  and  physical  condition,  than  they  were  at  the 
breaking  out  of  the  war." 





The  necessity  of  union  in  the  Lutheran  church — evil 
effects  of  disunion — evils  of  separation  among 
protestants — his  appeal  for  christian  union — com- 
parison of  creeds — the  origin  of  the  evangelical 



^  "  About  the  time  of  his  entering  the  ministry,  the 
organization  of  the  General  Synod  directed  his  attention  to 
the  evils  which  our  church  suffered  from  the  want  of  union. 
Five  synods  with  no  bond  of  union  between  them,  the 
church  was  in  danger  of  becoming  heterogeneous.  Each 
synod  would  probably  adopt  its  own  doctrinal  standard, 
and  church  government  and  discipHne.  Each  would  prob- 
ably publish  its  own  hymn-book  and  catechism.  Each 
would  regulate  the  order  of  its  services.  Mr.  Schmucker 
saw  that  if  no  bond  of  union  were  formed,  Lutheranism  in 
Tennessee  would  be  one  thing  ;  in  Ohio  another ;  in  Penn- 
sylvania another,  and  in  New  York  another.     There  could 


be  no  efficiency  in  a  church  so  disjointed  and  divergent. 
There  could  be  no  missionary  efforts ;  no  great  institutions 
of  learning ;  and  no  church-love  among  the  people.  He 
expressed,  in  one  of  his  earnest  and  heartfelt  appeals,  made 
to  a  Conference  in  1823,  his  apprehension  that  if  the  Gen- 
eral Synod  could  not  survive  the  death-blow  aimed  at  her, 
at  the  time,  so  gloomy  and  discouraging  would  be  the  as- 
pect of  affairs,  that  no  educated  young  men,  of  talents  and 
piety,  would  enter  her  ministry.  The  best  sons  of  the 
church  would  leave  her ;  for  no  young  man  of  high  aims 
would  be  willing  to  devote  his  life  to  a  field  of  labor  so  ut- 
terly hopeless  of  fruits.  His  heart  was  evidently  bleeding 
over  the  lamentable  state  of  things,  when  he  wrote  that 
long  letter  in  German  to  the  York  Conference,  the  manu- 
script of  which  is  preserved  among  his  papers. 

"  When  by  his  wonderful  labors,  he  had  succeeded  in 
averting  the  annihilation  of  the  General  Synod,  he  imme- 
diately began  measures  to  form  a  bond  of  union  between 
the  Lutheran  Church  of  the  United  States,  and  the 
Lutheran  Church  of  Europe.  Hence  his  resolutions  intro- 
duced into  the  Maryland  and  Virginia  Synod,  and  after- 
ward into  the  General  Synod,  for  a  committee  on  Foreign 

"  Having  seen  so  clearly,  and  felt  so  deeply,  the  evils 
resulting  from  the  want  of  union  and  compact  organization 
in  his  own  church,  his  mind  was  led  to  consider  the  evils 
resulting  from  the  separation  from  each  other,  of  the  several 
protestant  churches.  If  some  general  bond  of  union  could 
bind  together  all  the  forces  of  Protestantism,  the  Evangel- 
ical Churches  would  become  mighty  for  the  overthrow  of 
the  Papacy,  and  the  pulling  down  the  strongholds  of 
Satan.  He  pondered  the  subject  deeply  and  long,  and  in 
1838  he  gave  his  views  to  the  public,  in  his  fraternal  ap- 
peal to  the  American  churches. 


"  His  hope  then  was  the  formation  of  an  alliance  be- 
tween the  several  Protestant  Churches,  that  would  not  at 
all  disturb  their  denominational  organizations,  but  bring 
them  to  co-operate  on  a  well-defined  common  platform, 
adopting  a  statement  of  fundamental  doctrines,  which  all 
could  subscribe — a  statement,  the  language  of  which  was 
taken  from  the  several  creeds,  or  confessions  of  faith,  of  the 
leading  denominations.  His  book  produced  a  marked  im- 
pression. Eminent  men  were  led  to  consider  the  subject. 
Many  of  Dr.  Schmucker's  statements  were  unquestionably 
true.  Protestantism  had  long  been  taunted  for  its  divisions. 
If  some  general  union  could  be  formed,  the  cause  of  Evan- 
gelical religion  would  be  strengthened. 

"  Prominent  men,  in  different  churches,  read  the  Ap- 
peal, and  expressed  their  assent  to  the  general  principles 
laid  down.  In  the  correspondence  to  which  his  book  gave 
rise,  the  idea  of  an  Evangelical  Alliance  was  suggested. 
The  representatives  of  the  great  churches  of  Europe  and 
America  might  hold  a  convention,  it  was  suggested,  say  in 
London,  lay  down  a  basis  on  which  all  could  stand,  form  a 
plan  by  which  all  could  work  together  for  the  general  ad- 
vancement of  Christianity,  and  thus  hold  forth  the  great 
truth,  that  the  true  followers  of  Christ  are  one.  The  result 
was  the  holding  of  the  first  World's  Christian  Alliance,  in 
London,  in  the  summer  of  1846.  Some  of  the  speakers  at 
the  recent  Alliance,  in  New  York,  accorded  to  Dr. 
Schmucker  the  honor  of  having  done  more  than  any  other 
man  for  the  Christian  union  developed  in  that  great 

"  Dr.  Schmucker  was  always  tolerant.  He  knew  well 
that  great  diversity  existed  in  his  own  church,  when  he 
labored  so  earnestly  to  bring  all  the  synods  together  in  a 
general  body.  Yet  he  believed  that  the  spirit  of  toleration 
would  enable  them  to  bear  with  each  other,  and  diverse  as 


their  sentiments  on  non-essential  points  might  be,  they 
could  harmoniously  co-operate  as  members  of  the  mother 
church  of  the  Reformation.  When  he  wrote  his  appeal, 
and  made  the  subsequent  efforts,  to  bring  the  leading  men 
of  all  evangelical  churches  together  in  a  world's  alliance,  he 
never  lost  sight  of  the  difference  of  opinion  between  the 
Baptist  and  the  Episcopalian,  and  the  Lutheran,  and  the 
Reformed,  and  the  Presbyterian,  and  the  Methodist,  and 
the  Congregationalist.  But  he  took  their  several  creeds 
and  compared  them.  He  found  them  harmonious  on  the 
grand  fundamental  truths  of  the  Christian  system,  and 
formed,  from  these  several  confessions,  a  symmetrical 
creed." — Diehl. 

"  The  following  tribute  to  the  memory  of  S.  S. 
Schmucker,  D,  D.,  as  an  enlightened  and  consistent  advo- 
cate of  Christian  Union  among  Protestants,  constitutes  the 
introduction  of  the  address  delivered  by  Dr.  F.  W.  Conrad 
before  the  Evangelical  Alliance  on  Interchange  of  Pulpits  : 

"  Dr.  Schmucker  commenced  the  study  of  the  subject 
of  Christian  union  more  than  half  a  century  ago.  The 
matured  results  of  these  studies  were  given  to  the  world  in 
his  '  Fraternal  Appeal '  to  the  American  churches,  which 
was  first  published  in  1838,  and  subsequently  passed 
through  several  editions  in  a  revised  and  enlarged  form.  It 
was  extensively  circulated  in  England  and  America,  awak- 
ened a  deep  interest  in  the  subject,  received  favorable 
notice  from  the  religious  press,  and  numerous  testimonials 
from  many  of  the  most  distinguished  divines  of  the  differ- 
ent Protestant  denominations.  It  is  an  admitted  fact  that 
the  '  Appeal '  of  Dr.  Schmucker  bore  a  prominent  part  in 
preparing  the  way  for  the  organization  of  the  Evangelical 
Alliance  in  1846.  He  was  present  at  its  first  meeting,  and 
was  even  then  designated  as  'the  father  of  the  Alliance,' 
by  Dr.  King,  of  Ireland,  in  a  public  address  delivered  in 


London  at  that  time.  It  was  he  also  who  moved  already, 
at  that  first  meeting  of  the  Alliance,  that  its  second  meeting 
should  be  held  in  New  York ;  and,  although  his  motion 
was  not  adopted  at  that  time,  nevertheless  it  was  carried 
out  practically  twenty-seven  years  later,  as  the  present  sixth 
conference  of  the  Alliance  here  happily  attests. 

"  Dr.  Schmucker  took  special  interest  in  the  subject  of 
Christian  union,  and  labored  for  its  promotion,  through  the 
Evangelical  Alliance,  during  the  greater  portion  of  his 
ministerial  and  professional  life.  As  he  approached  the 
portals  of  eternity  during  his  declining  years  his  mind  and 
heart  were  more  and  more  absorbed  by  it,  and  he  prepared 
a  plan  for  the  confederation  of  all  Protestant  denominations 
in  an  Evangelical  Alliance  of  the  entire  Christian  world. 
This  plan  was  published,  and  favorably  noticed  by  a  num- 
ber of  religious  journals  of  different  denominations  in  this 
country  during  the  past  year,  and  a  copy  of  it  has  been 
laid  before  the  committee  of  the  Alliance  for  their  con- 
sideration. He  looked  forward  to  this  meeting  with  ardent 
solicitude,  and  expected  to  be  present  to  submit  his  plan  of 
confederation  before  the  Alliance  in  person. 

"  The  last  letter  I  received  from  him  had  reference  to 
the  subject  of  Christian  union,  and  contained  a  request 
that  the  speaker  should,  in  his  absence,  take  charge  of  his 
plan  for  the  confederation  of  the  churches  of  Protestant 
Christendom,  and  present  it  for  consideration  at  the  meet- 
ing of  the  General  Synod  of  the  Lutheran  Church.  But 
God,  in  his  all-wise  providence,  so  ordered  that  his  strong 
desire  to  take  part  in  this  conference  could  not  be  gratified. 
On  the  26th  of  July  last,  after  entertaining  friends  at  his 
house  in  the  evening,  he  was  suddenly  seized  with  heart 
disease,  and  before  midnight,  died,  in  the  conscious  hope  of 
a  blissful  immortality.  His  last  words  were  :  '  I  have  lived 
and  am  dying  in  the  faith  of  Jesus.'  " 

DR.   SCHAFF'S  I^ETTER.  3°! 

We  find  among  his  papers  the  evidence  of  an  exten- 
sive correspondence  with  the  leading  members  and  friends 
of  the  Alliance.  The  following  letter  from  Dr.  Schafif, 
though  written  mainly  as  an  introduction  to  prominent 
theologians  in  Germany,  will  be  interesting  to  our  readers. 
We  translate  it  from  the  German  : 

Mercersburg,  Pa.,  March  i6,  184.6. 
Respected  Friend  and  Brother  in  the  Lord : 

I  am  just  now  quite  tired  by  writing  letters,  yet  I  will 
send  you  my  hearty  congratulations  on  your  appointment 
as  delegate  to  the  convention  in  London,  and  my  best 
wishes  for  your  safe  journey  into  the  never-to-be-forgotten 
land  of  our  fathers.  Herewith  I  send  a  few  hints  in  re- 
gard to  the  inclosed  introductions.  The  circular  addresses 
I  have  left  open,  those  addressed  to  individual  pastors  I 
have  closed.  But  you  can  open  these  also,  in  case  you 
should  have  any  difficulty  at  the  custom  house.  These 
contain  nothing  important  in  addition  to  your  introduction. 
I  did  not  wish  to  burden  you  with  bulky,  and  extensive 

When  you  come  to  Berlin  do  not  forget  to  call  very 
soon  on  Candidate  Schroeder,to  whom  I  have  addressed  one 
of  the  accompanying  letters.  He  is  a  very  friendly  young 
man ;  and  will  be  of  great  assistance  to  you.  You  must 
call  on  Pastor  Souchon  and  hear  him  preach.  He  is  one 
of  the  most  distinguished  and  earnest  pulpit  orators  of  Ger- 
many, of  tremendous  power  and  effect.  Convey  to  this 
dear  friend  my  most  hearty  salutation.  Pastor  Weise  lives 
quite  near  to  Berlin.  Schroeder  can  accompany  you  out 
to  him.  You  will  find  in  him  a  very  upright  and  cordial 
country  pastor.  In  case  you  get  to  Italy,  of  course  you 
will  visit  Rome.  There  you  will  find  the  chaplain  of  the 
Russian  Embassy,  Thiele,  residing  probably  on  the 
Capitol,  and  in  Naples  the  chaplain  of  the  Prussian  Embassy, 

302  DR.   SCHAFF'S  I^ETTER. 

Remy.  Both  of  them  are  my  dear  friends,  especially  the 
latter.  They  will  certainly  receive  you  very  hospitably  on 
account  of  my  salutations.  In  Geneva,  I  am  acquamted 
with  Merle  D'Aubigne,  Gansen,  Pilete  and  Malan.  I  do  not 
wish  to  trouble  you  with  orders,  as  you  are  doubtless  suffi- 
ciently burdened  with  them  already.  Perhaps  I  may  send 
you  a  small  package  yet,  if  I  find  time  to  write  a  few  more 
letters,  which,  however,  is  doubtful. 

If  you  should  wish  a  special  introduction  to  some 
other  person,  you  will  please  to  write  to  me.  I  could,  for 
instance,  give  you  an  introduction  to  the  minister  of  eccle- 
siastical affairs,  Eichhorn,  and  other  high  officials  in  differ- 
ent parts  of  Germany.  But  I  think  you  have  enough  with 
the  accompanying  documents.  The  Licentiate  Erbkam,  is 
a  nephew  of  Eichhorn,  and  can  more  properly  introduce 
you  to  him  than  I  can.  Again  I  wish  you  from  my  whole 
whole  heart  {von  ganzem  Herzen)  a  safe  and  pleasant 
journey.  Give  my  kind  regards  to  Prof  Hay  and  Mrs. 
Schmucker.         Your  friend  and  brother  in  the  Lord. 

Phillip  Schaff. 
anti  slavery  in  the  alliance. 

As  it  was  intimated  in  the  letter  of  Kurtz  and  Morris 
from  Paris,  resolutions  were  drawn  up  in  the  Alliance  in 
London,  by  which  ministers  from  America,  and  especially 
those  from  the  slave-holding  states  could  not  be  admitted 
to  membership.  Slavery  at  that  time  existed  in  full  force 
in  the  Southern  States,  and  anti-slavery  feeling  ran  very 
high  among  the  English  people.  Dr.  Schmucker  himself 
was  most  earnestly  opposed  to  slavery,  but  technically  the 
resolution  would  have  excluded  him  also.  For  although 
the  slaves,  which  he  had  inherited  by  his  second  wife,  were 
all  emancipated  or  set  free,  except  the  very  aged  ones,  who 
could  not  support  themselves,  and  for  whose  comfortable 
maintenance  provision  had  been  made,  yet  he  could  still  be 


regarded,  as  in  the  legal  sense,  a  slave  holder.  The  Ameri- 
can brethren  therefore  drew  up  the  following  protest 
against  the  resolution,  which  we  find  among  the  Doctor's 
papers,  no  doubt  composed  by  himself,  and  which  will  be 
very  interesting  reading : 

"The  Conference  of  Christian  brethren  from  all  parts  of 
the  world  which  has  just  formed  the  Evangelical  Alliance 
in  this  city  was  convened  on  the  invitation  of  the  committee 
of  a  smaller  Conference  which  held  its  first  meeting  in 
Liverpool  in  October  last.  The  document  of  invitation 
sent  out  by  the  Liverpool  committee  contained  the  doctri- 
nal basis  which  has  since  been  adopted  with  some  varia- 
tions as  the  foundation  of  the  new  Alliance,  but  there  was 
no  allusion  in  this  document  to  the  subject  of  slavery.  On 
our  arrival  in  London  to  aid  in  forming  the  Alliance,  most 
of  us  signed  the  following  paper : 

'"Heartily  desirous  of  promoting  the  great  object  con- 
templated by  the  proposed  Evangelical  Alliance,  and  ap- 
proving of  the  doctrinal  basis  and  principles  contained  in 
the  accompanying  document,  I  consent  that  my  name  be 
enrolled  as  a  corresponding  member.'  " 

"The  'document'  referred  to  in  this  paper  was  the 
document  to  which  we  have  already  alluded  and  which  made 
no  mention  of  slavery.  At  the  same  time  the  attention  of 
most  of  us  was  directed  to  a  separate  paper  of  which  the 
following  is  a  copy  : 



Extract  of  the  Minutes  of  the  London  Division,  July 
7th,  and  July  2ist,  1846  : 

'Resolved,  That  American  brethren,  on  their  election  as 
Foreign  Corresponding  members,  be  enrolled  as  such,  on 
their  signature  being  attached  to  the  form  already  adopted 
for  English  members,  at  the  same  time  directing  their  special 


attention  to  the  Resolution  on  Slavery,  adopted  at  the 
aggregate  meeting  at  Birmingham,  with  reference  to  their 
individual  concern  in  the  same.' 

'  Resolved,  That  the  Minute  with  respect  to  slave- 
holding  adopted  at  the  Birmingham  aggregate  meeting,  be 
put  before  brethren  who  may  come  to  the  August  Confer- 
ence from  all  countries  whose  governments  tolerate  the 
practice  in  question  among  their  subjects.' 

Resolution  adopted  at  the  meeting  of  the  Aggregate 
Committee  at  Birmingham,  March  31st,  1846,  and  follow- 
ing days : 

'  That  while  this  committee  deem  it  unnecessary  and 
inexpedient  to  enter  into  any  question  at  present  on  the 
subject  of  slave-holding,  or  on  the  difficult  circumstances 
in  which  Christian  brethren  may  be  placed  in  countries 
where  the  law  of  slavery  prevails  ;  they  are  of  opinion  that 
invitations  ought  not  to  be  sent  to  individuals  who,  whether 
by  their  own  fault  or  otherwise,  may  be  in  the  unhappy 
position  of  holding  their  fellow-men  as  slaves.' 

r\  c-  f  Alex.  Digbys  Campbell. 

Official  Secretaries.    -,  t-  c 

\  Edward  Steane. 

"  We  understand  that  some  of  our  British  brethren  are 
under  the  impression  that  we  have  subscribed  an  approval 
of  these  resolutions.  This  is  a  mistake.  *  The  document ' 
which  we  approved  and  subscribed  was  the  document  con- 
taining the  doctrinal  basis.  These  resolutions  were  on  a 
separate  paper,  to  which  the  attention  of  most  of  us  was 
directed,  but  we  were  not  required  to  subscribe  them  or 
approve  them.  We  could  not  approve  them.  We  made 
our  verbal  protest  against  them.  We  regarded  them  as 
highly  objectionable,  and  particularly  for  the  following 
reasons : 

I.  They  were  irrelevant  to  the  matter  in  hand.  They 
had  nothing  to  do  with  the  proper  object  of  the  Alliance. 
The  Alliance  is  a  union,  for  purposes  exclusively  religious, 
of  Evangelical  Christians  who  agree  in  the  great  doctrines 


of  the  gospel.  Slavery  is  a  political  evil  and 
although  it  draws  great  moral  evils  in  its  train  and  we  are 
all  heartily  opposed  to  it,  and  ready  in  every  proper  way  to 
promote  its  removal,  we  do  not  think  that  the  subject 
comes  within  the  province  of  this  Alliance. 

2.  The  resolutions  came  too  late.  The  original  card 
of  invitation  with  no  allusion  in  it  to  slavery,  was  widely 
circulated  and  extensively  acted  on  by  ecclesiastical  bodies 
in  America  soon  after  it  was  issued,  and  many  who 
accepted  it  had  crossed  the  Atlantic  before  they  met  with 
the  Birmingham  resolution.  As  this  resolution,  if  adopted 
by  the  Alliance,  would  change  its  whole  character,  and  ex- 
clude not  only  Christian  slave-holders,  but  the  great  body 
of  Evangelical  Christians  who  are  in  christian  communion 
with  them,  non-slave-holding  states  of  America,  it  should 
have  been  adopted,  if  adopted  at  all,  before  the  invitation 
was  sent.     It  was  too  late  to  do  it  afterwards. 

3.  The  first  of  the  London  resolutions  is  offensive  to 
us  as  Americans.  Why  the  wholly  needless  specification  of 
*  American  brethren '  in  connection  with  slavery  ?  Why 
was  it  not  said  at  once ;  *  brethren  from  all  the  countries 
whose  governments  tolerate  slavery  ?  '  Why  the  promi- 
nence given  to  America  in  this  matter?  If  we  did  not  know 
that  our  British  brethren  are  incapable  of  intending  to  of- 
fend us  ;  if  we  had  not  received  explanations,  which  con- 
vince us  that  the  London  committee,  when  they  passed 
their  second  resolution  intended  to  correct  that  which 
would  be  deemed  objectionable  by  Americans  in  the  first 
resolution,  and  that  it  was  only  through  inadvertence  that 
the  first  resolution  was  allowed  to  remain  in  its  present 
shape,  we  should  feel  constrained  to  express  our  regret  in 
strong  language.  As  it  is,  we  have  only  to  rejoice  that  the 
matter  admits  of  such  explanation. 

4.  The    Birmingham    resolution    is     calculated     to 


wound  the  feelings  of  unoffending  Christian  brethren  in  the 
slave-holding  states,  and  to  retard  the  abolition  of  slavery. 

"  If  Christian  brethren  (in  the  terms  of  the  resolution) 
'  placed  by  no  fault  of  their  own  in  an  unhappy  position,' 
involving  strong  temptations  and  severe  trials,  nevertheless 
conduct  themselves  worthily,  they  merit  on  that  account  in 
our  view,  the  sympathy  of  their  fellow  christians,  and 
especially  of  those  who  are  sincerely  seeking  the  removal 
of  the  great  evil  from  which  their  temptations  and  trials 
arise.  This  is  not  the  time  to  inquire  whether  the  Ameri- 
can churches  have  or  have  not  all  done  their  duty  in  regard 
to  this  subject ;  but  this  seems  to  us  to  be  singular,  in 
singling  out  such  brethren  for  the  stigma  of  exclusion  from 
Christian  fellowship.  In  their  '  difficult  circumstances ' 
they  need  the  encouragement  and  support  of  the  counsels 
and  prayers  of  their  fellow-christians,  and  if  slavery  is  ever 
to  be  abolished  in  the  Southern  States  of  America,  we  need 
such  men  to  take  the  lead  in  the  movement.  There  is  in 
these  circumstances,  in  our  view,  weighty  reason  not  for 
non-intercourse  but  for  closer  Christian  union.  This  is  not 
the  time  to  inquire  whether  or  not  the  American  churches 
have  all  done  their  duty  in  regard  to  the  subject,  but  it  is 
well  known  to  us  that  many  Christian  slave-holders  are  in 
their  principles  and  feelings  entirely  opposed  to  slavery, 
and  are  prepared  to  make  all  the  efforts  and  sacrifices  in 
their  power  for  the  removal  of  the  evil  as  soon  and  as  fast 
as  practicable ;  it  ought  to  be  known  to  our  European 
brethren  that  slavery  cannot  at  once  be  abolished  in  any 
State  of  the  American  Union,  except  by  the  legislature  of 
that  State  ;  that  the  citizens  of  non-slave-holding  States  can 
only  act  on  the  subject  by  moral  influence,  and  that  this 
influence  is  to  be  exerted  chiefly  on  and  through  Christians 
in  the  slave-holding  community.  It  is  because  we  have 
great  confidence  in  the  piety  and  intelligence,  and  in  the 


constantly  increasing  number  of  godly  men  in  the  slave- 
holding  States  that  we  look  with  increasing  hope  for  the 
entire  removal  of  American  slavery.  We  deeply  sympa- 
thize with  these  brethren  under  the  heavy  responsibilities 
they  are  called  to  bear.  Our  duty  no  less  than  our 
Christian  affection  impels  us  to  maintain  intimate  relations 
with  them,  and  we  could  not,  without  a  grievous  offence 
against  the  best  hopes  of  religion  and  humanity  in  the 
South,  as  well  as  against  our  own  conscience  consent  to  any 
action  which  would  imply  a  want  of  Christian  confidence  in 
them,  or  which  might  endanger  our  amicable  and  fraternal 
relations  with  this  portion  of  the  American  church." 

David  Buehler,  Esq.,  at  that  time  editor  of  the  Gettys- 
burg Star  and  Sentinel,  writes  as  follows  in  an  obituary 

"  In  August,  1846,  he  attended  the  World's  Convention 
of  the  Evangelical  Alliance,  held  in  London,  as  one  of  the 
delegates  from  the  United  States. 

"  Within  the  last  year  he  prepared  and  extensively  cir- 
culated a  Fraternal  Appeal  on  the  subject  of  Christian 
Union,  looking  towards  bringing  different  Evangelical 
denominations  into  closer  fraternal  union,  without  in  any 
wise  affecting  the  peculiar  ecclesiastical  or  denominational 
peculiarities  of  any  of  them. 

"  This  subject  lay  close  to  his  heart,  and,  in  a  conver- 
sation with  the  writer  of  this  tribute  only  a  few  day  ago,  he 
spoke  hopefully  of  the  indications  of  a  better  understanding 
between  Christian  denominations  of  this  country,  tending  to 
a  realization  of  his  long  cherished  desires.  He  might  not 
live  to  see  it,  but  the  day  was  coming  full  of  glorious  prom- 
ise. He  telt  a  deep  interest  in  the  meeting  of  the  Evangel- 
ical Alliance  at  New  York  this  fall,  which  he  had  been 
invited  to  address,  and  looked  forward  to  the  meeting  as 

3o8  PROFESSOR  hay's  testimony. 

likely  to  develop  additional  interest  on  the  subject  of  Chris- 
tian Union." 

Prof.  Chas.  Hay,  for  many  }  <  ars  his  colleague  in  the 
Seminary,  has  this  to  say  in  relation  to  Dr.  Schmucker's 
work  in  promoting  Christian  Union  : 

"  Wherever  we  look,  we  see  traces  of  his  workman- 
ship ;  and  he  must  be  a  cynical  critic,  indeed,  who,  amid  so 
much  to  admire  and  to  be  grateful  for,  will  stop  to  censure 
what  may  seem  to  him  to  be  an  excess  of  liberality,  or  a  too 
anxious  eagerness  to  ignore  denominational  peculiarities  in 
the  effort  to  unite,  already  in  this  world,  the  divided  flock 
of  the  Good  Shepherd  into  one  fold.  Could  he  address  us 
now,  from  the  immediate  presence  of  the  Lord,  as  he  there 
greets  multitudes  of  fellow  believers,  who,  having  gone  up 
to  glory  through  tribulation,  from  the  midst  of  the  various 
denominations  of  Christians  upon  earth,  with  whom  he  had 
here  sought  and  found  congenial  sympathy,  and  with  whom 
he  cordially  labored  in  the  cause  of  our  common  Master,  he 
would  doubtless  assure  us  that  he  has  now  no  regrets  for 
any  efforts  he  has  ever  made  on  earth  to  anticipate  the 
communion  of  saints,  upon  which,  we  trust,  he  now  has 
entered.  Rather  let  us  regret  that  we  have  so  little  of  that 
spirit  of  true  Christian  charity  which  seeks  to  discover  and 
practically  recognize  in  others  the  love  of  Jesus  as  the  true 
badge  of  discipleship — '  Simon,  son  of  Jonas,  lovest  thou 
me  ? ' — and  the  only  indispensable  test  for  Christian  fellow- 
ship on  earth,  as  it  undoubtedly  will  be  found  to  be  the 
only  real  test  of  the  communion  of  saints  on  high." 

The  following  obituary  notice  appeared  in  the  New 
York  Observer  (Presbyterian)  one  week  after  Dr.  Schmucker's 
death  : 

"  Dr.  Schmucker,  the  Nestor  of  the  Evangelical  Luth- 
eran Church,  is  dead.  At  the  time  of  his  death  he  was  an 
Emeritus  Professor  in  the  Theological  Seminary  at  Gettys- 



burg,  Pa.,  with  which  institution  he  had  been  many  years 
connected.  He  \vas  a  man  of  catholic  spirit  and  peaceful 
temper.  He  had  long  conceived  the  idea  of  an  organic 
union  of  the  Protestant  churches  of  the  United  States,  and 
was  laboring  to  carry  it  into  effect.*  The  meeting  of  his 
'  Evangelical  Alliance  '  was  appointed  to  take  place  in  this 
city,  in  October  next.  Whether  the  scheme  will  be  pushed, 
now  that  its  master  spirit  is  gone,  we  doubt.  Indeed,  in  the 
opinion  of  many,  it  is  premature.  But  whether  practicable 
at  present  or  not,  the  conception  did  honor  to  Dr.  Schmuck- 
er's  heart  and  mind,  and  will  always  be  honorably  asso- 
ciated with  his  name.  He  died  at  a  ripe  age,  having,  we 
lieve,  passed  seventy  years." 

In  the  advocacy  of  Christian  Union,  Dr.  Schmucker 
published  an  "  Appeal  to  the  Friends  of  the  Redeemer  on 
Primitive  Christain  Union,"  a  volume  of  262  pages,  which 
obtained  a  large  circulation  and  attained  a  second  edition. 
In  this  book  he  stated  the  design  of  Christian  Union  as 
follows : 

"  The  design  to  be  aimed  at,  by  the  measures  to  be 
recommended,  is  not  to  amalgamate  the  several  denomina- 
tions into  one  church,  nor  to  impair  in  any  degree  the  inde- 
pendent control  of  each  denomination  over  its  own  affairs 
and  interests,  but  to  present  to  the  world  a  more  formal 
profession  and  practical  proof  of  our  mutual  recognition  of 
each  other  as  integral  parts  of  the  visible  church  of  Christ 
on  earth,  as  well  as  of  our  fundamental  unity  of  faith,  and 
readiness  to  co-operate  harmoniously  in  the  advance- 
ment of  objects  of  common  interest." 

*  This  is  an  error;  he  did  not  labor  to  eifect  an  organic,  but  only 
a  fraternal  or  co-operative  union,  in  which  the  denominatioEs  should 
retain  their  respective  organizations  and  peculiarities,  but  co-operate 
fraternally  in  opposition  to  fundamental  errorists,  infidels,  and  papal 
;  Hierarchy.  — Ed. 


We  take  the  following  commendatory  notices  of  the 
book,  which  set  forth  the  object  and  design  of  the  Evan- 
gelical Alliance : 

From  the  Lutheran   Observer,  edited  by  the  Rev.  Dr.  B.  KurtZ; 

"  The  careful  perusal  of  this  work  has  afforded  us  a 
high  degree  of  enjoyment,  and  it  is  calculated,  if  it  receive 
that  respectful  and  impartial  examination  from  the  churches 
of  our  country,  which  it  eminently  merits,  to  exert  an  in- 
fluence for  good,  which  will  be  felt  in  heathen  countries  as 
well  as  throughout  our  whole  land,  in  the  present  and 
future  generations. 

"  In  the  proposition  and  elucidation  of  the  remedy  for 
the  evils  of  division  in  the  church  of  God,  and  especially  in 
the  excogitation  of  a  plan  for  the  restoration  of  catholic 
union  on  apostolic  principles,  we  think  the  learned  author 
has  mainly  exhibited  his  strength.  This  part  of  the  book, 
especially,  bears  the  marks  of  profound  thought,  close  in- 
vestigation, extensive  observation,  and  of  a  catholicity  of 
spirit  and  deep  and  all-pervading  solicitude  for  the  pros- 
perity of  Zion,  which  reflects  most  creditably  upon  his 
heart.  The  '  Apostolic  Protestant  Confession,'  embracing 
only  the  fundamentals  of  inspired  truth,  which  are  believed 
by  all  the  orthodox  churches  of  Protestant  Christendom,  is 
evidently  the  work  of  great  care  and  of  a  clear  and  judi- 
cious mind. 

"  If  the  sentiments  advanced  in  this  '  Appeal '  are 
fairly  tested,  not  by  ecclesiastical  standards  which  are  the 
work  of  uninspired,  though  good  men,  but  by  '  the  law  and 
the  testimony  '  that  is,  by  the  unerring  rule  of  God's  holy 
•word,  they  cannot  fail  to  command  respect  and  win  advo- 
cates ;  and  if  the  Protestant  Churches  be  organized,  and 
carry  on  their  operations  on  the  principles  developed  in  the 
'  Appeal,'  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  they  would  approxi- 


mate  much  nearer  to  the  apostolic  church  than  they  now 
do ;  that  they  could  act  much  more  efficiently  and  harmon- 
iously in  advancing  the  triumphs  of  the  Cross  in  the 
heathen  and  the  papal  world  ;  and  that  those  blissful  times 
would  again  arive,  when  surrounding  observers  would  be 
compelled  to  exclaim,  *  See  how  these  Christians  love  one 
another  ?  * 

"  This  Appeal  was  first  published  in  the  eleventh  and 
twelfth  volumes  of  the  American  Biblical  Repository.  We 
read  the  whole  discussion  at  the  time  when  it  came  out. 
We  were  then  struck  with  its  candor,  honesty,  thorough 
and  learned  research,  and  eminently  catholic  and  disin- 
terested spirit.  In  further  consideration  of  it,  and  also  by 
conversation  with  the  excellent  author,  we  cannot  but  hope 
that  it  will  receive  the  serious  attention  of  all  our  evangeli- 
cal churches,  and  especially  of  all  ministers  of  the  gospel. 
The  author  has  not  so  much  to  fear  from  disapproval  of  his 
plan,  as  from  indifference  or  inattention  to  it.  The  principal 
features  are  the  following  : — the  several  Christian  denomi- 
nations shall  retain  each  its  own  present  ecclesiastical 
organization,  government,  discipline,  and  mode  of  worship  ; 
let  each  of  the  confederated  denominations  formally  resolve 
for  itself,  not  to  discipline  any  member  or  minister,  for 
holding  a  doctrine  believed  by  any  other  denomination 
whose  Christian  character  they  acknowledge,  provided  his 
deportment  be  unexceptionable,  and  he  conform  to  the 
rules  of  government,  discipline,  and  worship  adopted  by 
said  denomination  ;  let  a  creed  be  adopted  including  only 
the  doctrines  held  in  common  by  all  the  orthodox  Christian 
denominations,  to  be  termed  the  Apostolic  Protestant  Con- 
fession, and  let  this  same  creed  be  used  by  all  denomina- 
tions as  the  terms  of  sacramental,  ecclesiastical,  and  minis- 
terial communion  ;  there  should  be  free  sacramental,  eccle- 
siastical, and   ministerial  communion  among  the  confeder- 

312  DR.  krauth's  commendation. 

ated  churches ;  in  all  matters  not  relating  to  the  govern- 
ment, discipline,  and  forms  of  worship  of  individual 
churches,  but  pertaining  to  the  common  cause  of  Christian- 
ity, let  the  principle  of  co-operation,  regardless  of  sect,  be 
adopted,  so  far  as  the  nature  of  the  case  will  admit,  and  as 
fast  as  the  views  of  the  parties  will  allow ;  the  Bible  should, 
as  much  as  possible,  be  made  the  text-book  in  all  religious 
and  theological  instruction  ;  and  missionaries  going  into 
foreign  lands  ought  to  use  and  profess  no  other  than  this 
common  creed,  the  Apostolic  Protestant  Confession,  and 
connect  with  it  whatever  form  of  church  government  and 
mode  of  worship  they  prefer." 

Dr.  C.  P.  Krauth,  Sr.,  writes  as  follows  : 
"  The  plan  of  union  proposed  by  the  Rev.  Dr. 
Schmucker,  which  was  first  communicated  to  the  public 
through  the  pages  of  the  Biblical  Repository,  has  been  at- 
tentively considered  by  me,  and  I  do  not  hesitate  to  say, 
after  a  careful  examination  of  its  principles,  that  it  accords 
in  my  judgment  with  the  genius  of  onr  holy  religion,  as 
taught  in  the  pages  of  the  New  Testament.  I  agree  with 
him  in  the  opinion  that  union  is  practicable,  that  it  ought 
to  take  place,  and  that  the  accomplishment  of  it  should  be 
the  sincere  aim  of  all  who  love  the  Savior,  in  our  different 
religious  denominations;  because  it  will  remove  many 
heavy  evils  under  which  the  church  now  labors,  facilitate 
the  diffusion  of  religion,  and  arm  the  church  with  power 
which  will  render  it  speedily  triumphant  to  the  ends  of  the 
earth.  The  union  advocated  is  apostolical,  such  as  existed 
in  the  days  of  the  heralds  of  the  Gospel,  and  which,  as 
much  as  anything  else,  imparted  power  to  the  preached 
word.  Union  then  was  strength,  and  now,  if  restored, 
would  render  our  faith  irresistible.  I  can  scarcely  persuade 
myself,  that  he  has  imbibed  the  spirit  of  Jesus  Christ,  in 
any  considerable  extent,  who  does  not  consider  it  a  con- 

DR.    KRAUTH'S  commendation.  3I3 

summation  most  devoutly  to  be  desired,  and  sincerely 
prayed  for.  The  final  prayers  of  the  Savior  on  earth  had 
reference  to  this  blessed  union  :  '  Neither  pray  I  for  them 
alone;  but  for  them  also  which  shall  believe  on  me  through 
their  word  ;  that  they  may  all  be  one;  as  thou,  Father,  art 
in  me,  and  I  in  thee,  that  they  also  may  be  one  in  us  :  that 
the  world  may  believe  that  thou  hast  sent  me.' 

"  The  plan  of  Dr.  Schmucker  meets  my  approbation 
more  fully  than  any  other  that  has  come  to  my  knowledge, 
because  it  does  not  restrict  itself  to  arguments  for  union, 
and  eloquent  declamation  on  the  beauties  of  a  harmonizing 
church,  whilst  the  way  of  bringing  it  about  was  left  un- 
touched. He  has  answered  the  question  in  a  manner 
highly  creditable  to  him  as  a  theologian  and  a  Christian. 
How  is  this  to  be  effected  ?  The  mode  of  accomplishing  it 
is  intelligible,  by  no  means  complicated,  it  secures  all  vital 
truth,  guards  against  extensive  innovation  in  existing  insti- 
tutions, does  not  run  counter  to  that  attachment  to  the 
formularies  of  government  and  discipline  in  any  church  to 
which  we  may  belong,  which  is  so  natural,  and  places  the 
united  church  on  a  better  basis  to  maintain  internal  peace, 
and  to  avoid  dangerous  dissensions,  than  has  ever  yet 

"  With  these  views,  I  anxiously  wish  that  the  church 
of  Jesus  Christ  in  this  country  would  take  into  most  serious 
consideration  the  appeal  which  has  been  addressed  to  them 
on  this  subject.  May  the  day  not  be  distant  when  our  eyes 
shall  behold  a  convention  of  Christian  divines  deliberating 
in  the  spirit  of  the  Master,  on  this  great  subject,  and  bring- 
ing forth  their  solemn  decision  in  favor  of  union  between 
Christian  denominations,  and  of  concentrated  action  in  the 
great  objects  of  the  Christian  enterprise." 





FROM    DR.     KURTZ — KURTZ     AND     THAD.     STEVENS — OUR 










The  Doctor  sometimes  spoke  to  his  students  in  class 
on  the  subject  of  religious  controversy.  He  did  not  object 
to  controversy  when  properly  conducted.  "  Our  aim,"  he 
instructed  us,  "  should  not  be  victory  over  our  opponents, 
but  the  truth."  "  Religious  controversy,"  he  said,  "  though 
it  often  degenerates  from  that  calm  and  dignified  character, 
which  it  should  ever  sustain  as  a  mutual  search  after  truth. 


seems,  sometimes,  to  be  nece  >sary  and  proper.  Discussions 
on  topics  of  practical  utility  a''e  alike  pleasing  to  God  and 
beneficial  to  the  church,  if  conducted  in  a  Christian  spirit, 
and  the  parties  have  truth,  and  not  victory  for  their  aim. 
Truth  is  the  will  of  God,  exhibited  in  the  diversified  crea- 
tions of  his  hand,  either  physical,  intellectual,  or  moral,  and 
the  revelation  of  his  word,  correctly  apprehended  by  the 
human  mind.  Since  truth  therefore  is  ot  God,  it  need  fear 
no  investigation.  The  divinity  that  is  in  it  will  secure  its 
ultimate  triumph.  Though  it  may  for  a  season  be  obscured 
or  crushed  to  earth  by  passion,  prejudice,  or  irresponsible 
authority,  it  will  sooner  or  later  assert  its  rights,  and  secure 
the  homage  of  all  upright  minds.  No  friend  of  truth 
should  dread  impartial  investigation.  If  he  has  uncon- 
sciously imbibed  erroneous  opinions,  he  will  thus  be  con- 
ducted to  the  truth  ;  and  if  his  views  are  correct,  they  will 
be  confirmed  by  investigation.  '  Eternal  vigilance  has  been 
styled  the  price  of  civil  liberty ; '  and  to  '  search  the  Scrip- 
tures daily,'  to  '  prove  all  things  and  hold  fast  to  that  which 
is  good,'  is  the  grand  safeguard  of  religious  truth  and 
ecclesiastical  purity.  The  life  of  the  greatest  moral  hero  of 
the  sixteenth  century, — Martin  Luther, — to  whom  Chris- 
tianity is  so  largely  indebted,  was  almost  entirely  expended 
in  controversial  efforts  ;  and  even  the  mild  and  peace-loving 
Melancthon  felt  it  his  duty  to  devote  much  of  his  time,  his 
learning,  and  his  talents  to  the  vindication  of  the  truth 
against  its  enemies." 

The  most  serious  controversy  in  which  Dr.  Sch mucker 
was  engaged  took  place  in  1856.  It  was  in  relation  to 
the  "  Definite  Platform,"  or  "  American  Recension  of  the 
Augsburg  Confession."  This  document  was  prepared  by 
Drs.  Schmucker,  Kurtz  and  Sprecher,  but  Dr.  Schmucker 
declared  himself  its  author.  It  was  drawn  up  at  the  request 
of  about  twenty  Lutheran  ministers  in  the  East  and  in  the 

31 6  WHAT  SYNOD6  ^  DOPTED  IT. 

West,  men  "  of  the  very  first  responsibility."  We  give  an 
account  of  its  inception  and  preparation  in  the  Doctor's  own 
words : 

"  The  Definite  Platform  could  never,  ivith  truth,  be 
regarded  as  the  work  of  a  few  individuals.  Its  inception  was 
the  result  of  a  consultation  of  a  large  number  of  influential 
brethren,  especially  of  the  West,  who  had  been  convinced 
by  the  aggressions  of  surrounding  symbolists,  that  a 
decided,  but  also  a  more  definite  stand  on  the  ground  of  the 
General  Synod,  was  necessary  in  self  defence.  It  was  pre- 
pared and  published  at  their  request,  not  as  an  official  doc- 
ument, but  as  a  draft  of  such  a  basis  as  they  had  agreed 
on.  It  was  presented  to  them,  and  taken  up  for  considera- 
tion by  their  several  Synods;  and  the  unanimity  with  which 
they  adopted  it  is  conclusive  proof  that  it  was  prepared  ac- 
cording to  the  stipulated  principles." 

It  was  printed  in  pamphlet  form  and  sent  to  the  dis- 
trict synods  in  connection  with  the  General  Synod  for  dis- 
cussion and  adoption,  if  thought  proper.  It  was  adopted 
by  three  synods  in  the  West,  within  a  few  weeks  after  its 
publication.  So  far  as  we  know,  it  was  not  adopted  by  any 
of  the  Eastern  synods,  except  perhaps  the  Melancthon, 
which  had  temporarily  separated  from  the  Maryland  Synod, 
but  after  a  few  years  re-united  with  it.* 

I  distinctly  remember  the  discussion  when  it  was 
brought  up  in  the  West  Pennsylvania  Synod.  It  was  bit- 
terly opposed  by  Dr.  Baugher,  Sr.,  and  some  others. 
Referring  to  the  omissions  in  the  Confession,  he  made  use 

*  The  following  Synods  in  the  West  adopted  the  Definite  Platform: 
The  Synod  of  Ohio,  the  Olive  Branch  Synod,  of  Ohio,  and  the  Wit- 
tenberg Synod,  of  Ohio.  Morris'  Fifty  Years  in  the  Ministry,  page 

Dr.  Jacobs,  in  his  History,  says,  "  It  was  indorsed  by  one  of  the 
smallest  synods  of  Ohio, "  which  is  doubtless  an  unintentional  error 
by  the  learned  historian.     See  his  History,  p.  426. 

BRRORS  ci.aime;d  to  be  in  the  confession.  317 

of  the  following  striking  figure  of  speech,  "  Here  is  a  beau- 
tiful tree  standing  in  front  of  a  man's  house,  and  some  one 
comes  along  and  cuts  off  some  of  its  branches."  To  which 
it  was  replied,  "  When  a  tree  has  stood  over  three  hundred 
years,  it  will  naturally  need  some  little  trimming." 

One  reason  assigned  for  the  necessity  of  the  American 
Recension  was  the  fact,  that  the  Western  General  Synod 
churches  were  mtermingled  with  the  German  churches  of 
the  Missouri  and  Old  Ohio  Synods,  which  insist  upon  the 
adoption  of  the  whole  mass  of  the  Symbolical  Books.  It 
is  stated,  also,  that  "  not  a  single  sentence  has  been  added 
to  the  Augsburg  Confession,  whilst  those  several  aspects  of 
doctrine  only  were  omitted  which  have  long  since  been 
regarded  by  the  great  mass  of  our  churches  as  unscriptural 
and  as  remnants  of  Romish  error." 

The  only  errors  claimed  to  be  contained  in  the  Augs- 
burg Confession  (and  which  are  omitted  in  the  Recension) 
are  : 

1 .  The  Approval  of  the  Ceremonies  of  the  Mass ; 

2.  Private  Confession  and  Absolution  ; 

3.  Denial  of  the  Divine  Obligation  of  the  Christian 
Sabbath ; 

4.  Baptismal  Regeneration ; 

5.  The  Real  Presence  of  the  Body  and  Blood  of  the 
Savior  in  the  Eucharist. 

"  With  these  few  exceptions  we  retain  the  entire  Augs- 
burg Confession  with  all  the  great  doctrines  of  the  Refor- 

A  most  exciting  controversy  followed  in  the  church 
papers,  particularly  the  Lutheran  Observer,  and  afterwards 
in  pamphlets  and  books.  Dr.  Morris  in  his  Fifty  Years  in 
the  Ministry  has  copied  the  gist  of  what  was  published 
against  the  Definite  Platform,  and  Drs.  Kurtz  and 
Schmucker  wrote  in  its  defense  in  the  Observer.     Some  one 


said,  Dr.  Schmucker  made  the  greatest  mistake  of  his  life 
in  preparing  this  document,  and  his  son.  Dr.  B.  M. 
Schmucker,  says,  "  The  Definite  Platform  was  his  most 
unsuccessful  publication."  Yet,  "  No  one  questioned  the 
sincerity  of  his  conviction,  or  the  completeness  of  his  con- 
secration to  Christ  and  his  church."  * 

It  must  certainly  be  admitted,  that  the  publication  of 
this  document  was  unsuccessful,  in  so  far  as  it  failed  to  be 
adopted  by  any  considerable  number  of  synods,  and  its 
authors  also  made  a  mistake  by  underestimating  the 
strength  of  the  confessional  sentiment  which  had  been 
infused  into  the  church  by  the  influence  of  the  German 
Lutherans  in  this  country.  Had  the  Definite  Platform 
been  presented  at  the  time  of  the  organization  of  the  Gen- 
eral Synod,  or  even  twenty- five  or  thirty  years  later,  it 
would  undoubtedly  have  been  adopted,  without  opposition. 
In  confirmation  of  this  opinion  Dr.  Schmucker  makes  the 
following  statement  in  his  book,  American  Luthcranism 
Vindicated,  pp.  39-41  :  "  Dr.  George  Lochman,  D.  D., 
(father  of  Dr.  A.  H.  Lochman,  of  York,  one  of  the  founders 
of  the  General  Synod),  one  of  the  most  active,  pious,  and 
respected  divines  of  our  church,  in  his  Catechism,  published 
in  1822,  states  it  as  one  of  '  the  leading  principles'  of  our 
church,  '  that  the  Holy  Scriptures  and  not  human  authority , 
are  the  only  source  whence  we  are  to  draw  our  religious 
sentiments,  whether  they  relate  to  faith  or  practice.'  *  That 
christians  are  accountable  to  God  alone  for  their  religious 

"  He  also  published  an  edition  of  the  Augsburg  Con- 
fession, in  his  work,  entitled  Doctrine  and  Discipline  of  the 
Evangelical  Lutheran  Church,  in  which  he  made  more  omis- 
sions than  are  found  in  the  American  Recension  ;  and  yet  no 

*  Wolf  s  Lutherans  in  America,  p.  346. 

DR.  lochman's  omissions.         '  319 

one  found  fault  with  him  for  doing  so.  That  the  reader 
may  judge  of  the  extent  of  these  omissions,  we  specify 
them  :   In 

Art.  I.  he  omitted  the  definition  of  person,  in  the 

Art.  II.  omits  the  condemnatory  clause. 

Art.  III.  omits  the  epithet  pure,  in  reference  to  the  Vir- 
gin Mary,  and  the  reference  to  the  so-called  '  Apostles' 

Art.  IV.  omits  the  closing  sentence,  that  God  will 
regard  this  faith  as  righteousness. 

Art.  V.  omits  the  condemnatory  clause,  and  part  of 
another  sentence. 

Art.  VI.  omits  the  word  '  true',  in  reference  to  the 
unity  of  the  church. 

Art.  VIII.  omits  the  condemnatory  clause  concerning 
the  Donatisis. 

Art.  IX.  omits  the  name  Anabaptists. 

Art.  X.  omits  the  condemnatory  clause. . 

Art.  XII.  omits  'absolution  '  and  part  of  the  condem- 
natory clause. 

Art.  XVII.  omits  the  condemnatory  clause. 

Art.  XVIII.  omits  the  name  of  Augustine's  work, 
Hypognosticon,  and  about  ten  lines  at  the  close. 

Art.  XIX.  omits  the  last  sentence. 

Art.  XX.  oi$iits  different  portions  of  this  long  article, 
amounting  to  one-half  of  the  whole. 

Art.  XXI.  omits  all  that  is  said  on  war,  and  the  Turks, 
etc.,  and  the  entire  concluding  paragraph,  amounting  to  half 
a  page  12  mo. 

"Yet  this  work  (of  Dr.  Lochman)  was  circulated 
thoughout  the  church,  and  we  never  heard  a  single  word  of 
objection,  although  the  notes  appended  to  it  are  far  from 
being  symbolic." 


Among  the  first  to  take  up  the  pen  against  the  Definite 
Platform  was  Rev.  John  N.  Hoffman,  then  pastor  of  Trinity 
Lutheran  Church  in  Reading,  Pa.  He  came  out  in  a 
printed  pamphlet,  entitled  "  The  Broken  Platform."  This 
does  not  appear  to  have  been  a  learned  effort. 

I  find  it  criticised  in  Dr.  Fry's  "  History  of  Trinity 
Luth.  Church,"  and  in  Dr.  Morris'  "  Fifty  years  in  the  min- 
istry," The  former  says  apologetically,  that  "  he  suffered 
from  bodily  weakness,"  and  the  latter  says,  "  The  book 
was  crudely  put  together,  hastily  prepared,  and  carelessly 
composed.  It  was  not  equal  to  the  acknowledged  talents  of 
the  author.  He  was  a  man  of  mental  vigor,  but  of  imper- 
fect education,  and  most  billions  temperament."  Dr. 
Schmucker  did  not  deem  it  worth  while  to  take  any  notice, 
publicly,  so  far  as  I  have  seen,  of  Hoffman's  '  broken  plat- 

An  abler  and  more  moderate  attack  on  the  Definite 
Platform  appeared  in  a  book  written  by  W.  J.  Mann,  Pas- 
tor of  a  German  Lutheran  church  in  Philadelphia  and  Pro- 
fessor of  Theology  in  Mount  Airy  Seminary.  Dr. 
Schmucker  replied  in  a  book  of  nearly  200  pages  under  the 
title,  "  American  Lutheranisni  Vindicatedy 

The  discussion  between  these  two  reverend  gentlemen 
may  be  set  down  as  a  model  of  Christian  controversy.  Dr. 
Schmucker  opens  the  discussion  as  follows  : 

*'  Within  the  last  few  months,  a  discussion  on  creeds  has 
occupied  the  religious  papers  of  our  church  in  this  country, 
the  specific  subjects  of  which  were  the  merits  of  the  '  Defi- 
nite Synodical  Platform^  recently  adopted  by  several  of  our 
Western  Synods,  and  the  import  and  scriptural  truth  of 
some  portions  of  that  venerable  document,  the  Augsbitrg 
.  Confession.  In  these  discussions  we  took  part,  in  a  series 
of  articles  over  the  initials  of  our  name,  in  the  Lutheran 
Observer,  in  vindication  of  the  Definite  Platform,  which  we 


hold  to  be  a  faithful  and  definite  exhibition  of  the  import  of 
the  generic  doctrinal  pledge  of  the  General  Synod.  That 
pledge  includes,  in  connection  with  absolute  assent  to  the 
Word  of  God,  as  the  only  infallible  rule  of  faith  and  prac- 
tice, the  belief  '  that  the  fundamental  doctrines  of  Scripture 
are  taught  in  a  manner  substantially  correct  in  the  doc- 
trinal articles  of  the  Augsburg  Confession ; '  and  the  Plat- 
form is  an  unaltered  copy  of  these  articles  of  that  confession, 
only  omitting  those  parts,  which  we  know  by  long  ac- 
quaintance with  American  Lutherans,  to  be  generally  re- 
garded by  them  not  only  as  nonfundamental,  but  erroneous. 
The  Definite  Platform,  therefore  retains  even  more  o(  the 
Augsburg  Confession  than  the  General  Synod's  pledge 
requires ;  for  it  contains  some  specifications  of  the  Augs- 
burg Confession,  which  though  true,  are  not  fundamental. 
The  Platform  is,  therefore,  more  symbolic  than  the  General 
Synod's  doctrinal  basis,  though  the  contrary  opinion  has 
repeatedly  been  expressed,  by  those  who  have  not  carefully 
examined.  Had  both  parties  in  this  discussion  exhibited 
more  christian  comity,  and  abstained  from  personalities, 
levelling  their  logical  artiliery  against  opinions  instead  of 
the  persons  entertaining  them,  the  effect  upon  the  church 
would,  we  think,  have  been  favorable,  and  unity  of  senti- 
ment might  have  been  promoted.  That  a  different  im- 
pression has  been  made  on  many  minds  is,  doubtless,  owing 
to  the  human  infirmity  and  passion  that  mingled  in  the 
contest.  Which  party  exhibited  the  largest  amount  of  this 
weakness,  we  will  not  undertake  to  decide,  although  we 
doubt  not,  that  here  as  in  most  other  cases,  the  judgement 
of  the  Leyden  cobbler  would  be  found  correct,  who  was  in 
the  habit  of  attending  the  public  Latin  disputations  of  the 
university,  and  when  asked  whether  he  understood  Latin, 
replied,  'No,  but  I  know  who  is  wrong  in  the  argument,  by 
seeing  who  gets  angry  first.'     Nevertheless,  christian  truth 


has  often  been  defended  in  a  very  unchristian  way,  and 
doubtless  more  depends  on  the  natural  temper  and  the 
manners  of  the  disputants,  as  well  as  the  extent  to  which 
divine  grace  enables  them  to  subdue  their  passions.  The 
disposition  occasionally  evinced,  to  frown  down  discussion - 
by  invective  and  denunciation,  is  not  only  illogical,  as  it 
proves  neither  the  affirmative  nor  negative  of  the  disputed 
question  ;  but  in  this  free  country,  where  we  acknowledge 
no  popes,  and  in  the  judgment  of  free  Americans,  who  think 
for  themselves,  it  must  always  reflect  unfavorably  on  its 

"  The  same  topic,  so  closely  connected  with  the  prosper- 
ity of  our  beloved  church,  is  to  engage  our  attention  on  the 
present  occasion,  in  reply  to  an  interesting,  christian,  and 
gentlemanly  pamphlet,  from  the  pen  of  the  Rev.  Mr.  Mann, 
of  Philadelphia,  who  controverts  some  of  the  positions  of 
the  Definite  Synodical  Platform.  It  shall  be  my  earnest 
effort  to  write  in  the  same  christian  manner,  and  my  prayer 
is  that  the  Spirit  of  our  Divine  Master  may  direct  my  pen, 
that  it  may  record. 

'  No  line,  wticli  dying,  I  could  wish  to  blot.' 

The  reply  of  his  antagonist  is  worthy  of  the  "  Mann." 
It  reads  as  follows:  "  We  shall  endeavor  to  maintain  in  this 
controversy  a  dignified  and  christian  spirit,  as  becomes  this 
holy  subject,  and  though  differing  in  some  points,  know  one 
Master  and  one  service.  People  on  earth  will  always  differ 
in  their  opinions.  The  truth  will  gain  by  giving  free  scope 
to  ivestigation,  and  by  the  illustrations  of  the  different 
sides  of  the  same  question."  On  this  Dr.  Schmucker  re- 
marks, "  This  position  is  true,  and  creditable  alike  to  the 
head  and  the  heart  of  the  author." 

We  have  not  the  space  to  give  the  arguments  on  both 
sides  of  this  interesting  discussion,  and  will  therefore  con- 


tent  ourselves  by  rendering  a  mere  outline.  We  give  the 
topics  in  the  order  in  which  they  are  enumerated. 

I.  The  approval  of  the  ceremonies  of  the  mass.  The 
words,  in  Art.  xxiv.  read  as  follo\vs :  "  It  is  unjustly 
charged  against  our  churches,  that  they  have  abolished  the 
mass.  For  it  is  notorious,  that  the  mass  is  celebrated 
among  us  with  greater  devotion  and  seriousness,  than  by 
our  opponents,  (the  Papists)  ....  In  the  public  ceremo- 
nies of  the  mass,  also,  no  other  perceptible  change  has  been 
made,  than  that  in  several  places  German  hymns  are  sung 
along  with  the  Latin." 

The  discussion  on  the  mass  extends  over  thirty-three 
pages  of  the  "  American  Lutherism  Vindicated."  The 
whole  point  of  dispute  is  on  the  question,  whether  the  mass 
and  the  Lord's  Supper  mean  the  same  thing.  Dr.  Mann 
affirms,  that  "  the  word  mass  was  at  the  time  when  the  Con- 
fession was  written,  (1530)  in  general  use  for  the  Eucharist; 
and  that  in  later  years  the  term  mass,  in  this  sense,  was  en- 
tirely given  up."  Dr.  Schmucker  on  the  other  hand  main- 
tains, that  the  mass  and  the  Lord's  Supper,  have  entirely 
distinct  meanings ;  first,  because  there  are  two  different 
articles  in  the  Confession;  the  one  with  mass  (Messe)  for  its 
caption,  and  the  other  headed:  of  the  holy  supper.  Now, 
if  mass  here  signified  Holy  Supper,  the  probability  is,  that 
one  or  the  other  term  would  have  been  used  in  both  places; 
Secondly,  that  Luther  and  the  other  reformers  designated 
them  as  diffc;rent  things.  We  give  only  two  citations  from 
Luther :  '  Above  all  other  abominations,  the  mass,  that 
has  hitherto  been  regarded  as  a  sacrifice  or  good  work,  by 
which  one  designed  to  procure  grace  for  the  other,  is  to  be 
rejected,'  * 

"  'Let  this  much  suffice  to  be  said  of  the  Mass,  and 

*  leather's  Works  Vol.  XX.  p.  3. 


service  of  the  minister;  we  will  now  proceed  to  treat  of  the 
manner  in  which  the  holy  sacrament  shall  be  administered 
to  the  people,  for  whose  benefit  es[)ecially  the  Supper  of  our 
Lord  was  instituted.'" * 

The  remainder  of  the  other  thirty-three  pages  of  the 
Vindication  are  filled  up  with  citations  from  other  Luth- 
eran authors,  which  the  readers  can  consult,  if  they  have 
the  desire  to  do  so. 

II.  Of  Private  Confession  and  Absolution.  Three  kinds 
of  confession  and  absolution  are  referred  to  in  the  discussion 
between  Drs.  Schmucker  and  Mann;  i.  Auricular  con- 
fession and  absolution  as  practiced  in  the  Romish  Church, 
2.  Private  Confession  and  Absolution,  as  taught  in  the 
Augsburg  Confession,  and  3.  Public  or  General  Confession 
and  Absolution  as  practiced  in  the  American  Lutheran 
churches.  The  main  difference  between  the  Romish 
Auricular  Confession,  and  private  or  individual  Confession, 
consists  in  this,  that  the  former  requires  all  sins  to  be  con- 
fessed to  the  priest,  and  that  there  can  be  no  absolution  for 
sins  not  thus  confessed,  and  the  latter  does  not  require  a 
detailed  enumeration  of  all  sins  committed,  but  only  of  the 
most  important  ones  {tiur  die  Groebstcn). 

The  following  is  the  manner  in  which  Private  Confes- 
sion and  Absolution  was  practiced :  "  Absolution  was  re- 
cieved  privately  by  each  one  individually,  kneeling  before 
the  confessional,  the  confessor  imposing  liis  hands  ^\.\kiQ.\Xm.%. 
Private  confession  was  given  only  in  the  church,  in  which 
the  confessional  was  so  located  near  the  pulpit,  that  no  other 
person  could  be  near,  or  hear  what  was  said  by  the 
penitent."t  The  following  directory  for  Absolution  will 
convey  to  the  reader  a  correct  idea  of  its  form  : 

*  Luther's  letter  to  Nicolas  Hausman  in  1523. 
fSee  Koecher  p.  515. 


'It  is  well  known  that/nW/^  confession  was  rejected  in 
the  Lutheran  Church  in  Denmark  and  Sweden  in  the  be- 
ginning, as  well  as  by  different  portions  of  Germany  at  an 
early  day,  and  a  public  or  general  confession  adopted  in  its 
stead.  In  Luther's  Short  Directory  for  Confession,  &c.,  we 
have  his  formula  iox  private  or  individual  absolution,  which 
will  convey  to  the  reader  a  more  correct  idea  of  its  form : 
After  the  directions  for  confession  of  sins;  the 

Confessor  says :  *  God  be  merciftd  to  thee  and  strengthen 
thy  faith.     Amen! 

'  Dost  thou  believe  that  my  remission  of  thy  sins  is  God's 
remission  f 

Answer  of  the  penitent :  '  Yes,  dear  sir,  I  do! 

Then  the  confessor  says  :  ^According  to  thy  faith,  so  be 
it  imto  thee.  And  /,  by  command  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ, 
forgive  thee  thy  sins,  in  the  name  of  the  Father,  the  Son,  and 
the  Holy  Ghost.     Amen.     Depart  in  peace!  " 

The  discussion  of  this  subject  covers  9  printed  pages. 
We  give  a  brief  outline. 

Mann.  "  Private  confession  may  be  useful  as  a  means 
of  bringing  the  members  of  the  church  into  personal  inter- 
view with  the  pastor." 

Schmucker.  "The  advantage  of  such  interviews  we 
freely  admit ;  but  they  can  be,  and  are  secured  in  our 
churches  without  this  rite;  and  as  it  is  confessedly  destitute 
of  Scripture  authority,  we  have  no  right  to  invent  a  new 
ordinance  in  Christ's  church  for  any  purpose." 

M.  ''The  impression  n>ight  be  made  by  the  Platform, 
that  the  Lutheran  doctrine  has  some  affinity  to  the  Romish 
doctrine  of  Auricular  Confession." 

5.  "  But  the  Platform  expressly  states  the  rejection 
of  Auricular  Confession  by  the  Reformers  and  their  reten- 
tion of  what  they  called  Private  Confession  in  its  stead." 


M.  "  'The  power  of  the  Keys'  authorizes  a  minister  to 
pronounce  absolution  of  sins,  Matt,  xviii.  i8.  'Whatsoever 
ye  shall  bind  on  earth  shall  be  bound  in  heaven.'  " 

6".  "But  the  previous  context,  '  Tell  it  to  the  church* 
etc.,  clearly  shows,  that  it  refers  to  church  discipline,  and 
signifies,  *  Whatever  acts  oi  discipline  ye  enact  in  regard  to 
such  an  individual,  I  will  ratify  in  heaven.*  But  this  has 
no  bearing  on  private  confession  and  private  absolution. 

"The  other  passage  from  John  xx.  23.  *  Whose  soever 
sins  ye  remit,  they  are  remitted  unto  them  ;  and  whose  soever 
sins  ye  retain,  they  are  retained,'  was  uttered  on  a  different 
occasion,  after  the  Savior's  resurrection ;  and  either  refers 
to  a  miraculous  power  bestowed  on  the  apostles,  to  discern 
the  condition  of  the  heart,  and  to  announce  pardon  to  those 
whom  they  knew  to  be  truly  penitent  and  believing  ;  or  to 
confer  on  the  ministry,  in  all  ages,  the  power  to  announce 
in  general,  the  condition  on  which  God  will  pardon  sinners. 
But  it  contains  no  authority  to  uninspired  ministers  to  apply 
these  promises  to  individuals,  the  condition  of  whose  hearts 
they  cannot  know,  as  is  done  in  private  absolution."  Dr. 
Schmucker  makes  the  following  additional  statements  : 

"  In  Art.  XXVI.  of  the  Augsburg  Confession,  being 
Topic  V.  of  the  Abuses  Corrected,  the  Confession  says  : 
*  Confession  is  not  commanded  in  Scripture,  but  has  been 
instituted  by  the  church'  Even  the  inspired  apostles  never 
in  a  single  instance,  either  undertook  to  forgive  sins  them- 
selves, or  to  announce  the  pardon  of  sin  to  any  individual 
personally.  It  is  therefore  a  solemn  thing  for  ministers,  un- 
guided  by  inspiration,  to  assume  greater  power, 

"  The  Scriptures  throughout  present  God,  and  the 
Lamb  of  God,  as  the  only  beings  that  can  '  forgive '  and 
'  take  away '  sin.  Ex.  xxiv.  6,  7,  '  The  Lord  passed  by 
before  him  and  proclaimed,  '  The  Lord  God,  vazxQXiwX— for- 
giving iniquity,  transgression  and  sin!  ' 


"  The  very  fact,  that  sin  is  committed  essentially 
against  God,  in  violation  of  His  law,  implies  that  no  other 
being,  not  even  an  angel  or  archangel,  much  less  a  man 
(who  is  himself  a  sinner — Ed.)  can  forgive  it.  '  Against 
thee,  thee  only,  have  I  sinned]'  said  the  P.salmist,  '  and 
done  this  evil  in  thy  sight.' 

"  The  Lutheran  Church  in  Sweden  and  Denmark  have 
always  rejected  Private  Confession  and  Absolution  in  practice. 
And  the  entire  church  in  Germany  and  the  United  States, 
which  now  use  public  confession,  have  also  discontinued  it. 
With  the  exception,  perhaps,  of  the  Missouri  Synod  and  its 
allies  in  Germany,  we  are  not  aware  that  Private  Confession 
and  Absolution  are  practiced  by  any  Lutheran  churches 
in  the  world." 

III.  Denial  of  the  Divine  Institution  and  Obligation  of 
the  Christian  Sabbath.  The  discussion  on  this  topic  covers 
fourteen  pages  in  the  Vindication.  Art.  XXVIII,  of  the 
Augsburg  Confession  contains  the  teachings  which  are 
objected  to.  We  quote  the  following  :  "  Those  who  sup- 
pose that  the  ordinance  concerning  Sunday  instead  of  Sab- 
bath is  enacted  as  necessary,  are  greatly  mistaken."  '"  It 
was  necessary  to  appoint  a  certain  day,  in  order  that  the 
people  might  know  when  they  should  assemble ;  the  Chris- 
tian Church  has  appointed  Sunday  (the  Lord's  Day)  for  this 
purpose  ;  and  to  this  change  she  was  the  more  inclined 
and  willing,  that  the  people  might  have  an  example  of 
Christian  liberty,  and  might  know  that  the  observance  of 
neither  Sabbath,  nor  any  other  day  is  necessary!] 

"  The  consciences  of  men  must  not  be  oppressed  by 
representing  these  things  as  necessary  to  salvation,  or  teach- 
ing that  they  are  guilty  of  sin,  if  they  break  these  regulations 
without  offense  to  others ;  for  no  one  affirms  that  a  woman 
commits  sin  who  goes  out  with  her  head  uncovered,  with- 
out giving  offense  to  the  people.     Such  also  is  the  ordi- 


NANCE  CONCERNING  SuNDAY,  Eastcr,  Whit  Sunday  and  simi- 
lar festivals  and  customs." 

The  Augsburg  Confession  distinctly  teaches, 

1.  "  That  the  Jewish  Sabbath  was  entirely  abolished ; 

2.  "  That  no  particular  day  was  divinely  appointed  in 
its  stead ; 

3.  "  That  those  who  suppose  the  ordinance  concern- 
ing Sunday  instead  of  Sabbath  is  enacted  as  necessary,  'are 
greatly  mistaken ; ' 

4.  "  But  that  as  it  was  necessary  to  appoint  a  certain 
day  for  the  convocation  of  the  people,  '  the  Christian  Church 
(not  the  apostles,)  appointed  Sunday.'  " 

Dr.  Mann  in  his  "  Plea  for  the  Augsburg  Confession," 
affirms  that  the  Confession  does  not  object  to  the  divine 
institution  and  obligation  of  the  Lord's  Day,  but  to  the 
corruptions  which  the  Romish  Church  had  connected  with 
it,  and  especially  the  idea  that  the  observance  of  the  Lord's 
Day  was  a  meritorious  work,  and  would  secure  our  justifi- 
cation before  God. 

On  page  28  of  his  Plea  he  writes,  "  Luther  and 
Melancthon  had  received  from  the  older  church  the  doc- 
trine and  practice  of  the  Christian  Sabbath,  as  a  holy  day, 
as  a  divine  institution  and  obligation,  and  they  had  not  a 
word  to  say  against  this  view  of  the  Sabbath."  So  also 
Dr.  Krauth,  Jr.,  who  is  regarded  as  very  high  authority  by 
many,  affirms  that  the  Confession  teaches  the  divine  obli- 
gation of  the  Lord's  Day.  So  also  the  General  Synod  at 
York  declared  its  belief  in  the  divine  obligation  of  the 
Lord's  Day.  Indeed,  our  English  American  Lutheran 
churches  all,  so  far  as  we  know,  believe  in  the  divine  insti- 
tution of  the  Christian  Sabbath  or  Lord's  Day.  Yet  at  the 
time  of  the  Reformation  the  views  and  practice  of  all  the 
churches  were  very  lax  on  this  subject,  and  those  who  now 
profess  to  understand  the  Confession  better  than  we  do, 


declare,  that  it  teaches,  the  Sabbath  was  instituted  for  the 
Jews  only,  and  is  not  obligatory  on  the  Gentiles,  but  was 
abrogated  at  the  advent  of  Christ.  In  corroboration  of  this, 
Dr.  Schmucker  quotes  from  some  of  the  most  distinguished 
German  theologians,  such  as  Drs.  Ruecker,  Hengstenberg, 
and  Walter,  We  give  herewith  the  quotation  from  Prof. 
Walter : 

"  We  cannot  agree  with  him  (the  author,  whom  he  is 
reviewing)  in  the  views  he  expresses  concerning  the  Sab- 
bath. He  asserts  that  the  Sabbath  or  Christian  Sunday  is 
a  divine  institution,  and  that  this  is  the  doctrine  of  the  Luth- 
eran Symbols ;  That  the  Lutheran  Church  differs  from  the 
Calvinistic  only  in  the  mode  ot  observing  the  Sabbath,  the 
former  advocating  an  evangelical,  the  latter,  a  legal  method. 
The  contrary  of  this  is  clearly  evident  from  Article  XXVIII 
of  the  Augsbiag  Confession,  and  it  would  be  almost  incompre- 
hensible how  the  author  could  fail  to  perceive  this,  were  it  not 
for  his  manifest  desire  to  make  the  sanctification  of  the 
Sabbath  as  binding  a  duty  as  any  other  precept  in  the 
decalogue,  and  his  apprehension  that  this  could  not  be 
accomplished  in  any  other  way,  than  by  maintaining  the 
divine  appointment  of  the  Sunday." 

"  The  Augsburg  Confession  treats  the  Sabbath  as  a 
mere  Jewish  institution,  and  supposes  it  to  be  totally  revoked, 
whilst  the  propriety  of  our  retaining  the  Lord's  Day  or 
Christian  Sabbath  as  a  day  of  religious  worship,  is  supposed 
to  rest  only  on  the  agreement  of  the  churches  for  the  con- 
venience of  general  convocation." 

To  this  may  be  added  the  action  of  the  Missouri 
Synod  during  the  World's  Fair  in  Chicago.  The  Protest- 
ant churches  sent  petitions  to  Congress,  very  numerously 
signed,  asking  that  the  gates  of  the  fair  grounds  should  be 
closed  on  Sunday.  The  Missourians  declared  in  their 
theological  monthly,  "  Lehre  und  ll'ehre,''  that  if  the  gates 


were  to  be  closed  on  Sunday  to  give  the  employees  rest,  it 
was  all  right ;  but  if  it  was  for  Scriptural  reasons,  it  was 
wrong  ;  and  they  would  not  sign  the  petitions.  If  we  mis- 
take not,  the  Roman  Catholics  also  declined  to  sign  the 

IV,  V.  The  Sacraments  of  Baptism  and  the  Lord's 
Supper.  We  will  present  a  few  extracts  from  the  discussion 
on  these  ordinances  : 

Mann  :  "  The  Lutheran  doctrine  maintains  that  the 
Sacraments  have  an  intrinsic  value ;  but  the  Definite  Plat- 
form seems  to  regard  them  as  mere  signs,  which  may  have 
a  tendency  to  promote  piety. 

Schmucker:  "We  not  only  admit,  but  strenuously 
affirrti,  that  the  Sacraments  have  an  important,  intrinsic 
influence.  The  Platform  thus  describes  it,  '  Baptism  in 
adults  is  a  means  of  making  a  profession  of  previous  faith, 
or  of  being  received  into  the  visible  church,  as  well  as  a 
pledge  and  condition  of  obtaining  those  blessings  purchased  by 
Christ,  and  offered  to  all  who  repent,  believe  in  him,  and 
profess  his  name  by  Baptism.' " 

Mann:  "The  Primitive  Church  regarded  the  Sacra- 
ments as  mysteries'' 

Schmucker:  "  But  Mr.  Mann  presents  no  evidence  of 
this  fact  from  God's  word,  or  the  apostolic  church  ;  and  the 
church  of  subsequent  ages  is  no  conclusive  doctrinal  author- 
ity for  us  Protestants." 

M.  "  God  is  able  to  accomplish  by  the  Holy  Bap- 
tism, performed  in  the  mysterious  name  of  the  ever  adored 
_  Trinity,  a  work  of  regeneration  in  the  heart  of  the  little 
child.  The  expression  used  in  the  Augsburg  Confession, 
Article  II.,  is  '  Regenerated  by  Baptism  and  the  Holy 
Ghost.'  (John  iii.  5.)  This  doctrine,  however,  is  not  to  be 
understood,  as  if  the  new  creation  was  fully  completed  by 
new  generation.    It  is  complete,  so  far  as  a  live  seed  is  com- 


plete  in  itself.  Thisdoesby  no  means  exclude  subsequent  de- 
velopment brought  about  by  favorable  internal  and  external 
influence.  And  Christ,  the  God-man,  is  able  to  make  us 
poor  creatures  partakers  of  his  celestial  nature  (2  Pet.  i.  4,) 
in  the  most  solemn  rite  of  his  church,  (the  Eucharist)  which 
is  therefore  communion  between  Christ  and  man  in  the 
fullest  manner  possible  on  earth." 

.S.  "Here  the  respected  author,  (Dr.  Mann,)  by  adopt- 
ing the  theory  that  a  living  seed  is  implanted  by  Baptism 
(whether  into  the  soul  or  body  he  does  not  specify,)  and 
then  that  the  Godman,  Christ  Jesus,  makes  these  baptized 
individuals  partakers  of  his  Celestial  Nature  hy  the  sacra- 
mental supper,  seems  to  favor  something  like  the  theory  of 
concorporation,  or  a  physical  union  between  Christ  and 
the  believer,  which  is  known  in  variojis  places  as  Puseyism 
in  England,  and  Nevinism  in  the  German  Reformed 
Church  in  this  country,  and  which  has  spread  a  withering 
influence  over  the  interests  of  practical  piety  wherever  em 
braced.  Yet  we  would  by  no  means  affirm  that  Rev.  Mr. 
Mann  has  embraced  all  the  cardinal  features  of  this  sys- 
tem." * 

*  For  the  information  of  such  of  our  readers  as  prefer  a  skeleton 
of  the  Puseyite  system  of  the  sacraments,  rather  than  wade  through 
volumes  of  Semi-romish  discussion,  we  annex  its  features:  — 

I.  That  man  is  ' '  made  a  member  of  Christ,  the  child  of  God,  an  1 
an  inheritor  of  the  kingdom  of  heaven,"  in  and  by  holy  Baptism. 

II.  That  man  "  made  a  member  of  Christ,  the  child  of  God,  and 
an  inheritor  of  the  kingdom  of  heaven,"  in  and  by  holy  Baptism,  is 
renewed  from  time  to  time  in  holy  Communion. 

III.  That  a  "death  unto  sin,  and  a  new  birth  unto  righteous- 
ness "  is  given  to  every  adult,  and  every  infant,  in  and  by  the  outward 
visible  sign  or  form  in  Baptism,  "water,  in  the  name  of  the  Father, 
and  of  the  Son,  and  of  the  Holy  Ghost." 

IV.  That  the  gift  may  be  received,  in  the  case  of  adults,  worthily 
or  unworthily,  but  that  it  is  always  received. 

V.  That  the  body  and  blood  of  Christ  are  given  to  everyone  who 
receives  the  Sacramental  Bread  and  Wine, 

VI  That  the  gift  may  be  received  worthily  or  unworthily,  but 
that  it  is  always  received. 

There  is  no  mistaking  the  meaning  of  this.  It  is  clear  and  ex- 
plicit; but  wherein  it  diflfers  from  Romanism  it  would  be  difficult  to 
tell. — American  Lutheranism  Vindicated  i>  124. 


The  Definite  Platform  rejects  also  the  rite  of  Exor- 
cism, which  was  practiced  in  connection  with  Baptism,  and 
is  prescribed  in  the  Book  of  Concord.  We  give  the  fol- 
lowing extract  from  the  Directory  for  Baptism  :  "  The  min- 
ister shall  say,  '  Come  out,  thou  unclean  spirit,  and  give 
place  to  the  Holy  Ghost.'  Then  he  shall  make  the  sign 
of  the  cross  on  forehead  and  breast,  and  say,  '  Receive  the 
sign  of  the  holy  cross,  both  on  forehead  and  breast.'  After 
a  short  prayer  he  continues,  '  I  adjure  thee,  thou  unclean 
spirit,  in  the  name  of  the  Father,  f  and  the  Son,  f  and  the 
Holy  Ghost,  f  that  thou  come  out  and  depart  from  this 
the  servant  of  Jesus  Christ.     Amen.'  "  * 

This  rite  is  now  regarded  as  a  remnant  of  Romish  su- 
perstition. It  was  translated  from  the  Latin  into  the  German 
language  and  incorporated  into  the  Symbolical  Books.  "  It 
presupposes,  that  the  child  before  Baptism  is  possessed  by 
an  evil  spirit,  and  that  this  rite  or  formula  has  a  magic  in- 
fluence over  the  kingdom  of  evil  spirits."  f 

According  to  Siegel  and  others.  Exorcism  was  re- 
ceived and  practiced  in  Sweden,  the  entire  kingdom  of 
Wurtemberg,  Hanover,  Saxony,  etc.  But  we  have  no 
knowledge  of  a  single  English  Lutheran  congregation  in 
America,  that  has  received  and  practiced   Exorcism. 

Therefore  as  regards, 

1.  The  approval  of  the  ceremonies  of  the  mass, 

2.  Private  confession  and  absolution; 

3.  Denial  of  the  Divine  Obligation  of  the  Christian 
Sabbath  or  Lord's  Day ; 

4.  Baptismal  Regeneration  and  Exorcism,  there  seems 
to  be  a  glaring  inconsistency  in  making  profession  of  and 
subscribing  to  doctrines  which  we  do  not  believe  and  rites 
which  we  do  not  practice. 

*  Book  (  f  Concord,  Wegandt  und  Grieben,  Berlin  1862,  page  305. 
t  Bautrigarten ,  History  of  Christian  Doctrines.     Vol.  ii.  page  322. 

Evidences  oe  pardon  and  jxjstification.  333 

The  following  extract  from  "  American  Lutheranism 
Vindicated  "  will  be  interesting  and  edifying  to  our  readers: 

"  The  evidence  of  this  pardon  or  justification,  to  the  be- 
liever himself,  is  within  his  own  heart: — 

{a)  It  is  that  peace  of  God,  or  sense  of  pardoned  sin, 
wrought  in  the  soul  by  the  Holy  Spirit.  '  Being  justified 
by  faith,  we  have  peace  with  God,  through  our  Lord  Jesus 
Christ.'    Rom.  v.  i. 

if)  '  The  love  of  God  shed  abroad  in  our  hearts  by  the 
Holy  Ghost  which  is  given  unto  us.' 

if)  It  is  the  testimony  of  '  the  Spirit  bearing  witness 
with  our  spirits  that  we  are  children  of  God.'  '  He  that 
believeth  hath  the  witness  in  himself.' 

id)  It  is  the  fridt  of  the  Spirit,  exhibited  in  the  believ- 
er's life,  *  which  is  love,  joy,  peace,  long  suffering,  gentle- 
ness, goodness,  faith,  meekness,  temperance.' 

{e)  It  is  '  being  led  by  the  Spirit  of  God,'  for  then, 
says  the  apostle,  they  are  the  sons  of  God, 

"  All  these  evidences  presuppose  or  involve  that  great 
change  of  heart  and  life,  termed  by  the  Savior  new  birth, 
by  which  the  sinner  becomes  morally  qualified  for  that 
pardon,  purchased  by  the  blood  of  Christ,  and  appropriated 
to  the  believer  by  his  faith.  But  no  outward  rites  necessar- 
ily imply  such  moral  preparation,  and  hence  they  could  not 
be  the  conditions  of  justification,  according  to  the  analogy 
of  God's  Word. 

"  Hence  the  sacraments.  Baptism  and  the  Lord's  Supper, 
are  not  the  immediate  conditions  or  means  of  pardon  or  jus- 
tification; but  they  are  means  of  grace,  like  the  Word  of  God 
and  seals  of  grace  to  all  worthy  recipients.  They  have  an 
intrinsic  efficacy  by  virtue  of  the  truths  symbolically  repre- 
sented by  them,  and  an  additional  specific  efficacy  in  virtue 
of  their  peculiar  nature,  in  connexion  with  the  influence  of 
the  Holy  Spirit,  to   awaken,  convert  and  sanctify  the  soul," 

334  VIEWS  OF  i^ord's  supper  by  mosheim. 

The  remainder  ofthe  discussion  on  the  Definite  Platform 
is  taken  up  with  a  controversy  on  the  presence  of  the  real 
body  and  blood  of  Christ  in  the  Sacrament,  which  perhaps 
would  not  interest  or  edify  our  readers  very  much,  and  we 
will  therefore  conclude  this  chapter  by  a  quotation  from  his 
edition  of  Luther's  Smaller  Catechism  as  a  brief  statement 
of  his  view  on  the  Savior's  presence  in  the  Lord's   Supper  : 

"  The  Lutheran  church,"  says  the  celebrated  Dr.  Mos- 
heim, "  does  not  believe  in  impanation,  nor  in  subpanation, 
nor  in  consubstantiation  ;  nor  in  a  physical  or  material  pres- 
ence of  the  body  and  blood  of  the  Savior."  Elementa 
Theol.  Dog.  in  loc. 

"  The  Lutheran  church  maintains  that  the  Savior  ful- 
fills his  promise  and  is  actually  present,  especially  present, 
at  the  Holy  Supper,  in  a  manner  incomprehensible  to  us, 
and  not  defined  in  Scripture.  And  why  should  it  be 
thought  impossible,  that  he,  who  fills  immensity  with  his 
presence  should  be  there,  where  his  disciples  meet  to  cele- 
brate his  dying  love." 

Here  is  an  extract  from  Dr.  J.  G.  Morris'  edition  of 
Luther's  Smaller  Catechism : 

"  What  the  nature  of  this  presence  is,  we  know  not.  The 
thing  itself  we  know ;  but  the  mode  of  its  truth  is  a  mys- 
tery which  we  cannot  comprehend.  We  deny  that  Christ 
is  present  and  received  in  a  physical  or  material  manner. 
But  should  any  one  ask.  How  is  he  present  ?  Our  answer 
is.  We  know  not.  We  commonly  call  his  presence  in  this 
holy  ordinance,  a  *  sacramental  presence.'  This  might 
seem  to  be  an  attempt  to  define  the  mode  of  his  presence ; 
but  by  this  word  we  mean  nothing  more  than  that  we  are 
ignorant  of  the  mode. — They  therefore  err  who  say  that 
we  believe  in  impanation,  or  that  Christ  is  /«  the  bread  and 
wine.  Nor  are  those  correct  who  charge  us  with  believing 
subpanation,  that  is,  that  Christ   is  under  the  form  of  bread 


baugher's  doctrine  and  usages.  335 

and  wine.  And  equally  groundless  is  the  charge  of  co?i- 
substantiation,  or  the  belief  that  the  body  and  blood  of 
Christ  are  changed  into  one  substance  with  the  bread  and 
wine." — Dr.  Mosheim. 

The  Rev.  Henry  Baugher,  D.  D.,  President  of  Penn'a 
College  and  father  of  Prof  H.  L.  Baugher,  Jr.,  D.  D.,  in  1840 
prepared  an  excellent  report  on  the  Doctrines  and  Usages 
of  the  Synod  of  Maryland,  of  which  he  was  an  honored  and 
inflaential  member.  It  will  be  seen  from  the  following  ex- 
tract, that  he  held  substantially  the  same  views  on  Regen- 
eration, Sacraments  and  the  Symbolical  Books,  as  those  set 
forth  by  Dr.  Schmucker  in  his  defense  of  the  Definite  Plat- 
form : 

"  On  Regeneration. — We  believe  that  the  Scriptures 
teach  that  regeneration  is  the  act  of  God,  the  Holy  Ghost, 
by  which,  through  the  truth,  the  sinner  is  persuaded  to 
abandon  his  sins  and  submit  to  God,  on  the  terms  made 
known  in  the  gospel.  This  change,  we  are  taught,  is  radi- 
cal, and  is  essential  to  present  peace  and  eternal  happiness. 
Consequently,  it  is  possible,  and  is  the  privilege  ot  the  re- 
generated person  to  know  and  rejoice  in  the  change  pro- 
duced in  him. 

"  Of  the  Sacraments. — We  believe  that  the  Scriptures 
teach,  that  there  are  but  two  sacraments,  viz. :  Baptism  and 
the  Lord's  Supper,  in  each  of  which,  truths  essential  to  sal- 
vation are  symbolically  represented.  We  do  not  believe 
that  they  exert  any  influence  '  ex  opere  operator  but  only 
through  the  faith  of  the  believer.  Neither  do  the  scriptures 
warrant  the  belief,  that  Christ  is  present  in  the  Lord's  Sup- 
per in  any  other  than  a  spiritual  manner. 

"  Of  the  Symbolical  Books. — Luther's  Larger  and 
Smaller  Catechisms,  the  Formula  Concordiae,  Augsburg 
Confession,  Apology,  and  Smalkald  Articles  are  called  in 
Germany  the  Symbolical  Books  of  the  church.  We  regard 
them  as  good  and  useful  exhibitions  of  truth,  but  do  not 
receive  them  as  binding  on  the  conscience,  except  so  far  as 
they  agree  with  the  word  of  God." 

336  schmucker's  resignation. 


Schmucker's  resignation — his  letter  to  the  board — 
NO  change  in  his  doctrinal  views — reasons  for 
resignation — increasing  age — desire  for  literary 
work — brown,  his  successor — sketch  of  his  life — 

brown's    charges — schmucker's  reply — NATURAL  DE- 


brown's    ATTACK    ON    SPKECHER — BROWN's    ELECTION 


DR.    schmucker's  RESIGNATION. 

Early  in  1864,  Dr.  Schmucker  announced  his  intention 
to  resign  his  professorship  in  the  Seminary.  We  give  the 
following  extracts  from  the  minutes  of  the  Board  : 

"■Meeting  of  Aug.  gth.,  1864.  "  Early  in  February,  1864, 
Rev.  S.  S.  Schmucker,  D.  D.,  informed  me  (the  President 
of  the  Board,)  that  he  intended  resigning  the  chair  of 
Didactic  Theology  at  the  next  meeting  of  the  Board.  The 
fact  was  made  known  to  the  directors  and  the  church  in 
general,  by  the  following  announcement,  together  with  the 
letter  of  notification,  in  the  Lutheran  and  Missioniry  and 
Lutheran  Observer. 


Announcement  of  the  Intended  Resignation  of  Dr.  S. 
S.  Schmucker. 

It  becomes  the  duty  of  the  undersigned  to  announce 
to  the  members  of  the  Board  of  Directors  of  the  Theological 
Seminary  at  Gettysburg,  that  the  Rev.  S.  S.  Schmucker,  D. 
D.,  has  formally  notified  him,  that  he  purposes  resigning 
the  Professorship  of  Didactic  Theology  at  their  next  meet- 
ing. F.  W.  Conrad, 

President  of  the  Board  of  Directors, 

Gettysburg,  February. 

Letter  of    Resignation. 

Gettysburg,  February,  1864.. 

Rev.  F.  W.  Conrad, 

President  Board  of  Directors  of  Theol.  Seminary, 

Dear  Brother  in  Christ. — After  nearly  forty-four 
years  spent  in  the  active  duties  of  the  ministerial  office, 
thirty-eight  of  which  were  in  connection  with  the  Theolog- 
ical Seminary,  I  have  resolved,  after  long  and  prayerful 
deliberation  to  resign  my  professorship  at  the  next  meeting 
of  the  Board  in  August.  For  this  purpose  I  now  give  you 
the  constitutional  notice  of  six  months  in  advance.  Whilst 
I  reserve  to  a  future  communication  to  the  Board  such 
remarks  as  I  may  feel  desirous  of  making,  I  will  state  in 
general,  that  my  chief  reasons  for  this  step,  are  the  increas- 
ing infirmities  of  age,  and  a  desire  to  devote  the  remaining 
years  of  my  life  more  particularly  to  literary  labors  for  the 
cause  of  God  and  of  religion. 

With  sentiments  of  the  warmest  fraternal  regard,  I 
remain  Yours  in  Christ, 

S.  S.  Schmucker. 

"  During  the  second  session  of  this  meeting,  Aug.  9th, 
1864,  Dr.  Schmucker  himself  read  the  following  paper : 


"'Christian  Brethren  :  Having  six  months  ago  for 
warded  to  the  President  of  your  body,  the  constitutional 
notice  of  my  intention  to  resign  my  office  in  this  Institu- 
tion, I  hereby  surrender  into  your  hands  this  important 
trust,  to  take  effect  at  the  close  of  the  present  Seminary 
year,  September  21st.,  1864.  Nearly  forty  years  have 
elapsed,  since  I  was  elected  by  the  General  Synod  in  1825, 
as  first  Professor  of  the  Seminary,  yet  to  be  established. 
The  greater  part  of  the  first  year  I  spent,  by  request  of  the 
Board,  in  collecting  funds  for  the  endowment  ot  the  Insti- 
tution, and  on  the  fifth  of  September,  1825,  the 'operation  of 
the  Seminary  commenced.  Duringalltheinterveningyears,  a 
kind  Providence  has  preserved  my  health,  so  that  with  the 
exception  of  two  or  three  cases,  the  instructions  have  never 
been  interrupted  more  than  a  few  days  by  sickness.  Dur- 
ing all  this  time  also,  my  conscience  bears  me  witness,  that 
I  have  endeavored  to  discharge  my  duties  with  fidelity,  to 
watch  over  the  piety,  improvement  and  general  welfare  of 
the  students,  and  to  promote  the  best  interests  of  our 
beloved  church. 

"'  The  Constitution  of  the  Seminary,  which  was 
adopted  at  the  commencement  of  the  Institution,  has  con- 
tinued to  direct  all  its  operations  till  this  day.  All  its  pro- 
visions have  been  carefully  attended  to.  Its  doctrinal  tests 
have  been  statedly  repeated  before  the  Board  by  all  the 
Professors,  and  I  am  happy  here  to  record  the  declaration, 
that  I  approve  of  them  all  at  present,  as  when  I  framed  and 
first  took  them.  The  text  book,  viz.,  my  Popular  Theology, 
which  grew  out  of  my  lectures  on  Dogmatics,  during  the 
first  few  years,  has  been  retained  till  this  day  as  the  basis  of 
my  instructions,  without  the  change  of  a  single  doctrine  ; 
and  I  record  the  additional  declaration,  that  I  this  day 
cordially  believe  every  doctrine  taught  in  the  entire 
volume.     These  facts  I  state  in  justice   to   the  Institution 


and  myself,  and  in  view  of  the  future  history  of  the  Institu- 
tion and  the  church. 

"  '  In  withdrawing  from  my  official  connection  with  the 
Seminary,  as  its  Theological  Professor,  I  feel  constrained  to 
give  expression  to  my  grateful  recollection  of  the  cordial 
and  active  co-operation  of  the  Board  throughout  the  history 
of  the  In^^titution  in  the  various  measures,  which  as  Chair- 
man of  the  Faculty,  I  from  time  to  time  proposed.  Many 
of  these  dear  brethren  have  entered  the  eternal  world  before 
me,  and  it  cannot  be  very  long  before  some  of  us  will  be 
called  to  join  them. 

"  '  The  reasons  which  influenced  me  in  tendering  my 
resignation  at  this  time,  when  there  has  been  no  serious 
change  in  my  health,  are  first :  The  gradual  and  natural 
increase  of  the  infirmities  of  age.  I  formerly  thought  no 
man  ought  to  hold  such  a  responsible  and  laborious  post, 
as  that  assigned  me,  after  he  had  passed  the  meridian 
vigour  of  life,  say  fifty,  or  at  most  sixty  years  of  age,  but 
should  assume  some  easier  post  and  there  labor  some  years 
longer.  But  as  I  successively  passed  those  periods,  I  was 
not  conscious  myself  of  any  marked  decline  of  vigor,  and 
therefore  have  retained  the  post,  which,  I  however  now  feel 
it  a  duty  to  resign  to  younger  and  more  active  hands, 
whilst  I  propose  to  labor  for  the  kingdom  of  my  God  and 
Savior  in  various  ways,  especially  by  literary  efforts. 

"  '  With  reference  to  this  fact,  I  would  request  the 
Board  to  grant  me  the  use  of  the  Seminary  Library,  subject 
to  the  regulations  thereof,  as  has  been  done  to  the  college 
professors  and  our  pastors  in  town.  This  design  forms  my 
second  reason  (2,)  for  resignation,  a  desire  to  have  more 
time  at  command  for  the  execution  of  some  literary  enter- 
prises, which  I  hope  may  redound  to  the  glory  of  God  and 
the  benefit  of  his  church,  third :  I  have  also,  after  having 
looked  at  the  state  of  the  church  for  several  years,  thought 


the  present  as  favorable  a  time  as  wou'd  soon  be  offered,  to 
elect  a  successor,  who  would  carry  on  the  work  to  which 
my  life  has  been  devoted,  in  the  same  liberal  spirit,  in 
which  this  Institution  was  founded,  and  has  been  thus  far 
conducted;  granting  liberty  of  opinion  in  regard  to  those 
non-fundamental  points  on  which  the  churches  of  the  Gen- 
eral Synod  claim  and  exercise  this  right. 

"  *  Fourth  :  Finally,  no  one  can  be  more  sensible  than  I 
am,  of  the  imperfection  of  my  best  meant  services  in  behalf 
of  the  church,  and  of  the  beloved  young  men,  numbering 
about  four  hundred,  for  whose  education  I  have  labored.  I 
pray  God,  that  he  may  continue  to  bless  their  labors  for 
the  advancement  of  the  best  interests  of  his  church. 

"  '  With  sincere  regard  for  every  member  of  this  Board, 
and  my  best  wishes  for  their  welfare  and  that  of  my 
respective  colleagues,  I  close  this  my  final  communication, 

S.    S.    SCHMUCKER.' 

Gettysburg,  August  gth.,  1864.. 

"This  important  document  was  handed  to  a  committee 
consisting  of  Drs.  Lochman,  Hay,  and  Rev.  Baum,  who 
subsequently  reported  the  following,  which  was  unani- 
mously adopted : 

'"The  undersigned  appointed  to  draft  a  minute, 
expressing  the  views  of  the  Board  with  reference  to  the 
resignation  of  Rev.  Dr.  Schmucker,  respectfully  present  the 
following  statement : 

"'This  subject,  introduced  six  months  ago  to  the 
notice  of  the  Board,  and  now  formally  pressed  upon  their 
attention,  they  recognize  as  one  of  extreme  importance,  in 
view  of  the  fact  that  Dr.  Schmucker  has  been  so  com- 
pletely identified  with  the  institution  from  its  incipiency, 
and  has  to  so  great  an  extent  been  entrusted  with  the 
execution  of  its  affairs.  The  sundering  of  relations  of  such 
long  standing,  and  which   involve   to  so  great  an  extent 


the  welfare  of  our  beloved  church,  is  an  act  that  should  not 
be  performed  without  solemn  consideration  and  devout 
aspiration  for  the  divine  guidance. 

"  '  Approaching  the  subject  in  this  spirit,  your  commit- 
tee has  been  led  to  the  deliberate  conclusion,  that  in  view 
of  the  considerations  adduced  by  Dr.  Schmucker,  in  his 
communication  to  the  Board,  and  of  his  unqualified 
declaration  to  the  committee  as  to  his  settled  purpose  of 
withdrawing  at  this  time,  the  Board  have  no  alternative, 
but  to  accept  of  his  resignation. 

"  '  The  committee  further  propose,  that  the  request  of 
Dr.  Schmucker  with  reference  to  the  use  of  the  Seminary 
Library  be  cordially  complied  with,  and  the  Board  at  the 
same  time  return  to  him  their  heartfelt  thanks  for  his  zeal 
and  success,  and  for  his  untiring  efforts  in  various  ways  to 
increase  and  improve  the  same. 

"  '  Nor  can  your  committee  close  this  report  without 
giving  some  expression  of  the  universal  sentiment  of 
gratitude,  which  is  felt  to  be  due  to  one,  who  has  devoted 
the  labors  of  an  ordinary  life  time  to  our  beloved  Institu- 
tion, and  who  amid  the  increasing  infirmities  of  age,  still 
proposes  to  consecrate  the  remnant  of  an  active  and  useful 
life,  to  the  service  of  the  church  in  a  less  conspicuous  posi- 
tion. May  the  Lord  our  Saviour  abundantly  reward  him 
for  his  years  of  patient  toil,  and  grant  him  grace  and 
strength,  still  further  to  co-operate  with  his  brethren  in  the 
glorious  work  of  extending  the  borders  and  promoting  the 
efficiency  of  our  beloved  Zion.' 

"Adjourned  with  prayer  by  Dr.  Hauer. 

"  At  a  subsequent  Session,  it  was 

"  Resolved,  that  the  name  of  the  Rev.  S.  S.  Schmucker, 
D.  D.,  be  retained  on  the  Catalogue  of  this  Institution  dur- 
ing his  lifetime,  as  '  Professor  Emeritus.' 

The  Gettysburg  Star  of  that  date  made  the  following 
editorial  remark  : 


"  If  any  man  has  ever  earned  a  good  claim  to  retire 
in  his  sixty-seventh  year  from  wearisome  and  routine  in- 
struction, upon  the  honor  and  dignity  of  a  Professor 
Emeritus,  Dr.  Schmucker  had  won  that  right,  when  he 
tendered  his  resignation  to  the  Board  of  Directors,  as  the 
active  incumbent  of  the  chair  of  Dogmatic  Theology  in  the 
Seminary  of  the  General  Synod." 

"  Called  to  preside  over  this  Institution  at  its  founda- 
tion, he  was  for  some  time  its  sole  professor,  and  he  may 
justly  be  called  its  father.  He  held  this  position  until  1864, 
a  period  of  nearly  forty  years,  and  during  this  time,  by  his 
ascendency  over  the  minds  of  his  students,  his  numerous 
publications,  his  debates  at  synod,  and  his  manifest  devo- 
tion to  every  cause  of  public  interest,  he  was  beyond 
question  the  most  conspicuous  and  influential  man  in  the 
Lutheran  Church  in  America,  and  the  best  known  to  the 
Christian  community  outside  of  it." — U^o//. 

"  For  eight  years  more  he  resided  in  Gettysburg,  lead- 
ing a  life  of  comparative  leisure,  and  yet  never  idle.  A 
certain  number  of  hours  every  day  were  spent  in  his  study, 
in  general  reading,  and  arranging  some  literary  scheme, 
which,  however,  was  never  consummated." — Diehl. 

DR.    S.    S.    SCHMUCKEr's    SUCCESSOR. 

Rev.  James  Allen  Brown  became  Dr.  Schmucker's 
successor.  It  will  be  interesting  to  the  readers  to  learn 
under  what  circumstances  he  was  elected  to  that  prominent 
position,  and  what  were  the  causes  that  brought  about  this 
result.  Rev.  Brown  came  into  prominence  in  the  church 
by  his  opposition  to  Dr.  Schmucker.  He  was  a  colleague 
with  Rev.  J  N.  Hoffman  in  Reading,  and  near  about  the 
same  time  that  Hoffman  published  his  "  Broken  Platform," 
Brown  introduced  some  strong  worded  resolutions  in  the 
Synod  of  East  Pennsylvania,  against  the  "  Definite  Plat- 
form."    Afterwards      he    charged    Dr.    Schmucker    with 

SKETCH  OF  DR.  A]vt,EN  BROWN.  343 

fundamental  errors  on  the  doctrines  of  Regeneration, 
Natural  Depravity  and  Sanctification.  By  this  means  he 
got  himself  into  prominence  and  the  way  of  promotion. 
Had  he  attacked  any  other  man  in  the  church  it  would  not 
have  aroused  much  attention,  nor  have  had  any  influence 
in  promoting  him  to  higher  stations.  But  the  opponents  of 
Dr.  Schmucker  urged  him  on ;  the  attention  of  the  church 
was  directed  to  him ;  he  was  called  to  a  professorship  of 
Theology  and  ancient  languages  in  Newberry  College, 
South  Carolina,  and  finally  elected  Professor  of  Didactic 
Theology  and  chairman  of  the  faculty  in  the  Seminary  at 

As  this  is  a  very  important  event  in  Dr.  Schmucker's 
Hfe,  and  Rev.  Brown's  charges  affected  him  more  painfully 
than  any  other  occurrence  in  his  life,  we  will  give  a  brief 
extract"  from  his  biographical  sketch  in  Jenson's  American 
Lutheran  Biographies,  and  then  copy  a  part  of  Dr. 
Schmucker's  reply  to  Rev.  Brown's  charges  against  his 
orthodoxy  : 

REV.    JAMES    ALLEN    BROWN,    D.    D., 

"  Was  born  in  Lancaster  County,  Pa.,  February  19th., 
1821.  Both  of  his  parents  were  Quakers.  His  early  years 
were  passed  on  the  farm,  but  as  he  evinced  an  unusual 
desire  for  study,  he  derived  every  possible  advantage  from 
the  public  schools,  and  a  few  books  which  he  found  in  his 
father's  library.  Then  he  taught  school  and  pursued  his 
studies  privately  at  Mt.  Joy,  and  Emmaus  Institute,  Mid- 
dletown,  Pa.,  of  which  his  uncle  was  at  that  time  President. 
He  also  was  a  Quaker,  but  as  the  charter  of  that  institution 
required  that  all  its  officers,  directors  and  teachers  must  be 
Lutherans,  he  joined  the  Lutheran  Church. 

"  In  1 84 1  Mr.  Brown  entered  the  senior  class  in  Penn- 
sylvania College  at  Gettysburg,  and  graduated  in  the  class 
of  1 842.     During  his  year  at  college  he  connected  himself 

344  DR.  AI,I,EN  BROWN. 

with  the  Presbyterian  Church  at  Gettysburg,  being  bap- 
tized, February  19th.,  1841.  From  October  22nd.,  1842,  to 
April  6th.,  1843,  he  had  charge  of  a  select  school  at 
Leitersburg,  Md.  In  the  spring  of  1844  he  was  elected 
principal  of  the  academy  at  Darlington,  Md.,  which  office  he 
held  until  the  12th  of  September,  1845.  ^^  the  meantime 
he  had  also  been  studying  theology  with  Rev.  Mr.  Carter,^ 
a  Presbyterian  Minister,  at  New  Windsor,  Md. 

"On  the  i8th  of  October,  1845,  Mr.  Brown  was 
licensed  by  the  Maryland  Synod  of  the  Lutheran  Church, 
and  received  a  call  to  what  was  then  called  Luther  Chapel, 
now  the  Third  Lutheran  Church  on  Monument  St^reet, 
Baltimore.  He  served  this  congregation  till  February  4th., 
1848,  when  he  accepted  a  call  from  Zion  Lutheran  Church 
at  York,  Pa.  This  church  he  served  something  over  a 
year,  when  he  received  a  call  to  St.  Matthew's  Lutheran 
Church  in  Reading,  Pa.  His  ministry  in  Reading  con- 
tinued nearly  ten  years.  In  February,  1859,  ^^  accepted  a 
professorship  of  theology  and  ancient  languages  in  New- 
berry College,  South  Carolina.  But  the  civil  war  breaking 
out,  he  had  to  flee  for  safety  to  the  North,  where  he 
accepted  a  chaplaincy  in  the  Union  Army.  After  a  period 
of  fifteen  months  he  resigned  and  accepted  a  chaplaincy  of 
the  United  States  Army  hospital  at  York,  Pa. 

"  After  two  years  of  faithful  service  in  this  capacity,  he 
was,  in  August,  1864,  elected  Professor  of  Didactic  Theol- 
ogy and  Chairman  of  the  Faculty  in  the  Theological  Semi- 
nary of  the  General  Synod  at  Gettysburg,  as  the  successor 
of  Dr.  Schmucker. 

"  On  December  9th.,  1879,  he  was  suddenly  stricken 
with  paralysis,  which  deprived  him  of  the  power  of  speech 
and  the  use  of  his  right  arm.  His  resignation  was  tendered 
in  June,  1880,  but  was  not  accepted  by  the  Board  of 
Directors  until  the  summer  of  1881. 


"  In  the  month  of  September,  1881,  he  removed  with 
his  family  to  Lancaster,  Pa.,  and  in  the  spring  of  1883,  after 
one  or  two  slight  relapses,  he  passed  away,  on  the  morning 
of  the  19th  of  June,  surrounded  by  his  entire  family." 


In  justice  to  Dr.  Schmucker,  we  copy  the  greater  part 
of  his  reply  to  Rev.  Brown's  charges.  The  importance  o( 
the  subject  is  a  sufficient  apology  for  the  length  of  the 
quotation.  It  will  also  be  interesting  and  instructive  to 
students  of  theology  and  ministers  of  the  gospel  to  read 
Dr.  Schmucker's  views  on  the  subjects  of  Natural  De- 
pravity, Regeneration  and  Sanctification  : 

"  The  article  in  the  last  number  of  the  Review, 
charged  us  with  grave  doctrinal  errors,  and  we  confess,  its 
character  and  design  excited  alike  our  surprise  and  regret. 
After  examining  it,  however,  the  title,  '  New  Theology.  By 
Rev.  J.  A.  Brown,'  appeared  to  admit  of  a  meaning  more 
appropriate  than  we  had  at  first  supposed ;  for  the  theology 
discussed,  though  attributed  to  us,  is  really,  in  the  main,  the 
aggregate  of  Rev.  B's.  misapprehensions,  and  may  prop- 
erly be  termed  his  theology.  From  the  beginning,  we 
doubted  the  propriety  of  a  formal  reply  to  this  anomalous 
production.  Had  the  writer  fairly  interpreted  our  views  on 
the  topics  concerned,  as  they  have  for  a  quarter  of  a  century 
been  understood  from  our  Popular  Theology  (which  he  re- 
peatedly quotes)  and  other  works,  by  the  divines  and 
intelligent  laity  of  our  church,  and  as  they  have  been  ap- 
prehended by  able  reviewers,  and  by  distinguished  theo- 
logians of  other  churches ;  we  would  with  pleasure  have 
entered  on  the  inquiry  with  him,  whether  they  accord  with 
the  '  Word  of  God,  our  only  infallible  rule,  and  the  funda- 
mentals of  that  Word,  as  substantially  set  forth  in  the 
Augsburg  Confession,'  which  is  the  doctrinal  test  of  the 
General    Synod.     But  his  charge  of  fundamental  heresy, 


when,  in  the  same  book,  we  reiterate  and  avow  the  entire 
articles  of  the  Augsburg  Confession  on  the  disputed  doc- 
trines, savors  too  much  of  contracted  bigotry,  to  require  a 
serious  refutation.  The  points  left  undetermined  by  the 
Augsburg  Confession  are,  at  least  among  American  Luther- 
ans, regarded  as  free  subjects  of  private  opinion.  And  the 
more  we  examined  the  article  of  Rev.  B.,  the  more  we  were 
inclined  to  accord  with  the  judgement  of  our  friends  gener- 
ally, both  far  and  near,  who  dissuaded  us  from  a  reply. 

"  Therefore,  without  any  unfriendly  feelings  towards 
Rev.  B.,  we  decline  the  formal  discussion  of  his  article,  for 
the  following  reasons : 

"I.  Because  his  article  is  not  a  reviczu  of  the  sentiments 
of  our  book,  but  of  his  otvn  glaring  misapprehensions  and  con- 
sequent misrepresentations  of  them.  Either  from  want  of 
ability  or  disposition,  he  has  misapprehended  the  fair, 
legitimate  import  of  our  Popular  Theology^  and  of  our 
Vindication  of  American  Lutheranism,  on  each  of  the  sub- 
jects which  he  discusses  ! 

I.  "Thus,  in  our  definition  of  natural  depravity,  as  a 
hereditary  '  disorder  of  our  bodily  and  mental  constitution' 
(a  mode  of  definition  adopted  even  by  the  Form  of  Con- 
cord), he  makes  'mental'  signify  only  a  part  of  the  mind, 
and,  in  truth,  makes  it  exclude  the  most  important  part  of 
it,  namely,  the  moral  or  active  powers ;  and  then,  on  the 
ground  of  his  own  erroneous  apprehension  or  definition  of 
the  term,  positively  charges  us  with  denying  that  the  moral 
powers  are  affected  by  natural  depravity  !  We  would  ask, 
are  the  will  and  affections  no  part  of  the  mind  ?  Does 
mental  philosophy  denote  the  science  which  discusses  a 
/(2r^  of  our  mental  faculties,  and  omits  the  will  and  affec- 
tions^ For  the  same  reason,  the  phrase  "mental  constitu- 
tion," necessarily  signifies  the  constitution  of  the  mind,  and 
not  of  a  part  of  it.     Glaring  as  this  misapprehension  is,  it  is 


rendered  the  more  inexcusable  by  the  fact,  that  in  the  same 
chapter  of  the  Popular  Theology,  which  furnishes  the  Rev. 
B.  with  our  definition  of  natural  depravity  (on  p.  144),  we 
read  the  following  words  :  '  That  it  (the  natural  depravity) 
is  total ,  that  is,  extends  to  all  our  powers,  is  certain."  Such 
glaring  misapprehension  ol  plain  English,  in  a  self-consti- 
tuted critic,  bears  its  own  refutation  on  the  face  of  it. 

2.  "  He  misapprehends  our  definition  of  regeneration. 
We  say  regeneration  in  the  Scriptures,  designates  the  whole 
change  (by  which  the  sinner  becomes  a  new  creature  in 
Christ  Jesus),  therefore  including  illumination,  conviction, 
and  penitence,  as  well  as  the  change  occurring  in  the  mind 
in  the  moment  of  transition  from  a  state  of  condemnation 
to  that  of  justification ;  but  he  strangely  supposes  us  also  to 
include  sanctification  in  this  definition  of  its  Scriptural  mean- 
ing. We  however  generally  employ  the  word  in  the  other, 
or  theological  sense  there  defined,  as  signifying  the  change 
occurring  in  the  particular  moment  of  transition  from  the 
state  of  condemnation  to  that  of  justification;  but  he,  in  de- 
fiance of  the  context,  represents  us  as  using  it  in  the  former 
sense,  and  then  charges  on  us  the  inconsistencies  which 
flow  from  his  own  mistake !  We  represent  regeneration 
as  a  'radical  and  entire  change,'  in  opposition  to  a  super- 
ficial and  partial  one,  and  as  including  'a  new  heart;'  he 
charges  us  with  representing  it  as  partial  and  superficial, 
and  as  leaving  the  heart  unchanged  !  !  In  the  passage 
which  immediately  precedes  the  one  objected  to  by  our 
reviewer,  we  find  a  definition  of  regeneration,  which  cer- 
tainly covers  the  whole  ground :  '' Regeneration,  in  the 
proper  sense  of  the  term,  consists  in  a  radical  change  in  our 
religious  views  of  the  divine  character,  law,  &c  ;  a  change  in 
religious  feelings,  ^nd  in  our  religious  purposes  and  habits  of 
action!'  Here  the  change  is  described  (a)  as  radical,  not 
superficial,  not  a  mere  outward  change  of  moral  character 


or  conduct ;  but  a  'radical'  one,  a  change  which,  as  the 
etymology  of  the  word  implies,  affects  the  root  or  source: 
of  human  thought  and  action,  (b)  It  is  such  a  radical 
change,  not  only  of  some  one  department  of  the  human 
mind,  or  of  human  thought  and  action;  but  such  radical 
change  of  the  entire  mind,  of  all  the  powers  of  the  human 
soul  ;  for  they  are  usually  reduced  to  three  departments, 
designated  by  some  metaphysicians  as  views  (cognitions), 
feelings  and  actions,  or,  by  others,  referring  to  the  faculties,! 
as  intellect,  sensibilities  and  will.  Now  this  makes- 
regeneration  include  a  change, 

a)  "  In  our  religious  views  ,  i.  e.  views  of  the  character! 
of  God,  his  relation  to  us,  and  ours  to  him;  of  his  law,  as; 
to  its  spirituality,  extent  and  comprehensiveness;  of  ouri 
character  as  related  to  that  law,  as  sinners,  and  in  short,  in: 
our  views  of  any  and  every  subject  that  has  any  religiousi 
bearing  at  all.  As  this  change  is  a  radical  one,  it  affects? 
these  views  even  in  the  root  or  fountains,  or  powers  of 
mind  whence  they  spring. 

b)  "  Regeneration  includes  a  change  in  our  religious, 
feelings,  from  indifference  to  religion,  to  an  acute  sensibility 
on  the  subject ;  from  selfishness  to  a  feeling  of  universal 
benevolence ;   from  antipathy  to   religion,  to  a  sympathy 

with  every  thing  holy  and  good. 

c)  "  Regeneration,  according  to  the  definition,  includes 
a  change  in  our  religious  purposes,  viz.,  from  purposes  of 
self-indulgence,  and  of  a  life  of  sin,  to  purposes  of  refor- 
mation and  sincere,  entire  obedience  to  God ;  and  from 
actual  habits  of  sin,  to  those  of  holiness,  from  the  service  of 
the  world  to  the  service  of  God. 

"  This,  it  will  be  admitted,  is  the  natural  import  of  the 
above  definition ;  and  we  may  well  ask  every  impartial 
reader,  what  passage  of.  Scripture,  descriptive  of  regener- 
ation, will  not  be  comprehended  in  one  or  other  of  the: 
above  features  of  this  change? 


3.  "Again,  we  affirm,  that  in  the  sense  of  the  word 
regeneration,  in  which  it  signifies  a  radical  change  in  our 
rehgious  views  of  the  divine  character,  law,  &c.,  of  our  re- 
ligious feelings,  and  of  our  religious  purposes  of  action, 
infants  (not  children  of  some  age,  but  infants)  are  incapable 
of  it :  because  they  neither  have,  nor  can  have,  any  re- 
ligious views  or  feelings  or  actions  at  all ;  and  if  they  are 
naturally  incapable  of  the  mental  exercises  of  which  re- 
generation consists,  they  cannot  be  the  subjects  of  regener- 
ation in  that  sense  of  the  term  ;  and  what  sensible  man  will 
deny  this?  We  do  affirm  some  influences  of  the  Spirit  on 
infants,  (for  example,  the  same  which  attend  the  baptism  of 
adult  believers,  as  far  as  they  are  capable  of  them)  the 
nature  of  which  is  mysterious  ;  we  do  distinctly  imply  that 
they  are  capable  of  regeneration  or  spiritual  change,  in 
so7ne  sense,  but  not  in  that  applicable  to  adults  ;  but  he 
makes  us  deny  all  gracious  influence  on  them  ! !  He  first 
appears  to  be  horrified  at  our  leaving  infants  without  the 
hope  of  heaven,  and  then  admits  that  we  maintain  their 
salvation  for  Christ's  sake !  !  It  should,  moreover  be  re- 
membered, that  the  change  of  infants  is  merely  incidentally 
mentioned  in  a  few  sentences,  and  the  negative  side  pre- 
sented, the  positive  not  being  required  by  the  subject  under 
discussion.  We  have  stated  what  change  does  not  take 
place  in  infants,  the  nature  of  that  which  does,  we  have 
not  defined,  and  no  one  has  authority  to  speak  for  us. 

4.  "  Finally,  in  regard  to  justification,  we  say  in  the 
Popular  Theology,  'justification  is  that  judicial  act  of  God, 
by  which  a  believing  sinner,  in  consideration  of  the  merits 
of  Christ,  is  released  from  the  penalty  of  the  law,  and  is 
declared  to  be  entitled  to  heaven.'  '  This  justification 
takes  place  at  the  moment,  when  the  sinner  first  attains  a 
living  faith  in  the  Redeemer,'  And  in  the  Vindication  of 
American  Lutheranism,  we  teach,     '  Whenever  the  return- 


ing  sinner  exercises  the  first  act  o{  living  faith,  he  is  justi- 
fied ;  that  is,  then  God  performs  that  judicial  or  forensic  act, 
by  which  a  believing  sinner,  in  consideration  of  the  mcnts 
of  Christ,  is  relea-^ed  from  the  penalty  of  the  divine  law, 
and  is  declared  to  be  entitled  to  heaven.'  But  notwith- 
standing these,  and  other  most  explicit  declarations,  that 
we  are  justified  for  Christ's  sake,  and  not  for  our  works,  and 
that  this  justification  takes  place  at  the  moment  of  the  very 
first  act  of  living  faith  in  the  Redeemer,  will  it  be  believed 
that  our  cloudy  reviewer  insists  on  it,  that  we  teach  justifi- 
cation in  part  by  works,  and  that  mainly  on  the  ground  of 
his  own  erroneous  supposition,  that  we  use  the  word 
regeneration  as  including  sanctification  ! !  Other  examples 
of  our  reviewer's  obtuseness  could  be  added,  but  certainly 
these  will  abundantly  suffice  to  show,  that  he  has  mistaken 
his  calling  when  he  assumes  to  act  the  theological 
reviewer ! 

II.  "  Another  reason  for  our  declining  to  enter  into  a 
formal  refutation  of  Rev.  B's.  article,  is  his  manifest  zvant  of 
acquaintance  ivith  Lutheran  Theology.  Were  not  the  sub- 
ject too  grave  a  one,  it  would  be  purely  amusing  to  behold 
a  man  step  forward  as  volunteer  champion  of  orthodoxy  in 
the  Lutheran  church,  adducing  as  authority  to  sustain  his 
positions,  riot  Lutheran^  but  Calvinistic  divines ;  to  find  him 
cite,  not  the  illustrious  Lutheran  Theologians  of  the  six- 
teenth, seventeenth,  eighteenth  or  nineteenth  century  ;  but 
the  hightoned  Calvinist,  Edwards,  the  Congregationalist, 
D wight,  and  Dick  and  Chalmers,  and  even  the  erratic 
opium-eater,  Coleridge !  And  it  would  be  a  useless  con- 
sumption of  time,  formally  to  refute  the  unfounded 
assertions,  which  he  would  not  have  made,  if  better 
informed  on  the  subject. 

"  I.  Thus,  in  our  definition  of  innate  depravity,  as  'a 
disorder  of  our  mental  and  bodily  constitution,'   &c.,  he 


seizes  on  the  word  'disorder,*  which  literally  implies  an 
abnormal  or  a  confused  state,  gives  it  one  of  its  possible 
meanings,  to  which  we  do  not  object,  namely,  that  of 
disease;  and  then  makes  himself  merry,  by  affirming  this 
view  of  natural  depravity  to  be  exemplified  in  the  case  of 
'a  dyspeptic,'  or  of  'an  insane  person,'  &c.;  evidently  un- 
acquainted with  the  fact,  that  the  representation  of  natural 
depravity  under  the  figure  of  a  disease,  is  authorized  by  the 
best  Lutheran  authorities,  and  is  also  often  met  with 
among  writers  of  other  denominations,  such  as  Drs. 
Hopkins,  Dick,  &c.  We  would  refer  our  reviewer  for 
better  information,  among  others,  to  Dr.  RcinJiard's  Dog- 
matik,  who  terms  it  'moralische  Krankheit,'  moral  disease; 
and  Dr.  Baumgartens  Glaubenslehre,  'Krankheit,'  disease  : 
and  Dr.  Jidius  Mueller,  ueber  die  Suende,  'Krankheit,' 
disease.  The  form  of  Concord  terms  it  'lepra  quadam 
spirituali,'  'mit  einem  geistlichen  Aussatz,'  spiritual  lepro- 
sy ;  and  also  'morbus,'  'Krankheit,'  sickness.  The 
Augsburg  Confession  itself  represents  natural  depravity 
as  a  disease,  in  Article  II.,  'morbus,'  'Seuche.'  Yea, 
even  the  good  word  of  God  seemc  to  have  given  rise  to 
this  view,  '  The  whole  head  is  sick,  the  whole  heart  is  faint,' 
&c — Is.  i:  5,  6.  'Is  there  no  balm  in  Gilead,'  &c. — Jerenii- 
ah  8:  22. 

"  2.  He  objects  to  our  statement,  that  regeneration 
does  not  destroy,  but  merely  restrains  the  natural  depravity 
of  the  christian  ;  although  we  elsewhere  described  regenera- 
tion as  '  a  radical,'  and  not  superficial,  as  an  '  entire,'  and 
not  partial  change,  and  as  including  '  a  new  heart,'  thus 
showing  that  the  restraint  imposed  on  natural  depravity  by 
regeneration,  is  an  extensive  and  decided  one.  But  he  goes 
further,  and  says  :  '  We  boldly  affirm  that  regeneration  has 
to  do,  and  that  chiefly,  with  natural  depravity — and  that 
its   very  object   is  its    removal.'     Thus,  he   seems   not  to  • 


know,  that  he  is  himself  unsound,  and  in  conflict  tvith  our 
best  authorities,  zx^A  we  may  add,  with  \.\\t  ivord  of  God  it- 
self Thus  Luther  says  :  '  Baptism  removes  the  guilt  of 
natural  depravity,  but  not  the  material  or  subtance  of  it ;  * 
'  The  Holy  Ghost,  which  is  given  by  baptism,  begins  (inci- 
pit)  to  mortify  the  sinful  desires,  and  creates  new  impulses 
or  incUnations  (motus)  in  that  individual.'  (Mueler  Symb. 
p.  83).  Quenstedt  thus  expresses  himself:  'The  guilt  (of 
natural  depravity)  is  removed  in  regeneration  and  justifica- 
tion ;  the  dominion  of  it,  gradually  in  renovation  (sanctifica- 
tion)  ;  but  the  root  (of  this  depravity)  is  not  removed,  until 
the  separation  of  the  sold  from  the  body!  Dr.  Baunigartcn 
says  :  '  We  deny  that  natural  depravity  can  be  entirely 
eradicated  by  the  use  of  the  means  of  grace '  in  this  life. 
*  The  fountain  and  root  of  natural  depravity  continues  in 
the  regenerate  ; '  'It  continually  seeks  to  obtain  the  con- 
trol (of  them).'  '  The  entire  removal  and  eradication  of 
natural  depravity  does  not  take  place  till  after  the  death  of 
the  believer.'  Dr.  Knapp  thus  expresses  himself:  '  The 
root  and  germ  of  natural  depravity  will  remain,  and  cease 
only  with  death.'  And,  finally,  the  Symbolical  books,  in 
numerous  passages,  teach  that  the  deliverance  from  the  in- 
fluence of  natural  depravity  through  the  Holy  Spirit,  in  re- 
generation and  renovation,  '  is  only  begun  in  this  life,  and 
ivill  not  be  perfect  until  the  life  to  come'  'welches  doch  in 
diesem  Leben  nur  angefangen,  aber  allererst  in  jenem  Le- 
ben,  vollkommen  seyn  wird.' 

"  3.  On  the  glaring  mistake  of  Rev.  B.,  in  represent- 
ing our  statement,  that  the  corruptible  and  mortal  nature 
of  children  is  changed  at  death,  as  a  quotation  from  i  Cor. 
15  ;  whereas  the  apostle  is  there  speaking  of  the  body  alone, 
and  our  sentence  is  neither  marked  as  a  quotation,  nor  in- 
tended as  one,  and  his  then  charging  our  sentence  as  being 
a  novel  explanation  of  that  text,  we  will  not  dwell.     But  he 


maintains  that  infants,  and  by  inference  probably  (as  he 
states  nothing  to  the  contrary)  adults  also,  must  be  zvholly 
sanctified  in  this  life  ;  since,  he  affirms,  that  death  can  effect 
no  change  in  them,  and  the  body  will  not  be  changed  un- 
til the  resurrection ;  evidently  not  acquainted  with  the  fact 
that  the  prevailing  opinion  of  Lutheran,  and  also  of  other 
divines,  is  that  which  we  maintain,  and  he  so  positively  and 
dogmatically  condemns,  that  not  '  by '  death,  but  at  the 
moment  of  the  separation  of  soul  and  body,  the  depraved 
nature  of  believing  adults,  as  well  as  of  infants,  that  is,  all 
that  remains  living  and  conscious  of  them,  their  soul,  is 
wholly  delivered  from  every  taint  of  sin  by  the  Holy  Spirit 
of  God.  Thus  is  the  law  in  his  members,  which  warred 
against  the  law  of  his  mind  as  long  as  he  lived,  eradicated 
from  the  believer,  as  is  also  from  infants,  that  native  de- 
pravity with  which  they  were  born.  For  the  better  infor- 
mation of  our  reviewer,  we  would  refer  him  to  the  follow- 
ing, amongst  a  multitude  of  Lutheran  authors,  who  all 
agree  with  us,  in  what  is  also  the  doctrine  of  the  Symboli- 
cal books,  that  at  death,  the  remaining  depravity  of  our  cor- 
rupt nature  is  eradicated  ;  that  is,  the  souls  of  those  who 
are  admitted  to  heaven,  are  perfectly  liberated  from  all  re- 
maining depravity,  whilst  their  bodies  return  to  the  dust 
and  are  destitute  of  consciousness  and  moral  character  un- 
til the  resurrection.  Thus,  Quenstedt  fixes  the  time  for  the 
final  eradication  of  natural  depravity,  '  ipsa  animae  a  cor- 
pore  solutione,'  at  the  time  of  the  release  of  the  soul  from 
the  body.  Dr.  Baumgarten,  '  in  and  after  death,^  '  in  und 
nach  dem  Tode  : '  Dr.  Reinhard  'indeath,^  '  im  Tode,' 
and  the  learned  and  pious  Dr.  Knapp,  gives  the  following 
testimony  in  perfect  unison  with  the  view  maintained  in  our 
Vindication,  &c. :  *  This  corruption  can  never  be  entirely 
eradicated,  even  by  the  most  sincere  endeavors  of  the  pious; 
although  through  divine  assistance,  an   end   may  be    put 

354  brown's  artici,e  confused.  ■ 

to  the  dominion  of  sin,  and  its  outbreakings  be  prevented; 
yet,  the  root  and  germ  of  evil  will  remain,  and  cease  only 
with  death,  ox' \\\Q  laying  aside  of  the  body.'  Finally,  the 
Form  of  Concord,  the  most  minute  of  the  ancient  Lutheran 
symbols,  also  agrees  with  us  :  '  This  work  of  the  Holy 
Spirit  (the  deliverance  from  natural  depravity)  is  merely 
commenced  in  us  in  this  life,  and  will  be  accomplished 
and  completed  only  in  the  other  world'  '  in  altera  tantum 
vita  absolvetur  et  perficietur.' 

III.  "  Because  the  entire  article  of  Rev.  B.  is  confused 
and  unsystematic,  showing  that  he  has  studied  Belles  Lettres 
more  successfully  than  Logic  or  Hermeneutics.  Thus,  he 
has  but  two  captions  in  his  article,  '  regeneration  '  and 
'justification;'  but,  in  reality,  he  discusses  three  topics, 
regeneration,  natural  depravity  and  justification.  But  in- 
stead of  considering  them  in  the  order  of  nature  and 
system,  in  which  one  would  illustrate  the  other,  he  dis- 
cusses regeneration  before  natural  depravity  !  His  article, 
moreover,  exhibits  no  discrimination  between  the  facts  of  a 
doctrine,  and  different  philosophical  explanations  of  it;  no 
clear  perception  of  the  difference  between  its  fundamental 
features,  fi.xed  in  our  doctrinal  basis,  and  its  collateral  as- 
pects, which  are  free  to  diversity.  And  as  to  the  mode  of 
interpretation,  by  wresting  passages  from  the  context,  and 
considering  them  apart  from  other  portions  of  the  work, 
by  which  their  import  would  be  limited  and  determined;  it 
does  violence  to  the  fundamental  laws  of  language,  and  is 
sustained  by  no  authority.  By  it,  it  were  easy  to  convict 
the  inspired  servant  of  God,  Moses,  of  pelagianism,  when 
he  seems  to  teach  the  ability  of  man  to  turn  to  God  with- 
out the  aid  of  divine  grace,  in  the  words,  '  I  have  placed 
life  and  death  before  you,  <://(?  life.' — Deut.  30:  19.  Or 
Paul  of  teaching  Antinomianism,  when  he  tells  the 
Romans,  '  Therefore,  we    conclude,  that   a   man    is  justi- 


fied  by  faith,  without  the  deeds  of  the  law.' — 
Rom. 3  :  28.  Or  James,  of  teaching  Justification  by  works, 
when  he  says.  '  Ye  see  then  that  by  work§  a  man  is  justi- 
fied, and  not  by  faith.' — 2 :  24.  Paul  could  also  be  con- 
victed of  Universalism  from  i  Tim.  2:4.  '  Who  (God)  will 
have  all  men  to  be  saved  and  come  to  a  knowledge  of  the 
truth  : '  and  even  the  blessed  Savior  himself  could  be  con- 
victed of  more  than  one  heresy  from  the  Sermon  on  the 

IV.  ''Finally,  because  the  spirit  of  the  Rev.  B's.  article 
is  generally  thought  not  to  be  such  as  became  him,  under 
the  circumstances  of  the  case.  Instead  of  exhibiting  some 
solicitude  to  ascertain  the  real  sentiments  of  the  volume  he 
undertook  to  criticise,  and  an  honorable  caution,  not  un- 
necessarily either  to  injure  the  usefulness,  or  wound  the 
feelings  of  its  author,  he  manifests  an  unamiable  recklesness 
and  dogmatism.  For,  he  himself  admits,  *  that  other  por- 
tions of  the  volume  might  be  adduced,  to  show  that  views 
contrary  to  those  (which  he  ascribes  to  us)  are  also  inculcated;' 
or  rather  to  show  that  he  had  misapprehended  our  senti- 
ments, and  attributed  to  us  doctrines,  which  other  passages 
prove  we  do  not  hold.  But  he  was  not  willing  to  take  the 
trouble  rightly  to  understand  us.  If  he  found  difficulty  in  ap- 
prehending the  import  of  our  works;  this  fact,  together  with 
the  circumstance,  that  others  generally  have  not  thought 
them  obscure,  should  have  convinced  him  that  to  review 
them  was  not  his  vocation.  Whether  his  confusion  arose 
from  obscurity  in  our  representations  of  truth,  or  want  of 
system  in  his  own  mind,  the  readers  of  this  article  are  more 
competent  impartially  to  judge,  than  our  reviewer  himself. 
It  is  with  sincere  regret  that  we  have  found  ourselves 
called  on  to  make  these  exposures.  We  will  admit,  that 
for  his  want  of  acquaintance  with  Lutheran  theology, 
some  apology  may  be  found  in  the  training  of  Rev.  B.  in 


another  denomination,  and  perhaps  in  the  scanty  leisure 
allowed  by  his  pastoral  duties,  for  general  theological 
study;  but  ought  not  the  same  facts  to  have  taught  him, 
what  his  numerous  misapprehensions  have  demonstrated  to 
others,  that  he  is  not  the  most  proper  individual  to  defend 
our  Zion  against  real  or  imaginary  foes. 

Non  tali  auxilio^  nee  defensoribus  istis 
Tempus  eget. — 

"When  God  called  Luther  to  assail  the  errors  of 
Popery,  the  world  beheld  the  wisdom  of  the  choice  in  his 
special  qualifications,  exhibited  in  the  progress  of  the  work, 
in  his  just  interpretations  of  his  opponents'  views,  and  his 
intelligent  discrimination  between  truth  and  error.  But 
certainly  we  look  in  vain  for  such  qualifications  in  the  re- 
view of  Rev.  B.;  whilst  it  abounds  in  melancholy  evidence 
of  a  mind  which,  if  upright,  as  we  trust,  is  the  unconscious 
victim  of  delusive  prejudice  and  self-confidence.  Let  him 
rather  leave  to  older  and  better  qualified  men,  the  charge 
of  impugning  the  orthodoxy  of  those  who  were  preaching 
the  Gospel  before  he  was  born,  and  have  devoted  their  en- 
tire life  to  the  best  interests  of  our  beloved  Zion.  There  is 
no  want  of  such  men  in  our  church.  In  their  hands,  her 
interests  are  secure;  and  when  the  emergency  calls  for  them, 
they  will  doubtless  be  found  at  their  post;  whilst  our 
reviewer  may  be  a  faithful  preacher  of  the  Gospel  of  Christ, 
and  a  successful  and  peaceful  co-worker  with  those  whom 
he  has  unaccountably,  and  without  provocation,  attempted 
to  denounce. 


Theological  Seminary,  ) 

Gettysburg,  Aug.   i.   1857.    j 

We  have  not  learned,  that  Rev.  Brown  made  any 
rejoinder  to  the   above  reply  of  Dr.  Schmucker ;  but  it  is 

brown's  attack  on  dr.  sprecher.  357 

certain,  that  the  Seminary  Board  did  not  entertain  the 
charges,  nor  were  they  sustained  by  any  one  of  the  district 
synods  connected  with  the  General  Synod.  Dr.  B,  Kurtz 
is  reported  to  have  made  a  powerful  and  scathing  de- 
nouncement of  the  charges  before  the  Synod  of  East  Penn- 
sylvania at  its  session  in  Hughesville,  Pa.  Says  Dr.  Jacobs 
in  his  Histor)/,  page  427,  "  Dr.  Krauth,  Jr.,  arrested  these 
proceedings,  who  did  not  deem  his  former  instructor's 
course  such  as  to  warrant  action," 

Some  years  after  Dr.  Brown  had  become  Professor  of 
Theology  at  Gettysburg,  he  made  another  attack  on  the 
orthodoxy  of  the  next  most  prominent  man  in  the  General 
Synod,  which  was  equally  unavailing.  This  was  against 
Prof.  Dr.  Samuel  Sprecher  of  Springfield,  Ohio,  brother-in- 
law  of  Dr.  Schmucker.  He  had  written  a  book  entitled 
"  Ground  Work  of  Luthei^an  Theology."  Dr.  Brown  im- 
pugned the  orthodoxy  of  this  book.  The  matter  was 
brought  for  decision  before  the  General  Synod  at  its  ses- 
sion in  Baltimore.  An  earnest  discussion  ensued.  Dr. 
Brown  brought  in  a  large  number  of  books,  from  which  he 
undertook  to  sustain  his  charges  by  reading  extracts.  But 
Dr.  Sprecher  did  not  need  to  read  extracts  from  books  ; 
he  could  repeat  his  authorities  from  memory,  and  he  was 
overwhelmingly  sustained  by  the  General  Synod.  Dr. 
Brown  attempted  to  open  the  discussion  again  at  the  next 
meeting  of  the  General  Synod,  at  Carthage,  Ills.,  but  the 
Synod  declined  to  reconsider  the  subject.  Dr.  Brown  then 
began  to  write  a  book  to  sustain  his  charges  against  the 
"  Ground  Work."  He  devoted  a  great  deal  of  time  and 
labor  upon  this  work ;  his  health  became  enfeebled  ;  he 
went  to  Bedford  Springs  to  recuperate ;  but  he  took  his 
manuscript  with  him ;  consequently  his  health  was  not 
visibly  improved ;  but  on  his  return  he  continued  to  study 
and  work  on  his  efforts  to  demolish  the  "  Ground  Work," 


and  in  the  midst  of  these  labors  he  was  stricken  with  paral- 
ysis, which  so  sadly  ended  his  literary  and  professional 

THE    ELECTION    OF    DR.    J.    A.    BROWN. 

There  were  several  candidates  proposed  as  the  succes- 
sors of  Dr.  Schmucker.  Dr.  W.  M.  Baum,  who  was  a 
member  of  the  Board  at  that  time,  has  kindly  sent  us  the 
following  statement : 

"  When  the  Board  of  Directors  of  the  Seminary 
addressed  itself  to  the  duty  of  electing  a  successor  to  Dr. 
Schmucker,  the  following  names  were  suggested  :  Dr.  J.  A. 
Brown,  Dr.  C.  A.  Hay,  and  Dr.  C.  F.  Schaeffer.  I  am  not 
positive  with  reference  to  the  nomination  of  Dr.  C.  P. 
Krauth,  Jr. 

"  When  I  nominated  Dr.  Brown,  it  was  with  the  state- 
ment, that  in  my  judgment  he  was  well  qualified  for  the 
position,  by  reason  of  his  natural  abilities,  scholarship, 
fidelity  to  the  doctrinal  attitude  of  the  General  Synod. 
Divergent  tendencies  and  aflfiliations,  similar  to  those  of  the 
present  day,  existed  in  the  church,  and  were  reflected  in 
the  minds  of  the  Board  of  Directors. 

"  Dr.  Brown  was  chosen  by  a  good  majority,  and  so 
far  as  external  manifestations  appeared,  was  cordially 
accepted  by  all.  He  was  frank,  fearless  and  decided,  and 
commanded  the  respect  and  confidence,  even  of  those  who 
were  not  in  sympathy  with  his  views."  The  eminent  quali- 
fications here  ascribed  to  Dr.  Brown  will  readily  be  admit- 
ted by  all ;  his  "  affiliations,"  and  some  of  the  "  divergent 
tendencies  "  were  doubtless  the  potent  factors  that  pro- 
cured his  election.  Dr.  Baum  does  not  seem  to  have  been 
aware,  or  has  forgotten  the  fact,  that  there  was  a  strong 
desire  in  one  part  of  the  church,  that  Dr.  C.  P.  Krauth,  Jr., 
should  fill  that  vacated  chair.     I  give  the  following  state- 


ment  as  a  fragment  of  the  unwritten  history  of  the  Semi- 
nary, which  I  have  never  seen  in  print,  but  have  received 
from  the  Hps  of  men  who  professed  to  be  acquainted  with 
the  facts  :  "  An  agreement  had  been  entered  into  between 
Drs.  Hay  and  Krauth,  Jr.,  and  their  friends,  to  use  their 
influence  to  have  the  former  become  the  successor  of  Prof. 
C.  P.  Krauth,  Sr.,  and  the  latter  to  become  the  successor  of 
Prof  S.  S.  Schmucker."  The  first  part  of  this  programme 
was  hterally  carried  out;  Dr.  Charles  Hay,  became  the  suc- 
cessor of  Prof  Krauth,  Sr.,  but  Dr.  C.  P.  Krauth,  Jr.,  did 
not  become  the  successor  of  Prof  S.  S.  Schmucker. 

This  unwritten  history  is  corroborated  by  Dr.  Jacobs. 
I  quote  here  verbatim  from  his  History  of  the  Lutheran 
Church  in  the  United  States,  page  462  :  "  One  name,  viz., 
that  of  Charles  Porterfield  Krauth,  was  upon  many  lips,  as 
that  of  the  most  thoroughly  trained  Lutheran  Theologian 
in  America,  and  there  was  a  general  desire  that  he  should 
be  placed  as  the  exponent  of  the  theology  of  the  Lutheran 
confessions.  His  exhaustive  articles  in  the  Lutheran  and 
Missionary  of  which  he  was  editor  in  chief,  1861-67, 
ranked  with  the  most  scholarly  defenses  of  the  faith  of  the 
Augsburg  Confession,  which  had  ever  been  made.  If  the 
chair  at  Gettysburg,  vacated  by  the  resignation  of  Dr.  S.  S. 
Schmucker,  had  been  filled  by  his  election,  the  Minister- 
ium  (of  Pennsylvania)  would  in  all  probability  have  felt  that 
his  presence  was  a  guarantee,  that  the  future  ministers 
would  be  furnished  with  the  necessary  defenses  ^against  all 
radical  tendencies.  When  the  election  resulted  differently 
it  was  no  antipathy  to  the  professor  elect,  who  had  done 
good  service  in  the  battle  against  the  '  Definite  Platform,' 
that  turned  the  sentiment  of  a  large  portion  of  those,  who 
had  hitherto  been  averse  to  another  seminary," 

This  is  certainly  very  high  praise  bestowed  upon  Dr. 
Charles    Porterfield    Krauth,  but   some    might  dispute  the 


claim,  that  his  "  exhaustive  articles  ranked  with  the  most 
scholarly  defenses  of  the  Augsburg  Confession,  that  had 
ever  been  madeP  There  was  also  a  most  palpable  "  anti- 
pathy "  between  Krauth  and  Brown,  as  can  be  seen  by  the 
very  bitter  controversy  that  was  waged  between  the  two 
men  in  the  Reviews  and  separate  pamphlets. 

What  would  have  been  the  effect  on  the  church,  if 
Krauth  had  been  elected  instead  of  Brown,  God  only 
knows.  Dr.  C.  P.  Krauth  a  short  time  before  had  been 
the  most  ardent  friend  and  able  defender  of  the  General 
Synod  and  her  institutions,  and  the  presumption  is,  that  if 
he  had  been  elected  successor  to  Dr.  Schmucker,  the  Gen- 
eral Council  would  not  have  been  organized,  and  Mt.  Airy 
Seminary  would  not  have  been  established.  Here  the 
proverb  was  verified,  "  Man  proposes,  but  God  disposes." 


schmuckeh's  interest  in  the  orphan  house.  361 







Dr.  B.  M.  Schmucker  speaks  thus  of  his  father's  ac- 
tivity in  improving  the  condition  of  the  Emmaus  Orphan 
House :  "  He  gave  much  time  to  the  claims  of  the  orphan 
in  connection  with  Frey's  legacy.  He  was  generously 
charitable  to  the  needy  with  hearty  sympathy  as  well  as 
material  help." 

Dr.  Morris  writes  in  his  Fifty  Years  in  the  Ministry, 
"  He  was  also  instrumental  in  arranging  the  complicated 
affairs  of  the  Emmaus  Orphan  House,  and  in  a  lengthy  report 
displayed  his  acute  business  adaptation  to  a  remarkable 

The  Doctor  referred  to  this  subject  several  times,  as  I 
recollect,  in  the  class-room,  but  his  exact  words  I  do  not 
remember  after  so  long  a  time. 


The  Orphan  House  at  Middletown,  Pa.,  has  a  remark- 
able history.  On  the  12th  of  May,  1806,  George  Frey, 
merchant  of  Middletown,  Pa.,  left  by  will  a  large  estate  for 
the  purpose  of  establishing  an  orphan  house  at  that  place. 
The  estate  consisted  of  over  nine  hundred  acres  of  land,  a 
water  grist  and  saw  mill  on  the  Swatara  creek,  four  dwell- 
ing houses  and  a  number  of  unimproved  ground  lots  in 
Middletown.  All  this  valuable  property  was  bequeathed 
for  the  support  and  education  of  orphans  and  poor  children 
whose  parents  were  unable  to  provide  for  them. 

The  property  was  entrusted  to  the  management  of  a 
self  perpetuating  board,  selected  by  Mr.  Frey  himself,  and 
very  specific  regulations  were  laid  down  in  the  will  for  the 
management  of  the  institution.  The  Principal  occupies 
one  of  the  houses  free  of  rent,  his  table  is  furnished  for  him- 
self and  family  from  the  income  of  the  estate ;  he  also 
receives  two  hundred  and  sixty-six  dollars  and  sixty-seven 
cents  annually  in  money,  and  if  his  children  are  capable  of 
laboring  they  shall  have  reasonable  wages.  If  by  reason 
of  age  he  shall  be  unable  to  fulfill  the  duties  of  his  ofifice, 
he  shall  be  supported  during  his  life  out  of  the  funds  of  the 
institution  ;  and  if  he  has  a  son  who  is  honest,  well  disposed 
and  faithful,  he  shall  have  the  preference  to  be  appointed 
principal  instead  of  his  superannuated  or  deceased  father. 

The  tutor  must  be  a  married  man  and  reside  in  the 
Orphan  House;  his  table  shall  be  furnished  out  of  the 
proceeds  of  the  estate,  and  two  hundred  dollars  yearly  shall 
be  given  him  in  money  ;  when  he  becomes  superannuated 
he  shall  be  supported  during  life  out  of  the  funds,  and  an 
annual  allowance  made  him  at  the  discretion  of  the  trustees. 

Very  minute  directions  were  laid  down  in  the  will  in 
reference  to  the  management  of  the  institution.  Here  is 
one  of  them  :  "  The  children  shall  be  admitted  upon  this 
express  condition,  that,  both  male  and  female  shall  be  edu- 

re;ugious  SERVICES.  363 

cated  in  the  evangelical  Lutheran  religion,  and  in  the  Ger- 
man language ;  nor  shall  any  other  language  than  the 
German  be  taught  in  this  orphan  house." 

The  Principal  and  the  Tutor  must  be  members  of  the 
Evangelical  Lutheran  Church. 

The  following  directions  show  the  pious  disposition  of 
the  testator : 

"  It  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  tutor  at  the  ringing  of  the 
bell  at  six  o'clock  in  the  morning  (in  a  room  or  hall  in  the 
Orphan  House)  to  sing  a  morning  or  other  pious  hymn 
with  the  children,  and  then  to  pray  a  morning  blessing 
{Morgen  Segeti)  kneeling,  together  with  the  Lord's  Prayer. 
They  shall  then  repeat  the  christian  belief  (the  Creed)  and 
the  principal  parts  of  Luther's  Catechism.  Breakfast  shall 
then  follow.  After  breakfast  the  school  shall  be  kept  for 
two  hours,  in  which  the  pupils  shall  be  taught  reading, 
writing  and  arithmetic,  and  particularly  shall  they  be  in- 
structed in  the  aforesaid  catechism,  until  about  nine  o'clock; 
then  they  shall  work  in  the  garden,  or  be  employed  in 
some  other  useful  manner.  .  .  About  eleven  of  the  clock 
the  bell  shall  ring  again ;  a  thanksgiving  accompanied  by 
the  ceremonial  of  knee  prayers  and  Creed,  as  in  the  morn- 
ing, shall  be  repeated.  The  children  shall  then  dine.  After 
dinner  there  shall  be  school  for  two  hours,  and  then  they 
shall  again  work  in  the  garden.  In  the  evening  about  six 
o'clock,  a  bell  shall  again  be  rung,  an  evening  or  other 
religious  hymn  shall  be  sung  with  the  children,  and  the 
ceremonial  prayers  of  the  morning  be  again  repeated.  In 
winter,  after  supper,  the  girls  about  six  years  old,  shall  be 
taught  to  spin.  When  the  children  have  been  taught  to 
read,  one  of  the  boys  shall  repeat  a  chapter  out  of  the 

Similar  minute  details,  regulating  the  economical  de- 
partment are  laid  down  in  the  will,  which  very  much  com- 


plicated  the  management  and  hindered  the  success  of  the 
institution.  For  a  long  time  scarcely  any  orphans  were 
sustained ;  the  income  from  the  farms,  mills  and  houses 
seems  to  have  been  expended  in  the  management  of  the 
estate,  and  some  changes  were  absolutely  necessary  in  order 
that  the  design  of  the  benevolent  testator  might  be  carried  I 

Accordingly  I  find  in  a  printed  copy  of  the  will  pub- 
lished in  1878,  that  certain  changes  were  made  by  acts  of 
the  legislature  during  1 838-1 842. 

One  of  these  changes  was,  that  the  English  language 
may  be    used   in  the  institution  as  well  as  the  German. 

Another  change  was  the  permission  to  dispense  with 
such  of  the  ceremonies  and  observances  as  are  considerec 
non-essential  to  the  interests  of  the  children  and  the  granc 
design  of  the  will,  and  not  calculated  to  advance  the  use- 
fulness of  the  institution,  and  conducting  the  religious  ser- 
vices in  the  manner  approved  by  the  synods  of  the  Lutheran ! 
Church  in  Pennsylvania. 

In  1840  the  legislature  enacted,  that  Emmaus  Orphan 
House  may  afford  instruction  in  the  various  branches  of  a 
liberal  education  to  other  children  than  those  who  are  to 
be  maintained  at  the  expense  of  the  institution,  provided. 
that  their  parents,  or  guardians,  or  friends,  or  themselves 
will  pay  for  their  tuition. 

In  1842  an  act  was  passed  empowering  the  Principal 
and  Tutors  to  sell  any  and  all  ground  and  rents  on  property 
in  the  town  of  Middletown  or  adjacent  thereto,  and  apply 
the  proceeds  of  such  sales  to  the  payment  of  the  debts  of 
the  said  Emmaus  Orphan  House. 

These  acts  were  passed  by  the  legislature  of  Pennsyl- 
vania and  signed  by  William  Hopkins,  Speaker  of  the  House 
of  Representatives,    Charles    B.    Penrose,  Speaker   of  the 


■Senate,  and  David  R.  Porter,  Governor  of   the   State   of 

Accordingly  some  of  the  property  was  sold,  a  fir.e 
building  was  erected  and  a  number  of  orphans— some 
twenty  or  thirty— are  now  supported  and  educated  m  the 
:  Emmaus  Orphan  House. 

I  Dr  Schmucker  spent  much  time  and  labor  in  gettmg 
the  above  acts  passed  by  the  legislature  during  the  sessions 
from  1838  to  1842,  and  the  institution  is,  no  doubt,  largely 
indebted  to  him  for  the  improvements  that  have  been  made, 
and  the  more  satisfactory  working  of  the  school  smce  then. 
The  Lutheran  synods  in  Pennsylvania  used  to  send 
visitors  to  the  Emmaus  Orphan  House.  The  writer  was 
once  sent  as  a  visitor  by  the  West  Pennsylvania  Synod.  I 
was  very  kindly  received  and  hospitably  entertamed.  I 
found  the  institution  in  a  flourishing  condition,  and  was 
favorably  impressed  with  its  present  management.  But  I 
believe  the  synods  have  ceased  sending  visitors,  because 
the  church,  as  such,  has  no  authority  over  its  affairs  or  m- 
fluence  in  its  management. 

Besides  the  Emmaus  Orphan  House  the  Lutheran 
Church  has  two  Orphan  Homes  in  Pennsylvania.  The  one 
at  Loysville,  supported  by  the  General  Synod,  and  the 
other  at  Germantown,  supported  by  the  General  Council. 
These  must  be  constantly  sustained  by  collections  in  the 
churches,  and  cannot  receive  all  the  orphans  that  make 
application  for  admittance. 

But  in  all  human  probability,  what  a  grand  institution 
the  Emmaus  Orphan  House  might  have  become,  if  it  had 
from  the  beginning  been  placed  under  the  management  and 
control  of  the  Lutheran  Church.  With  its  rich  endow- 
ment, and  the  united  interest  and  sympathy  of  the  whole 
Lutheran  Church  in  America  it  might  have  rivaled  the  re- 
nowned Frankean  Orphan  Home  at  Halle.     No  doubt  the 


benevolent   testator   had  something  of  this  kind  in  view, 
when  he  wrote  his  will. 

But  Franke,  by  the  help  of  God  and  the  co-opperation 
of  christian  philanthropists  established  that  grand  institu- 
tion during  his  life-time,  and  not  by  his  "last  Will  and 


During  the  first  fifty  years  of  its  history,  Schmucker, 
Kurtz  and  Morris  were  the  most  prominent  men  in  the 
General  Synod.  They  stood  forth  like  mighty  mountain 
peaks,  towering  heavenwards  amid  the  surrounding  hills. 

Kurtz  was  born  in  1795,  and  died  in  1866;  Schmucker 
was  born  in  1799,  and  died  in  1873  ;  Morris  was  born  in 
1803,  and  died  in  1895. 

All  three  were  evangelically  orthodox  in  doctrine,  but 
differed  widely  in  personal  appearance,  temperament  and 
manners,  as  they  did  also  in  a  few  minor  points  of  doctrine 
and  cultus.  Each  labored  in  his  own  peculiar  sphere  for 
the  extension  of  Christ's  kingdom — Kurtz  as  an  editor  of 
the  Lutheran  Observer,  through  which  he  exerted  a  power- 
ful influence  in  shaping  the  religious  sentiments  and  prac- 
tice of  the  people ;  Schmucker  as  the  organizer  of  the 
General  Synod,  the  founder  of  the  Theological  Seminary 
and  College  at  Gettysburg,  and  trainer  of  the  ministry  of 
our  church  during  forty  years.  It  is  reported  that  Kurtz 
wrote  to  Schmucker,  "  Do  you  train  the  preachers  right, 
and  I  will  take  care  of  the  people;"  Morris  as  a  devotee  to 
science,  natural  history,  and  also  as  an  author  of  books, 
and  writer  of  articles  in  magazines  and  newspapers,  by 
means  of  which  he  gained  a  world-wide  reputation. 

But  Morris  stood  in  a  peculiarly  interesting  personal 
relation  to  Schmucker  during  nearly  the  whole  of  the  lat- 
ter's  life.  Schmucker  and  Morris  lived  contemporaneously 
as  boys  in  York,  Pa.,  and,  no  doubt,  attended  the  same 


Sunday-school  and  worshipped  under  the  ministry  of  the 
elder  Schmucker  in  Christ  Lutheran  Church.  Schmucker 
became  principal  of  the  classical  department  of  York 
County  Academy,  and  Morris'  name  stands  enrolled  as  one 
of  his  first  pupils,  who  was  prepared  by  him  for  the  Sopho- 
more class  in  college ;  Schmucker  organized  a  class  of 
theological  students  in  New  Market,  Va.,  and  Morris  fol- 
lowed him  to  that  place  and  became  one  of  his  pupils  there, 
was  also  confirmed  there  by  Schmucker,  and  received  into 
the  Lutheran  Church  as  a  communicant  member ; 
Schmucker  had  gone  to  Princeton  to  complete  his  course 
of  theological  study,  and  Morris  also  went  to  Princeton  to 
study  theology  ;  Schmucker  founded  the  Theological  Sem- 
inary at  Gettysburg,  and  Morris  came  to  Gettysburg,  and 
was  enrolled  as  one  of  his  first  students  in  that  now  venera- 
ble school  of  the  prophets.  Both  were  ordained  as  minis- 
ters of  the  gospel  by  the  same  synod,  then  called  the  Synod 
of  Maryland  and  Virginia;  Schmucker  received  an  earnest 
invitation  to  become  the  pastor  of  the  First  English  Luth- 
eran congregation  of  Baltimore,  but  declined  to  accept  the 
call ;  Morris  then  received  a  call  to  that  church,  which  he 
accepted  and  ably  served  the  congregation  as  pastor  for 
many  years.  Schmucker  and  Kurtz  took  a  tour  to  England 
and  the  continent  of  Europe,  and  Morris  accompanied  them 
by  sea  and  land  until  their  return  to  America ;  Schmucker 
published  an  explanation  of  Luther's  Smaller  Catechism, 
and  Morris  also  published  a  similar  catechism,  both  of 
which  were  extensively  used,  and  passed  through  a  number 
of  editions ;  Schmucker  was  the  author  of  many  theological 
and  religious  books,  and  Morris  also  published  a  number 
of  books,  chiefly  historical  and  biographical  of  Luther,  and 
also  translations  from  the  German ;  Schmucker  was  the 
chief  professor  of  theology  in  the  seminary  at  Gettysburg, 
and  Morris  was  a  director  in  the  Seminary,  and  delivered 


lectures  to  the  students  on  pulpit  oratory.  Schmucker 
died  in  Gettysburg  in  1873,  and  Morris  delivered  a  char- 
acteristic address  at  his  funeral,  and  afterwards  wrote  a 
biographical  sketch  of  his  old  preceptor  and  pastor,  in  one 
part  of  which  he  extolled  him  very  highly. 

These  three  great  men  have  now  passed  over  the  Jor- 
dan of  death,  while  their  bodies  sleep  in  their  graves  until 
they  shall  be  awakened  by  the  trumpet  of  the  archangel  on 
the  resurrection  day.  The  writer  enjoyed  the  privilege  of 
their  personal  acquaintance  for  nearly  half  a  century. 
Peace  to  their  ashes  ! 

In  a  private  communication  dated  July  21,  1895,  Dr. 
Morris  thus  states  his  relations  to  Dr.  Schmucker : 

"  I  differed  from  Dr.  S.  S.  S.  on  some  theological 
points,  and  he  knew  it  well,  but  that  did  not  diminish  my 
respect  for  him,  nor  his  for  me. 

"  He  and  I  were  not  playmates,  nor  school-mates.  I 
never  knew  him  as  a  boy ;  he  was  at  least  six  or  seven 
years  older  than  I.*  He  became  my  school-master  in  York 
County  Academy,  and  prepared  me  for  the  Sophomore 
Class  in  Princeton  College.  After  my  college  course  I  fol- 
lowed him  to  New  Market,  Va.,  where  he  had  a  sort  of 
Vor- Seminar,  consisting  of  five  or  six  raw,  country,  Virginia 
boys.  I  remained  there  twenty  months — thence  to  Naza- 
reth, Pa.,  where  I  spent  a  winter — then  to  Princeton  Semin- 
ary, where  I  was  admitted  to  the  Senior  Class.  During 
that  time  the  Seminary  at  Gettysburg  was  opened  (1826). 
Having  no  license  and  no  call,  I  concluded  to  enter  at 
Gettysburg,  that  I  might  be  regarded  as  an  alumnus,  and  to 
wait  for  license  in  the  fall,  and  both  came  in  a  month  or 

*  The  Doctor  is  slightly  in  error  here.  Schmucker  was  born  Feb- 
ruary 28,  1799,  and  Morris  was  born  November  14,  1803,  which,  as 
near  as  I  can  calculate,  makes  Schmucker  4  years,  8  months,  and  16 
days  older  than  Morris. — P,  A. 


The  following  letter  from  Rev.  C.  Lepley  of  Spring- 
field, Ohio,  will  be  read  with  interest : 

"  Many  a  time  in  the  midst  of  my  work,  as  a  pastor,  I 
thought  of  the  lecture  room  in  the  Seminary,  the  sincere 
prayers  the  Doctor  offered  to  God  in  our  behalf,  and  the 
clear  presentation  of  truth,  which  to  me  often  appeared 
dark.  I  had  all  the  time  I  was  at  Gettysburg  the  utmost 
confidence  in  Dr.  Schmucker.  I  believed  him  to  be  a  sin- 
cere, honest  man,  incapable  of  duplicity,  or  any  kind  of 
double  dealing,  or  littleness,  for  private  ends  or  public 
applause.  I  never  changed  my  opinions  as  to  his  char- 
acter as  a  Christian,  clear  headed  man,  well  adapted  to 
occupy  the  position  he  held  as  a  theological  teacher. 

"  I  very  well  remember  a  conversation  we  had  at  one 
time  after  a  sacramental  service.  I  think  it  was  in  Sinking 
Valley,  Pa.,  Rev.  M.  Eyster,  Pastor,  usually  known  as  the 
Fleck  Congregation,  he  requested  me  to  take  a  walk  out  to 
the  woods  close  by;  we  secured  seats  and  sat  down.  The 
conversation  was  mainly  upon  the  subject  of  a  successful 
ministry.  The  main  point  suggested  was,  to  bring  souls 
to  Jesus  Christ.  At  that  time  our  ministers  were  few.  The 
rising  generation  of  our  German  people  were  becoming 
English,  as  vast  multitudes  are  becoming  so  now.  This 
became  an  open  field  for  the-earnest  young  ministers  of  the 
M.  E.  Church,  to  reap  a  grand  harvest  from  our  German 
congregations,  as  the  services  in  the  German  churches 
were  conducted  in  the  German  language.  Now  the  point 
was  :  How  to  be  true  to  God  and  to  save  our  people  to  our 
own  church.  Dr.  Schmucker  realized  the  perplexed  state 
of  things  in  the  Lutheran  Church,  as  he  was  in  the  work  of 
preparing  young  men  for  her  ministry.  A  stolid  indiffer- 
ence in  the  German  mind,  as  to  the  modes  of  the  M.  E. 
Church  in  building  up  their  churches  at  the  downfall  of  the 
German,  finally  created  much  jealousy  among  the  churches 

370  schmucker's  good  advice. 

which  has  remained  even  to  the  present  day.  The  young 
men  had  this  difficulty  to  encounter  in  preaching  in  the 
English  language.  We  had  to  meet  the  objections  to  the 
use  of  the  English  language,  and  also  meet  the  demands  of 
the  English  public,  at  least  that  part  of  the  public  that  had 
been  indoctrinated  in  what  was  then  called  New  Measures. 

"  We  were  in  a  fight,  between  the  Old  Modes  and  the 
New  Measures.  Among  the  old  we  were  called  Schwaermer 
and  not  Lutherans ;  among  the  New  we  were  called 
Methodishts,  Enthusiasts,  etc. 

"  Prof.  Schmucker  gave  me  much  good  advice  at  that 
retired  place.  He  laid  much  stress  upon  prayer,  advised 
me  to  be  moderate  in  my  modes,  but  firm  in  my  opinions, 
and  said  he,  pay  but  little  attention  to  what  may  be  said 
about  you.  You  will  often  find  remarks  made  about  you 
by  men,  who  ought  to  know  better.  But  never  mind,  that 
was  the  lot  of  the  Master.  As  he  did,  so  do  you,  just  go 
on  and  defend  the  truth. 

"  This  thought  also  was  discussed  by  us.  I  was  favor- 
able then  to  the  practice  of  New  Measures,  as  it  seemed 
the  best  mode  then,  to  bring  sinners  to  Jesus  Christ.  He 
admitted  it,  but  emphasized  the  practice  of  catechising  all 
the  converts  very  carefully.  '  Educate  the  mind  and  the 
heart  of  your  young  people,  and  the  old  as  well,  when  they 
need  it.  The  gospel  truth  must  be  the  basis  upon  which 
the  soul  must  lodge,  as  the  guide  to  lead  the  sinner  to 
Jesus  Christ.' 

"  I  often  think  of  that  time  we  spent  together.  It  was 
not  a  formal  lecture,  as  in  a  room,  to  discuss  theological 
subjects,  but  practically  to  me  in  the  work  of  the  ministry 
it  was  one  of  the  best  instructive  talks  I  ever  heard. 

"  I  have  often  wondered,  why  it  was,  that  the  life  of 
Dr.  Schmucker  was  never  published.  His  life  ought  not 
to  have  been  passed  over  into  oblivion.     I  think  he  was  a 


man  of  no  ordinary  ability,  and  came,  no  doubt,  into  public 
life,  when  God  saw  he  was  most  needed. 

"  He  was  mainly  instrumental  in  infusing  the  spiritual 
life  into  the  various  congregations,  and  synods,  which 
became  a  prominent  feature  of  the  General  Synod  up  to 
the  present  time.  So  far  as  I  am  informed,  I  believe  that 
the  same  spiritual  life  and  instructions  are  continued  in  the 
Institution,  which  was  the  main  support  of  the  church,  at 
the  time  about  which  I  write,  and  I  trust  it  may  contine  so, 
until  time  is  no  more.  I  love  the  Lutheran  Church,  her 
doctrines  were  the  pure  gold,  melted  out  of  the  fiery  fur- 
nace through  which  the  fathers  of  the  Reformation  passed, 
when  the  church  under  God  was  born  anew.  Luther  must 
have  lived  very  fast,  thought  much,  and  worked  much,  for 
he  died  comparatively  young.  Had  he  lived  a  little  longer, 
he,  no  doubt,  would  have  left  to  the  church  many 
scriptural  truths,  that  would  be  of  value  to  us  at  this  day. 
But  the  Good  Lord  knew  best.  It  was  best  for  the  inter- 
ests of  the  church  in  this  new  country,  that  men  raised  in 
the  land,  where  there  were  no  religious  organizations  to 
take  up  the  grand  truths  that  were  developed  in  the  Refor- 
mation, should  organize  both  church  and  state,  and  now 
we  have  in  both   Freedom." 

Rev.  C.  Lepley. 

The  foJlowing  truly  beautiful  characteristic  is  from 
his  youngest  son,  Samuel  D.  Schmucker,  Esq.,  of  Balti- 

"Although  he  was  not  a  pastor,  he  made  it  his  habit, 
whenever  it  could  be  done  with  any  hope  of  advantage,  to 
say  a  few  friendly  words,  to  those  with  whom  he  conversed, 
about  bestowing  some  thought  upon  their  spiritual  condi- 
tion. He  did  this  in  many  cases  with  consummate  tact  and 
skill,  and  so  far  as  my  observation  went,  never  did  it  so  as 
to  annoy  or  offend  his  auditor.     When  a  little  boy  I  often 


drove  over  the  country  with  him  and,  young  as  I  was, 
could  not  fail  to  admire  the  delicate  and  graceful  way  in 
which  he  would,  in  his  conversation  with  the  farmers,  and 
even  laborers,  whom  we  met,  introduce  the  subjects  of 
morality  and  religion  into  the  conversation.  Everybody 
respected,  and  almost  everybody  admired  him.  The  lead- 
ing families  in  the  county  esteemed  it  a  great  favor  to  have 
him  stop  and  dine  with  them,  or,  as  he  sometimes  did, 
spend  a  night  with  them.  He  had  a  kind  and  friendly 
manner  and  was  full  of  information,  and  a  visit  from  him 
was  quite  an  event  to  his  entertainers.  When  his  clerical 
friends  visited  him  at  commencement  and  similar  occasions, 
the  burden  of  his  conversation  was  the  advancement  of  the 
interests  of  the  church  and  its  institutions.  Sleeping  and 
waking  he  seemed  to  think  of  little  else,  or  more  truly 
speaking,  he  thought  chiefly  of  these  subjects.  He  had  a 
cultivated  literary  taste,  and  refined  and  pure  thoughts,  and 
a  poetic  sense  and  feeling,  and  in  his  domestic  life, 
although  generaly  sedate,  was  a  charming  companion.  His 
purse  was  always  open  to  whatever  seemed  to  him  to  be  a 
deserving  call  for  aid.  No  beggar  went  unfed  from  his 
door  and  his  private  charities  were  numerous." 
Yours  truly, 

Samuel  D.  Schmucker. 
"  In  the  Lutheran  Church  he  is  extensively  and  favor- 
ably known ;  and  no  man  in  this  country  has  done  more 
than  he  to  elevate  her  character  and  to  advance  her  welfare. 
As  a  writer  he  is  able  and  clear.  His  style  is  chaste  and 
easy,  his  arguments  strong  and  convincing.  His  '  Frater- 
nal Appeal '  to  the  American  Churches  on  Christian  Union, 
is  a  master  piece,  which  with  his  other  theological  and 
philosophical  works,  has  made  him  extensively  known, 
beyond  the  bounds  of  his  own  church,  both  in  America 
and  England." — D.  Harbaugh,  Springfield,  i8ji. 



The  following  is  an  extract  from  a  letter  of  his  third 

wife,  the  surviving  widow  :  ,  .  ^  u- 

"  He  gave  his  last  days  to  the  church,  and  it  cost  him 

many  a  sleepless  night. 

"  In  his  sickness  he  was  the  most  patient  sufferer. 
He  never  complained  to  me,  for  fear  it  would  distress  me. 
He  was  walking  about,  and  EUie  and  Mr.  Geisenheiner 
were  with  us  to  tea.  At  8  o'clock  they  left.  The  Doctor 
went  to  the  door  with  them,  bade  them  good  night,  and  at 

eleven  o'clock  he  was  dead." 

Mrs.  Ester  M.  Schmucker. 



Death    of   dr.  schmucker — account  by   the    Star  and 
Sentinel — it  occured  on  Saturday  night  at  eleven 

DELPHIA— TRIBUTE  BY  THE  Lutheran  Visitor — inscrip- 



We  copy  the  following  account  of  his  death  from  the 
Gettysburg  Star  and  Sentinel  of  ]u\y  26,  1873,  from  which 
it  will  be  seen  in  what  high  estimation  Dr.  Schmucker  was 
held  by  the  people  of  that  town  : 

"  The  citizens  of  Gettysburg  were  startled  on  Sunday 
morning  last  by  the  announcement  of  the  sudden  death  of 
Rev.  Dr.  Schmucker  during  the  night.  For  some  years 
Dr.  S's  health  had  been  impaired,  requiring  cessation  of 
mental  labor.  More  recently  he  suffered  from  organic  dis- 
ease of  the  heart,  creating  more  or  less  apprehension  among 
his  friends ;  but  he  continued  to  move  about  cheerfully,  ex- 
changing social  visits,  and  attending  to  ordinary  business. 
He  frequently  called  at  the  Star  and  Sentinel  office  to  read 
the  papers  and  exchange  opinions  upon  current  events,  and 
spent  an  hour  or  more  with  us  on  Friday,  conversing  cheer- 
fully on  general  topics,  and  particulary  in  regard  to  the  ap- 
proaching special  meetings  of  the  boards  of  the  college  and 
seminary.     On    Saturday    evening    he   entertained    some 


friends  at  his  residence,  and  accompanied  them  to  the  door 
on  their  leaving.  At  a  later  hour,  while  sitting  in  his  study 
he  complained  of  pain  in  his  chest.  About  eleven  o'clock, 
as  he  was  preparing  to  retire  for  the  night,  he  was  seized 
with  a  severe  spasm  of  pain  in  the  region  of  the  heart, 
sharper  than  usual.  The  family  physician.  Dr.  C.  Horner, 
was  at  once  sent  for,  but  when  he  reached  the  house,  Djr.  S. 
was  already  in  the  article  of  death.  The  spasm  of  pain  was 
of  short  duration,  and  was  followed  by  a  peaceful  calm,  in 
which  his  spirit  went  home  to  God.  Conscious  of  his  con- 
dition, among  his  last  audible  utterances  were  the  assuring 
words,    '  I  have  lived,  and  am  dying,  in  the  faith  of  Jesus.' 

"  We  forbear  further  expression  to  the  thoughts  and 
feelings  that  involuntarily  suggest  themselves  on  this  occa- 
sion. Dr.  Schmucker  had  reached  a  ripe  age,  and  was 
ready  to  be  gathered  to  him  whom  he  had  so  long  and 
faithfully  served.  In  view  of  his  age  and  known  physical 
infirmities,  his  removal  hence  at  any  time  was  to  have  been 
expected.  Yet  death  came  after  all,  with  unexpected  sud- 

"  His  familiar  form  and  friendly  counsel  will  be  missed 
in  this  community,  where  he  had  gone  in  and  out  for 
nearly  half  a  century.  He  will  be  missed  in  the  church,  in 
the  development  of  which  he  so  largely  participated.  Many 
ot  his  co-laborers  have  preceded  him  to  rest.  Many  who 
received  the  benefit  of  his  counsel  in  preparing  for  the  Mas- 
ter's service,  will  lovingly  recall  the  memories  of  his  pleas- 
ant Christian  intercourse  and  friendly  counsel. 

"The  funeral  services  were  attended  in  Christ  church, 
on  Tuesday  evening,  July  29th,  at  5  o'clock.  The  church 
was  appropriately  draped  in  mourning,  and  a  large  number 
of  personal  friends  and  acquaintances  of  the  deceased,  and 
also  a  goodly  number  ot  the  neighboring  ministers,  nearly 
all  formerly  his  students,  had  assembled  to  do  reverence  to 


the  memory  of  a  distinguished  and  truly  good  man  before 
his  mortal  body  would  be  committed  to  the  grave. 

"  After  an  appropriate  funeral  chant  by  the  choir,  Rev. 
D.  P.  Rosenmiller,  of  Lancaster,  read  the  Scripture,  selected 
from  I  Cor.  xv.  and  i  Thes.  iv.  Rev.  Dr.  Valentine  offered 
prayer,  and  the  choir  sang  *  Rest  Spirit,  Rest.' 

"  Rev.  Dr.  Hay,  pastor  of  the  church,  made  the  open- 
ing remarks  as  follows : 

"  '  A  father  in  Israel  has  fallen  ! 

'"The  sad  news  has  been  flashed  across  the  land,  carry- 
ing deep  sorrow  to  many  homes  whose  connecting  link  has 
thus  been  suddenly  broken. 

"  *  The  church,  too,  of  which  the  deceased  was  so  distin- 
guished a  member,  has  felt  the  sudden  shock,  and  from  far 
and  near  have  come  his  ministerial  brethren,  most  of  them 
his  former  pupils  and  ever  attached  friends,  to  pay  the  tri- 
bute of  mournful  respect  to  his  memory  by  sharing  in  the 
solemnities  of  his  burial. 

" '  It  falls  to  my  lot,  as  at  present  pastor  of  the  church 
with  which  the  deceased  stood  in  immediate  connection,  to 
speak  the  first  word  in  this  necessarily  brief  commemorative 
service,  opening  the  way  for  others,  whose  official  relations 
render  it  fitting  that  their  voice  should  be  heard  in  this 
hour  of  public  as  well  as  of  private  bereavement. 

"  *  In  the  death  of  Dr  .Schmucker  this  church  has  lost 
not  only  one  of  its  founders  but  the  one  who  probably  first 
conceived  the  idea  of  its  organization,  and  who  never 
ceased  to  take  a  lively  interest  in  all  its  affairs ;  rejoicing 
most  of  all  when  from  time  to  time  the  Holy  Spirit  was 
poured  out  upon  it  in  regenerating  and  sanctifying  power, 
converting  multitudes  of  the  precious  youth  here  pursuing 
their  studies  and  leading  them  to  consecrate  themselves  to 
the  work  of  the  holy  ministry. 

"  'Of  that  noble  band  of  devoted  and  self-sacrficing  men 

DR.  HAY'S  ADDRESS.  377 

who  SO  many  years  toiled  together  in  laying  the  foundation 
and  in  rearing  the  superstructure  of  the  literary  and  theo- 
logical institutions  of  this  place,  Dr.  Schmucker  was  the 
first  to  appear  upon  the  ground  and  the  last  to  leave  it. 
He  outlived  them  all.  And  now  that  they  are  all  gone, 
and  their  places  are  supplied  by  others,  let  our  prayers  as- 
cend to  our  heavenly  Father  in  their  behalf,  that  they  may 
be  enabled  to  emulate  the  zeal  and  fidelity  of  those  who 
have  preceded  them,  and  have  grace  and  strength  to  carry 
on  successfully  the  noble  work  entrusted  to  their  hands. 

'  The  death  of  Dr.  Schmucker,  though  sudden,  was  not 
unexpected.  He  was  not  left  without  repeated  and  unmis- 
takable warnings  of  its  approach.  Not  merely  did  the  or- 
dinary infirmities  of  age  give  token  to  him  of  coming 
change,  but  increasingly  frequent  and  severe  attacks  of  the 
incurable  disease  with  which  he  was  afflicted  were  distinctly 
recognized  by  him  as  divinely  directed  premonitions  of  its 
approach.  Nor  did  this  at  all  alarm  or  distress  him.  He 
calmly  set  his  house  in  order  and  made  ready  for  his  de- 
parture. He  died  just  as  he  would  have  chosen  to  die. 
He  died  at  home,  in  the  bosom  of  his  family.  Beloved 
friends  cannot,  indeed,  go  with  us  through  the  dark  valley, 
but  it  must  be  a  great  comfort  to  have  them  accompany  us 
to  the  margin  of  the  river  and  bid  us  God-speed  as  we  enter 
its  dreaded  waters.  The  nature  of  the  disease,  with  which 
our  departed  father  was  afflicted,  rendered  it  probable  that 
he  would  be  called  away  suddenly,  and  it  was  feared  by 
those  dearest  to  him  that  he  wouldbe  fatally  attacked  whilst 
upon  a  journey  or  when  amid  strangers.  But  it  pleased  the 
Lord  long  to  withhold  the  summons  to  spare  him  to  breathe 
out  his  soul  peacefully  in  the  arms  of  loved  ones,  and  amid 
the  comforts  of  his  quiet  home. 

*  He  died,  too,  in  a  good  old  age.     He  was  gathered,  as 
a  shock  of  corn  fully  ripe,  into  the  garner  of  the  Lord.     He 


passed  the  limit  of  threescore  years  and  ten,  nor  was  his  eye 
dim  or  his  natural  force  much  abated  until  within  a  very 
short  time  prior  to  his  decease. 

'  He  died,  too,  in  the  full  consciousness  of  the  change 
through  which  he  was  passing,  and  in  a  state  of  cheerful 
readiness  to  meet  his  Lord  and  Master  whom  he  had  so 
long  served,  his  loving  Redeemer  in  whom  he  had  so  long 
confidently  trusted. 

*  We  are  not  disposed  to  attach  undue  importance  to  the 
last  words  of  the  dying;  still,  it  is  a  source  of  great  satis- 
faction to  us,  and  a  ground  of  devout  gratitude  to  our 
Heavenly  Father,  when  we  are  permitted  to  hear  from  their 
lips  such  testimony,  in  that  most  solemn  hour,  as  fell  from 
the  deceased  on  the  eve  of  his  departure :  ^  I  have  lived, 
and  am  dying,  in  the  faith  of  Jesus!  Precious  testimony  ! 
Name  above  every  name  !  O  that  this  dear  name  may 
ever  be  to  our  hearts  the  choicest  treasure,  and  may  it  be 
the  last  upon  our  dying  lips  as  it  was  upon  his ! 

'  This  is  not  a  fitting  time  to  dwell  at  length  upon  the 
multiplied  and  manifold  ■  services  which  our  venerated 
Father  has  rendered  to  the  church  of  his  love.  Indeed,  he 
needs  no  eulogy  at  our  hands,  '  The  work  praises  the 
master.'  On  every  hand  we  see  the  traces  of  his  workman- 
ship ; — in  our  literary  and  theological  institutions,  in  the 
establishment  of  which  he,  more  than  any  other  individual, 
took  a  controlling  part ; — in  the  zealous  spirit  and  earnest 
evangelical  orthodoxy  of  the  hundreds  of  ministers  whom 
he  trained  for  their  work  ;  in  the  formula  of  government 
and  discipline  of  our  church,  that  is  from  his  pen  ;  in  the 
framing  of  our  synodical  and  congregational  constitutions; 
in  our  books  of  devotion  ;  in  our  text-books  of  theology 
and  catechisms  for  the  young ;  in  our  church  periodicals 
and  church  literature  generally ;  in  the  benevolent  operations 


of  our  Zion,  and  in  all  the  general,  philanthropic  movements 
of  the  age,  and  of  the  country  at  large. 

'  When  these  days  of  mourning,  of  personal  grief  and 
sorrow,  shall  have  passed  away,  and  we  come  to  consider 
calmly  the  true  character  of  the  departed,  and  the  influence  of 
his  life's  labors  upon  the  development  of  our  church  in  this 
country,  we  are  much  mistaken  if  he  does  not  then  rank 
second  only  to  Muhlenberg,  the  Patriarch  of  American 
Lutheranism,  as  instrumental  in  giving  tone  and  character 
to  our  church  life  and  in  winning  for  our  beloved  Lutheran 
Zion  a  place  of  honorable  distinction  in  the  advancing  hosts 
of  Israel  in  this  western  world.' 

"  Rev.  Dr.  Lochman,  of  York,  for  many  years  a  friend, 
and  in  church  work  a  noble  associate  of  Dr.  Schmucker, 
said  :  '  The  announcement  of  his  death  came  like  a  flash  of 
lightning  in  a  clear  summer  sky.  As  once  was  said  on 
earth  in  sweetest  tones,  so  now  we  may  hear  the  consoling 
utterance, '  our  friend  sleepeth.'  We  may  reply  as  was  done 
then, '  Lord  if  he  sleepeth  he  shall  do  well.'  Cherished 
friends,  cherished  landmarks  may  pass  away,  but  never 
can  the  heart's  cherished  memory  forget  the  revered  names 
of  Krauth,  Baugher,  Stoever,  Jacobs,  Schmucker. 

'  He  did  much  to  raise  the  standard  of  education,giving 
to  the  church  men  qualified  for  her  ministry  and  equal  to 
those  in  any  church  in  the  land. 

'  Though  dead,  he  is  still  laboring.  To  have  left  such 
a  record  as  he  has  done  is  worth  living  for ;  to  set  up  land- 
marks for  all  time,  to  utter  sentiments  that  will  thrill  the 
hearts  of  thousands  in  the  Master's  work.  Death  is  a  si- 
lent and  powerful  preacher,  which  here  eloquently  speaks  to 
us  through  the  departed  friend.' 

"  Rev.  Dr.  Morris,  of  Baltimore,  related  several  interest- 
ing reminiscences  of  his  early  and  since  then  constant  and 
intimate  intercourse  with  Dr.  Schmucker,  first  as  his  instruc- 


tor  in  the  York  Academy,  where  Dr.  S.  taught,  then  of  the 
first  year  of  Dr.  S.  as  Professor  in  the  Seminary  at  Gettys- 
burg ;  the  class  numbered  fourteen,  of  whom  five  are  now 
alive.  All  who  had  known  him  could  say  with  a  former 
fellow-citizen  of  Gettysburg,  '  The  more  I  know  of  Dr.  S. 
the  more  pleased  I  am  with  him.'  Though  men  might  not 
agree  with  him  in  all  things,  yet  they  were  compelled  to 
respect  and  revere  him.  He  filled  a  larger  space  in  this 
country  than  any  other  Lutheran  clergyman,  and  was 
everywhere  the  representative  of  our  church,  and  a  worthy 
one  he  was.  Many  years  ago  the  speaker  had  heard  Dr. 
King,  an  eminent  dissenting  clergyman  of  England,  in  a 
public  address  in  London,  ascribe  the  fraternity  of  the 
evangelical  alliance  to  Dr.  Schmucker.  The  objects  of  this 
alliance  Dr.  S.  ever  held  dear,  and  only  a  few  weeks  ago — 
speaking  of  the  approaching  meeting  in  New  York — had 
said  to  the  speaker ;  '  I  will  go  there  to  carry  out,  if  I  can, 
by  God's  help,  my  own  sentiments.'  Who  will  be  his  bio- 
grapher ?  To  recount  his  life  will  be  to  give  the  history  of 
the  Lutheran  Church  in  America.' 

"The  successor  of  Dr.  S.  as  chairman  of  the  Theo- 
logical Faculty,  Rev.  Dr.  Brown,  in  a  few  remarks,  bore 
witness  to  the  kindly  sympathy  and  hearty  support  which 
Dr.  S.  had  ever  given  him  in  his  official  position,  every- 
where with  cordial  kindness,  speaking  even  flatteringly  of 
him,  thus  affording  him  much  comfort  and  support  in  his 
laborious  position.  * 

"  Rev.  Dr.  Baum,  of  York,  chairman  of  the  seminary 
board,  in  behalf  of  the  board  said  :  '  We  thank  God  for  the 
life  and  ministry  of  Dr.  Schmucker.  During  all  the  nearly 
forty  years  of  the  active  connection  of  Dr.  S.  with  the  Sem- 

*  Dr.  Brown  broke  down  in  the  midst  of  his  address;  he  was  very 
much  aflFected;  his  feelings  overcame  him,  and  he  ceased  speaking. 


inary,  fullest  harmony  had  existed  between  him  and  the 
board.  Hardly  a  measure  he  had  proposed  but  had  met 
with  their  approval.  Few  had  filled  such  a  place  as  he  had 

"  The  choir  then  sang  '  Asleep  in  Jesus,'  after  which 
the  body  was  borne  to  its  last  resting  place,  followed  by  a 
number  of  relatives  and  many  friends.  At  the  grave  the 
solemn  funeral  service  was  read  and  the  last  service  of  love 
for  the  body  of  Dr.  Schmucker  was  performed,  but  his 
memory  will  ever  be  held  dear  to  loving  hearts.  The  pall- 
bearers were  Revs.  L.  A.  Gotwald  and  A.  H.  Sherts,  of 
Chamberburg,  P.  Anstadt,  of  York,  S.  Yingling  and  G. 
Parsons,  of  Hanover,  and  C.  L.  Keedy,  of  Waynesboro." 

The  following  Tribute  was  passed  by  the  Board  of  Di- 
rectors of  the  Theological  Seminary: 

"  This  board  leels  called  upon  bythe  promptings  of  the 
feelings  of  the  heart,  and  by  a  sense  of  duty  to  pay  their 
tribute  of  respect  to  one  of  their  number,  so  long  associated 
with  them  in  the  management  of  the  affairs  of  their  institu- 
tion, and  so  much  endeared  to  them  by  his  christian  cour- 
tesy, and  by  his  lifelong  devotedness  to  the  interests  of  this 
cherished  institution  of  the  church. 

"  We  shall  ever  fondly  cherish  his  memory  as  the  foun- 
der of  our  seminary,  for  so  many  years  its  able  head,  de- 
voting the  eminent  talents  of  his  mind,  and  all  his  physical 
energies  to  its  welfare. 

"Though for  some  years  relieved  from  active  duties  as 
professor,  the  board  felt  constrained  from  a  high  apprecia- 
tion of  his  eminent  services,  to  retain  his  name  as  Professor 
Emeritus,  and  until  his  death,  his  interest  in  the  institution 
has  never  abated,  laboring  and  praying  with  us  for  its  suc- 
cess. With  the  whole  church  we  mourn  his  (for  us)  too 
^arly  and  sudden  departure. 

"  We   would  feel  recreant   to   duty  and  untrue  to  our- 


selves,  did  we  not  bear  testimony  to  our  high  appreciation 
of  his  moral  worth,  his  attainments  as  a  scholar,  his  chris- 
tian character  and  eminent  usefulness. 

"  Whilst  we  mourn  his  departure,  we  nevertheless  bow 
with  submission  to  the  will  of  our  heavenly  Father,  grateful 
that  He  spared  him  to  us  so  long. 

"  We  rejoice  that  his  sun  has  set  so  radiant  and  bright, 
illuminated  with  the  christian's  hope ;  that  the  excellency 
and  power  of  our  holy  religion  was  so  clearly  displayed  in 
his  dying  hour,  giving  to  us  and  the  church  the  glorious 
testimony,  as  a  rich  legacy  '  I  have  lived  and  am  dying  in 
the  faith  of  Jesus,' 

"  To  his  bereft  and  mourning  family,  we  tender  our 
heartfelt  sympathy  and  condolence. 

Aug.  H.  Lochman, 
Geo.  Parsons, 
Daniel  Eppley. 


"  Minutes  adopted  by  the  Board  of  Trustees  of  Penn- 
sylvania College,  at  their  meeting,  August  6,  1873: 

'  Resolved,  That  this  Board  has  heard  with  emotions  of 
profound  sorrow,  the  announcement  of  the  sudden  death  of 
Rev.  Samuel  S.  Schmucker,  D.  D.,  the  senior  member  of 
this  Board,  and  an  active  and  influential  member  from  its 
organization  to  the  day  of  his  death;  and  that,  in  justice  to 
the  dead,  as  well  as  ourselves,  we  record  our  high  sense  of 
the  fidelity  and  value  of  his  great  services,  which  extended 
over  a  period  of  forty  years, 

'  Resolved,  That  to  his  .^sagacious,  efficient  and  arduous 
labors  in  establishing  the  college,  we  bear  willing  and 
grateful  testimony,  as  well  as  to  the  careful  anxiety,  ending 
only  with  life,  with  which  he  watched  over  all  its  manifold 

'  Resolved.  That  a  copy  of  these  resolutions  be  trans- 


mitted  by  the  secretary  to  the  family  of  the  deceased,  and 
be  published  in  the  church  and  Gettysburg  papers. 

F.  W.  Conrad, 
Charles  A.  Hay, 
E.  W.  McPherson.'  " 

We  transfer  the  following  tribute  to  the  memory  of 
Dr.  S.  S.  Schmucker,  from  the  L?itheran  of  August  7,  a 
General  Council  paper : 

"  Wc  regret  to  be  called  upon  to  announce  the  death  of 
this  venerable  and  widely-known  minister  and  teacher  of 
our  church.  He  died  in  Gettysburg,  on  the  26th  inst.,  in 
the  75th  year  of  his  age.  He  may,  with  some  propriety, 
be  called  the  father  of  the  Theological  Seminary  of  the 
General  Synod  at  that  place,  of  which  institution  he  was,  at 
the  time  of  his  death,  an  Emeritus  Professor. 

"  A  ready  writer,  an  able  teacher,  with  a  naturally  vigor- 
ous mind,  the  Dr.  early  in  life,  took  rank  among  the  lead- 
ing theologians  of  the  country.  Than  he,  few  men  in  the 
church  were  more  widely  known,  or  more  highly  esteemed, 
even  by  those  who  felt  compelled  to  dissent  from  some  of 
his  opinions. 

"  When  our  church  in  this  land  first  after  the  waves  of  a 
fanatical  rationalism  had  passed  over  her,  began  to  strive 
after  the  attainments  of  a  clearer  consciousness  of  her  true 
faith  and  life,  the  doctor  occupied  the  commanding  position 
of  a  theological  professor,  in  the  only  Lutheran  theological 
seminary  in  the  country,  and  with  the  native  strength  and 
activity  of  his  mind,  soon,  as  might  be  expected,  became 
involved  in  the  controversies,  which  have  ever 
since  more  or  less  agitated-  the  church.  He  was  by  all 
odds  the  ablest  of  the  co-workers  of  the  late  Dr.  B.  Kurtz, 
then  editor  of  the  Lutheran  Observer,  and  did,  perhaps, 
the  most  solid  and  thorough  work  of  any  man  who  took 
the  new,  or  so  called  American  Lutheran,  side  of  the  con- 


troversy.  But  with  all  the  polemical  battles  in  which  the 
doctor  was  engaged,  and  some  of  them  were  quite  bitter, 
we  believe  he  never  could  be  charged  with  any  want  of 
courtesy  towards  his  opponents. 

"  He  was  an  earnest,  faithful  man,  ever  true  to  his  con- 
victions, and  in  his  death,  we  may  say,  that  a  great  man 
has  fallen  in  Israel.  Among  the  children  left  to  mourn  his 
death,  are  Revs.  B.  M.  Schmucker,  D.  D.,  of  Reading, 
G.  W.  Schmucker,  late  pastor  in  Pottstown,  Pa.,  and  the 
wives  of  Rev.  A.  T.  Geissenhainer,  Treasurer  of  the  Penn- 
sylvania Synod,  and  of  Rev.  B.  C.  Suesserott,  of  Lancaster. 
We  sincerely  sympathize  with  the  bereaved  family  and 
unite  with  his  numerous  friends  and  former  students  in 
cherishing  his  memory." 

Under  the  heading,  "A  Good  and  A  Great  Man  De- 
parted," the  Lutheran  Visitor,  in  a  draped  column,  notices 
the  death  of  Dr.  Schmucker  in  the  following  tender  and 
befitting  terms : 

"  The  memory  of  no  man  deserves  to  be  held  in  greater 
reverence  by  English  speaking  Lutherans  than  Dr. 
Schmucker's.  He  entered  the  ministry  of  our  beloved 
church  at  a  time  when  the  faithful  laborers  were  few. 
Neology,  rationalism,  indifference  to  distinctive  Evangeli- 
cal Lutheran  doctrine  and  order  prevailed,  while  godliness 
and  spirituality  were  almost  extinct.  With  the  loss  of  the 
form  the  substance  had  also  disappeared.  Dr.  Schmucker 
devoted  the  freshness  of  his  youth,  the  vigor  of  his  man- 
hood, and  the  ripeness  of  his  old  age  to  the  restoration  of  a 
living  faith,  and  the  promotion  of  the  higher  and  spiritual 
life  within  the  church,  and  as  professor  and  president  of  the 
Theological  Seminary  of  the  General  Synod,  he  trained 
and  sent  out  hundreds  of  devout,  earnest  and  self  denying 

"  The  doctor  was  eminently  qualified  for  the  work  the 


Great  Head  of  the  Church  called  him  to  perform.  .  He  was 
endowed  with  talents  of  high  order,  which  education  de- 
veloped, study  enriched,  intercourse  with  society  refined, 
and  grace  sanctified.  But  his  life's  work  is  done.  He  has 
gone  to  his  rest.  He  departed  in  a  good  old  age,  and  is 
with  the  Lord  he  served  so  long  and  so  diligently. 

"  We  do  not  mourn  him.  We  do  not  have  tears  to 
shed  over  him  to  whom  the  Lord  says,  '  Well  done,  thou 
good  and  faithful  servant,'  but  we  hope  that  our  Synods 
will  render  him  the  tribute  of  respect  due  his  memory  and 
his  distinguished  services,  for  he  was  a  great  and  good  man, 
and  he  is  more  than  any  other  man  entitled  to  be  called  the 
father  of  the  English  speaking  Lutheran  Church.  But  for 
him  the  church  would  not  this  day  occupy  the  prominent 
position,  nor  wield  the  influence  it  does. 

"  We  knew  him  well  in  former  years,  and  esteemed  him 
highly ;  the  war  parted  us,  and  the  later  church  develop- 
ments, the  return  of  the  church  to  the  ancient  Lutheran 
landmarks,  made  us  strangers,  but  death  unites.  Now  we 
but  remember  the  faithful  servant  of  Christ,  whose  faith 
was  evangelical,  whose  church  love  was  fervent,  and  whose 
praise  is  in  all  the  church." 

Over  his  grave  near  the  centre  of  the  Citizens'  Ceme- 
tery at  Gettysburg,  is  a  plain  shaft  of  white  marble,  about 
seven  or  eight  feet  in  height,  and  bearing  the  simple  in- 
scription : 

REV.  S.  S.  SCHMUCKER,  D.  D., 
February  28,  1799, 
July  26,  1873. 
Next  to  this  monument,  in  the  same  lot,  a  white  mar- 
ble slab,  placed  horizontally  on   the   ground,   marks   the 
restingplaceofthebody  of  his  second  wife.     It  bears   the 


following   beautiful    Christian   sentiments,   prepared  prob- 
ably by  Dr.  Schmucker  himself: 

Sacred  to  the  Memory 



daughter  of 

Wm.  and  Elizabeth  Steenbergen, 

and  wife  of 

S.  S.  Schmucker, 

Born  Feb.  7,  1808;   Died  Feb.  11,  1848. 

She  was  an  affectionate  wife,  a  devoted  mother, 

an  eminent  christian. 

"She  is  not  dead,  but  sleepeth — we  know  that  she  will 

rise  again  in  the  resurrection  at 

the  last  day." 

She  came  to  the  cross  ivhen  her  young  cheek  zvas  bloofning^ 

A7id  raised  to  the  Lord  the  bright  beam  of  her  eye  ; 
Atidwhe7i  o'er  its  beauty  death's  darkness  zvas  glooming , 
'  Tzvas  the  cross  that  upheld  her,  the  Saviour  was  nigh. 


A  memorial  tablet  has  been  placed  on  the  rear  wall  of 
the  chapel  in  the  new  Seminary  building,  with  this  in- 
scription : 

To  the  Memory  of 


Founder  through  the  General  Synod 

of  this  Theological  Seminary. 

Professor  1826-1864. 

Held  in  Honor  by  the  Luthera7i  Church  for  his  Eminent 

Scholarship,  Enlightened  Zeal  and  Orga^iizing   Talent,     By 

His  Sttidefits. 

One  should  think  a  grateful  church  would  have 
reared  an  imposing  monument  over  his  grave.  But  in  re- 
ality he  needs  no  monument  of  stone  to  perpetuate  his 
memory  and  extol  his  name.  The  General  Synod  is  his 
enduring  monument ;  the  Seminary  and  College  at  Gettys- 
burg are  his  monument.  He  rests  from  his  labors,  and 
"his  works  do  follow  him." 

INDEX.  387 


Absolution,        .,.---,  324  ff 

Adventure,  A  Singular,      ,.--..  loi 

Alexander,  Dr.  A.,        -  ■■  -  -  -  -  138 

Alliance,  Evangelical,  Origin  of,  -  -  -  -  •  298  ff 

Anti-Slavery  in,      -  -  -  -  -  '  302  ff 

American  Tract  Society,  Appointment  as  Agent  for,      -  -  107 

Ancestors,  -  -  -  -  -  -  'lo,  11 

Andover,  Tour  to,    -  -  -  -  -  •■  -  108  ff 

Anecdotes  of  Childhood,  -  -  -  -  -      28,  29 

Augsburg  Confession,         -  -  -  -  -  -71 

Errors  Claimed,      -  -  -  -  -  -  317 

Dr.  Geo.  Ivochman's  Omissions,         -  -  -  -  319  ff 

Author,  Schmucker  as  an,        ...  -  -  258  ff 

Baltimore,  Preaching  at,    -  -  -  -  -  -  87 

Call  to,        ....-.►  108 

Meeting  of  General  Synod  at,  -  -  -  -  129 

Baptism  of  First  Child,  -----  105 

Baugher,  Dr.  H  ,  Sr,,  ......  316 

Berlin,  Churches  in,      -  -  ♦  -  -  -  246 

Brown,  Dr.  J   A.,     -  -  -  -  -  -  -  17 

Biographical  Sketch  of,     -  -  -  -  -  343 

His  Charges  Against  Schmucker,      ....  345 

Schmucker's  Reply,  .  .  -  .  ,  345  ff 

His  Charges  Against  Dr.  Sprecher,  ...  -  357 

His  Election,  -  -  -  -  -  -  358  ff 

Calls  to  Philadelphia  and  Baltimore,       ....  108 

Specimen  of  a  call,  .....  142 

Carlisle,  Pa,  .._..-.  198 

Child,  Baptism  of  First,  .....  105 

Childhood,  -  -  -  .  -  -  -  -  27  ff 

Anecdotes  of,  -  -  .  -  -  -      28,  29 

Church,  Deplorable  State  of,         -  -  -  -  -  63 

Circular  Letter  to  Germany,    .  -  -  -  -  25 1  fl 

College  Book,  -  .  -  -  -  -  -  178 

Confirmation,  Morris'  .  -  -  -  -  -115 

Constitation  of  General  Synod,     .....  128 

Controversialist,  Schmucker  as  a,       -  -  .  -  3i4ff 

Death  and  Burial  of  J.  G.  Schmucker,     -  -  -  -  14 

Of  S.  S.  schmucker,  -  -  -  -  .  374  ff 

Of  First  Wife,  - 103 

Definite  Platform,         ......  316 

Reasons  Assigned,       ••  -  ^  -  -  *  317 

Descent,  ........  lo 

388  INDEX. 

De  Wette,  Dr.,        -            -            -  -  -            -            -     i75 

Diary,     ......         32ff,  65ff,  Saff,  176  fiF 

Dickinson  College,              -           .  -  -           -           -    199 

Diehl,  Dr.,          -            -            -  .            .            .            -  122,  189 

Donation  to  Theological  Seminary,  ....    186 

Dunbar,  W.  H.,             .            -  -            .            -            -            51 

Dutch  Reformed,     -            -            -  -  -            .            6?,  72 

Emmaus  Orphan  House,  .....  361  flF 

Fry's  Legacy,  .......    362 

Changes  Made  by  the  Ivegislature,  ...  364 

Encouragements,    ..-.--.      84 
Engligh  Ivanguage,  Antipathy  to,       .  -  -  -  143 

Episcopalians,  .  -  -  -  -  .  85,  13c) 

Epitaph,  - 385 

Eulogy  of  General  Synod,  C.  P.  Krauth's,  -  -  .240 

Europe,  Kurtz's  Tour  to,         .  .  -  .  igiff,  203 

Evangelical  Alliance,  Origin  of,  -  -  -  -  -     298  ff 

Anti-Slavery  in,      -  -  -  .  .  -  302  flF 

Exorcism,  Rejected,  ......    332 

Family  Record,  -  -  .  .  .  .  2X  S 

Formulas  of  Synods,  -  -  •  -  -  -    128 

Franklin  College,  -  -  -  .  -  .170 

Frederick,  Md.,  Meeting  of  General  Synod  at,  -  -  -    131 

Funeral  Sermon  by  S.  S.  Schmucker,  -  -  -  82 

General  Council,  Organization  of,  .  -  -  -  238  ff 

General  Synod,  Organization  of,        .  -  .  -  Ii6ff 

Synods  Uniting  With,  •  .  -  -  -  117 

His  Early  Connection  With,        -  -  -  -  121 

Dr.  Diehl 's  Account,    .....         122,124 

Withdrawal  of  Pennsylvania  Synod,       -  -  -  124 

Saved  from  Dissolution,  ....       i27ff,  133 

Constitution  of,      .  -  .  .  -  -  128 

Meeting  at  Baltimore,  -  -  -  -  -  1 29 

Meeting  at  Frederick,  Md.,  ...  -  131 

Opposition  to,  -  .  .  -  .  -         132,  137  ff 

Original  Design  of,  -  .  -  -  .         .  149 

Resolution  on  the  Sabbath,     .....  286 

German  literati.  Correspondence  With,         ...  68 

German  Reformed,  -  -  .  -  -  -       73 

Germany,  Tour  to,        .....  .  241  ff 

His  Own  Account  of,  -  -  •  -  -  -  244  ff 

Circular  Letter,      .  .  -  .  -  .  251  ff 

Gettysburg,  Installation  at,  .  .  -  -  .  181 

Reasons  for  Locating  Seminary  at,    •      -  .  -  199  ff 

Gock,  Carl,  ........  155 

Gossner,  .......  250 

Hagerstown,          •  .            .            .            .            .  -            .     198 

J.  G.  Schmucker's  Call  to,            .           -           -  -            13 

Harbaugh,  Rev.  D.,            .            .            -            -  •            .    372 

Harlem,  Ride  to,            .....  .            75 

INDEX.  389 

Harms,  Claus,  -  -  -  -  -  -  -    no 

Hartwick  Seminary,     -  -  -  -  -  -  172  £F 

Helmuth,  Dr.,  J.  G.  Schmucker's  Studies  Under,  -  -      12 

Henkel,  Paul,  J.  G.  Schmucker's  Studies  Under,     -  -  12 

David, .     155 

His  Ordination,      ......  159 

Philip, 171 

Immorality,        .......  138 

Inauguration,  Oath  of ,-----  -     182 

Address  at,  .  -  -  .  -  -  -  183 

Infidelity,  English,  ......     137 

Installation  at  Gettysburg,       .....  181 

Jacobs',  Prof.  H.,  Remarks  About  Seminary,      -  .  -    205 

Klein's  Dogmatic,         -  -  -  -  -  -  no 

Koethe,  Dr ,  -  .  .  -  -  -  -    112 

Krauth's,  C.  P.,  Eulogy  of  General  Synod,  -  -  -  240 

C.  P.,  Sr., 312 

Kunze,  Dr.,        .......  170 

Kurtz,  B.,     -  .  -  .  .  .  -  -     189 

Tour  to  Europe,     -  -  -  -  -  191  ff,  203 

His  Testimonials,         -  -  -  -  -  -    197 

Letter  from  London ,         .  .  .  .  .  208  ff 

Letter  from  Paris,        -  -     '      -  -  -  -    256 

A  Prominent  Man,  -  -  -  -  -  366  S 

Laymen  Read  Sermons,     -  .  .  -  -  .      74 

Lepley's,  Rev.  C,  Letter,        -  -  .  -  -  369  fF 

Letter  to  His  Father,  -  .  .  -  -  -      61  ff 

Licensure,  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  81 

Literary  Labors,      ..-...-78 
Lochman,  Dr.  Geo.,      -  -  -  -  -  -  29 

His  Omissions  from  Augsburg  Confession,  -  -  -    319  ff 

Lutheranism,  Retrospect  of,    -  -  -  -  -  144  ff 

Man,  Dr.  W.  J.,  Controversy  \^ith,  ....    320  ff 

Marrlpge,  .......  loi 

Second,  -  -  -  .  -  -  -     115 

Mason,  Dr.,        .......  76 

Celebration  of  Lord's  Supper,  -  -  -  -      77 

Memorial  Tablet,  ......  386 

Methodists,  -.-..-..67 
Miller,  Dr.  Jacob,  ......  152 

Ministry,  Preparation  for,  -  -  .  -  -  .40 

Entrance  Into,        ......  60 

Moral  Character,     .  .*.  -  -  -  -43ff 

Morris'  Tribute,  ......  42 

Confirmation,    -  -  -  -  -  -  -115 

History  of  Theological  Seminary,    '        -  .  -  193 

Letter  from  Paris,         -  -  -  -  -  -    256 

A  Prominent  Man,  .....  366  ff 

Mt.  Jackson,  Episcopal  Church  at,  -  -  -  -     115 

390  INDEX. 

Muhlenberg,  J.  P.  G,,  -            -            -            .            -            -  140 

Henry  A.,  --,,-.         142,273 

Neander,            ---.-..  247 

New  Market,  Va..  Settlement  at,  .           *           -           -           -  81 

Unfavorable  i,ocation,       -            .            ,            -           .  89 

New  York,  Visit  to,             -            .            .            -            -            -  65  flf 

Ministers  in,           ♦.            -            -            -            -  66 

Museum  at,       -  .  -  «  -  -  69,  7° 

City  Hall,   .--...-  76 
Almshouse,       -            -            -            «            -            -            -77 

Nicholas,  Uncle,            --.*,.  85 

North  Carolina  Synod,  Rupture  of,          -            ...  156 

Relation  to  Episcopalians,            -           -           -           -  160 

Obituaries,  By  Star  and  Setitifiel,             ....  374  flf 

By  Dr.  Hay,             ...,,.  376  ff 

By  Dr.  Lochman,         -            ^            -            -            .            .  379 
By  Dr.  Morris,        .-,...  379,  380 

By  Dr.  Brown,  --..-..  380 

By  Dr.  Baum,           -            -            -            -            -            -  380   f 

Tribute  by  Seminary  Board,  -            -            -            -            -  381    f 

Resolutions  of  College  Board,      -            .            .            .  382 

Tribute  by  Philadelphia  Lutherafi,   -           .           -           -  383 

By  Lutheran   Visitor,        -            •            -            -            -  384 

Ohio,  Objections  of  Synod  of,        -            -            -            -            -  i53 

Opposition  to  General  Synod,  ....   132,  137  ff 

Ordination,  -            --            -            .            .            .            .  107 

Organization  of  General  Synod,          -           -           -           -  116  flf 

Orphan  House,  Emmaus,  --..--  361 

Fry's  Legacy,        ......  362 

Changes  Made  by  the  Legislature,    ....  364 

Orthodoxy,        .......  72 

Forerunner  of  Rationalism,    -           -           -           -           -  276 

Ott,  Mr.,             .......  84 

Pascal's  View  of  Human  Nature,  .....  9 

Pastor,  Schmucker  as  a,  -  -  -  -  -       88,  91 

Pennsylvania  College,        -  -  -  .  -  -2i4ff 

His  Early  History  of,        -            -            .            -            -  217 

Under  Lutheran  Control,        .....  220 

Franklin  Professorship,     .....  222 

Articles  of  Agreement,            .....  226  ff 

Pennsylvania  Synod,    ......  124 

Withdrawal  of,             ......  150 

Reunion  With  General  Synod,     ....  230  ff 

Conditional  Entrance,             .....  232 

Continued  Opposition,      .....  233 

Withdrawal  of  Delegates  at  York,     ....  234 

Reasons  Assigned,             .....  235  ff 

Final  Withdrawal  at  Fort  Wayne,     ....  235  ff 

Philadelphia,  J.  G.  Schmucker'a  Studies  at,              -           -  12 

S.  S.  Schmucker's  Studies  at,            -           -           -           -  30 

Preaching  at,          -            -            -            .            -            .  86 

Call  to, 108 



Pietism,  Charge  of,       - 

Against  Muhlenberg,  - 

Forerunner  of  Rationalism, 
Pietists,     -  -  .  -  . 

Planck,  Dr.,  Letter  from,        .  .  - 

Plan  Entwurf,  .  .  -  - 

Platform,  Definite,        .  -  -  . 

Reasons  Assigned,        -  .  . 

Praypr,  Remarkable  Answers  to. 
Preacher,  Schmucker  as  a, 
Presbyterians,    -  .  -  -  - 

Princeton,  Studies  at,  - 

Prominent  Men,  Three,  ... 

Pro-Seminary,  .  .  .  . 

Morris'  Af^count  of,  -  -  - 

Publications,  List  of,  -  -  - 

Puritans,  ..... 

Principles  of,     - 

Persecutions  of,      • 

Quitman,      ..... 

Ranke,  Dr.  ,....- 
Rationalism,  German,        ... 

Result  of  Pietism,  -  -  - 

Reform,  Plans  cf,     - 

Relic  of  Oak  Tree,        .... 
Religious  Experience,  J.  G.  Schmucker's, 
Resignation,       -  .  .  -  . 

Letter  to  the  Board,     ... 

Reasons  Assigned, 

Resolutions  of  the  Board, 
>^  Revivals,  His  Vievps  of,  -  -  - 

Sabbath,  His  Vievrs  on, 

General  Synod's  Resolution  on,  - 

Views  of  Morris,  Conrad,  and  Krauth, 
Schaeffer,  F.  C, 

David,  F,,         - 
Schafif,  Dr.  P.,  Letter  from,     - 
Schmucker,  J.  G.,  - 

Letter  from,  .  ,  .  . 

B.  M., 

S.  D.,  Esq.,  .... 

Seminaries,  Theological,  Eiforts  to  Establish, 

General  Synod's  Resolution, 

S.  S.  Schmucker  Elected  Professor,  - 

Board  of  Trustees,  .... 

Constitution  of,  -  -  - 

Endowment  of,      - 

Opponents  to,  - 
Separation,  Evils  of,     - 
Sermons,  Skeletons  of,       - 


47  ff 


273  ff 




49  ff 









-  28, 29 



-  73. 



5,  60 


366  flf 






262  ff 

-   52 

i,  53 


54  ff 

-   58,  59 












336  ff 






279  flf 


281  ff 



287  ff 

-  63, 





[,  13  ff 






169  ff 
















93  ff 

392  INDEX. 

Shober,  Rev  ,     -  .  -  .  . 

Unites  With  Lutheran  Church, 
Letter  to  New  York  Ministerium, 

Slavery,  His  Position  on,   -  -  -  . 

Social  Disposition,        .... 

Socinr'anism,  -  -  -        ■    - 

Storck,  Rev.  C.  A.  G. , 

Storr  and  Flatt,  Translation  of,     - 

Strouch,  L.  C.  G., 

Stuart,  Prof.  Moses,  .  .  .  . 

Students,  His  Firi,t,      -  -  -  . 

Studious  habits,       -  -  .  -  . 

Successor,  Schmuckers's, 

Synods,  Formulas  of,  - 

Teacher,  Schmucker  as  a, 

Tennessee  Synod,  Objections  of,   -  -  - 

Testimonial  to  J.  G.  vSchmucker,  by  Dr.  Brown, 

By  His  Own  Son,  .  .  .  . 

Theremin,  Franz,  .... 

Tholuck,  Dr.,  - 

Tour  to  Andover,  .  .  .  . 

Translation  of  Storr  and  Flatt, 
Turner,  Prof.,    ----- 
Twesten,       .-.-.- 

Dinner  With,  .... 

Union,  Efforts  for  Church,  -  .  . 

Virginia,  Tour  to,  - 

Vision  of  Glory,  J.  G.  Schmucker 's 

Weiser'p,  R.,  Criticism, 

Wife,  First,  ...... 

Second,       -  .  .  .  . 

Winchester,  Va.,     -  -  -  -  - 

York  Academy,  .... 

His  Diary  of,     - 

-  122, 





164  ff 


292  ff 

-   41 















266  ff 






269  ff 


154  ff 










108  ff 





174,  189. 



















31  ff 


32  ff 


Date  Due 




Xj.w  m*<*i^9^~ 

1    1012  01034  3293